Introduction to Farm Renewables - Paul Holmes-Ling (Laurence Gould Partnership)
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Introduction to Farm Renewables - Paul Holmes-Ling (Laurence Gould Partnership)

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This presentation formed part of the Farming Futures workshop 'Focus on: Renewables in the South East'.

This presentation formed part of the Farming Futures workshop 'Focus on: Renewables in the South East'.

11th February 2009

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    Introduction to Farm Renewables - Paul Holmes-Ling (Laurence Gould Partnership) Introduction to Farm Renewables - Paul Holmes-Ling (Laurence Gould Partnership) Presentation Transcript

    • Renewable technologies overview - do they work? Paul Holmes-Ling CEnv.
    • Introductions Paul Holmes-Ling CEnv. • Environmental Consultant for the last 12 years. • Working primarily with farmer, landowners and tourism businesses. • Currently involved with a wide range of energy related projects.
    • What are we going to cover? • Solar • Heat pumps • Small scale hydro • Wind • Biomass • Biogas
    • Consider… £ Heat What are your What Heat and Efficiencies energy resources power first requirements are available Power
    • Renewable Energy - Introduction Heat Power Combined heat and Power (CHP)
    • Renewable Energy - Introduction 1 definition - ‘Using natural replenishable resources to create energy’ • Sunlight • Water • Wind • Biomass • Biogas • Heat pumps
    • Renewable Energy - Solar Introduction • Energy derived from the sun • Passive heat – this is heat derived naturally from the sun and can be taken into account during building design to reduce heating costs • Solar thermal – the suns heat is used to provide hot water • Photovoltaics (PV) – using the suns energy to create electricity.
    • Renewable Energy - Solar Passive heat • Incorporating features into buildings that absorb and then slowly release heat • No mechanical parts! • For example large windows, stone floors. • Can save 50% of energy costs within a new build and often adds nothing to the capital cost.
    • Renewable Energy - Solar Passive heat
    • Renewable Energy - Solar Passive heat – case study – Brighton Earthship (www.lowcarbon.co.uk)
    • Renewable Energy - Solar Solar thermal - background • Available since the 1970s – technology well developed, proven • Large choice in the market place • One of the cheapest renewable options • Can provide all hot water during the summer and about 60% year round • Quick carbon payback • ‘normally’ considered permitted development • 30 – 40 % efficient
    • Renewable Energy - Solar Solar thermal – what do you need?
    • Renewable Energy - Solar Solar thermal – case study Dairy Farm – Oxfordshire • 130 dairy cows • Main electricity use is heating a 300 litre water storage tank – used for twice daily cleaning = 70% of energy use • Electricity also used for cooling milk (and lighting etc.) • Electricity use is 40,000 kWh day rate units and 20,000 kWh night rate units = 462kWh per cow • Annual electricity spend = £5400
    • Renewable Energy - Solar Solar thermal – case study Dairy Farm – Oxfordshire • 2 roof mounted solar panels (2.4m2) • 300 litre dual coil storage system • Controller unit • Pump • TOTAL cost £4000
    • Renewable Energy - Solar Solar thermal – case study Dairy Farm – Oxfordshire • Annual energy savings of 50% of water heating costs = £1890 • Payback = 2.5 years or 47% return!
    • Renewable Energy - Solar Solar thermal – typical costs • Costs vary depending on the technology used however the sizing is usually worked out on the size of the ‘buffer’ tank required. • 200 litre tank and 2.2m2 of evacuated tubes - £3,000 • 500 litre tank and 5.4m2 of evacuated tubes - £5,000 • Flat plate collectors tend to be cheaper than evacuated tube systems, but are less efficient particularly in the winter months when the heat is needed! • Important to consider the length of guarantee offered
    • Renewable Energy - Solar Photovoltaics (PV) – How does it work? • 1 or 2 layers of a semi conducting material (usually silicon) • Light shines on the cell and creates an electric field across the layers • The greater the intensity of light the greater the flow of electricity. • Efficiency is 12 – 17% depending on materials used.
    • Renewable Energy - Solar Photovoltaics (PV) – Background • Easy to integrate into new and existing buildings • Virtually no maintenance • Rapidly improving technology • Long life with no moving parts • Most expensive micro renewable technology – long paybacks • Needs large roof space area and aspect between SE and SW. • Good for small off grid situations • Can be combined with other renewable technologies
    • Renewable Energy - Solar Photovoltaics (PV) – case study 1 Green ‘wedding and function’ venue • Converted barn • Used on average twice a week for events • Annual electricity usage – 4500kwh
    • Renewable Energy - Solar Photovoltaics (PV) – case study • Solution a 5.5 kw peak PV system installed • 45m2 of roof spaced required • Meters upgraded • Potential output (5.5 X 850) = 4675kwh • Cost £30,000
    • Renewable Energy - Solar Photovoltaics (PV) – case study Expenditure £ TOTAL Capital cost 30,000 Annual Income ROCS 420 4675 *9p (based on 2 ROCS – see energy income section) Annual Savings 467.50 Presuming all electricity is used on site. Energy price of 10p / kWh has been used TOTAL Income and 887.50 savings Payback 33 years • 50% grant achieved through LEADER • Key benefit is through marketing as a green venue – PV is highly visible
    • Renewable Energy - Solar Photovoltaics (PV) – typical costs A typical system providing half an average families annual electricity supply, typically covering 10-15m² of roof space and generating 1.5- 2kWp (kilowatt peak) would cost between £4000 and £8000 per kWp depending on the site and materials used. A typical small off grid system producing 500Wp (with a 24Vdc, 400Ah battery and 900W inverter and all wiring) would cost around £5,000. This system would provide enough power for a small building for example a shed or equestrian building with 5 20W low energy bulbs (each on for 5 hours a day)
    • Renewable Energy – Heat pumps Heat pumps - background • Heat pumps use the same technology as refrigerators but in reverse, moving heat from one place to another. Ground Source (GSHP), Air Source (ASHP) and water (WSHP) • Heat pumps can provide space heating, cooling and water heating. • Heat pumps are not truly renewable as the working fluid is driven around the system by an electrically powered pump • Very good paybacks achieved • There is a heat pump to fit most circumstances and budgets
    • Renewable Energy – Heat pumps Heat pumps – background • 3-5 times more efficient than a conventional boiler • A GSHP can provide up to 100% of a buildings heating requirement – therefore no back up system required. ASHP may only provide 60 – 70% therefore back up system required. • No planning required in most cases. • GSHP not easy to retrofit. ASHP are. • Requires a ‘wet’ heating system ideally under floor heating • Reliant on grid electricity (unless attached to another renewable technology)
    • Renewable Energy – Heat pumps Ground Source Heat pumps • In the UK the ground a few feet below our feet maintains a constant temp. of 11 – 12ºC year round • GSHP transfer this heat into a building to provide space heating and occasionally hot water • For every unit of electricity used to pump the heat 3- 4 units of heat are produced. • To be 100% renewable you would need to generate your electricity from a ‘renewable source.
    • Renewable Energy – Heat pumps Heat pumps work by: • Refrigerant in the evaporator is colder than the heat source, therefore heat moves across causing refrigerant to evaporate. • The vapour moves to the compressor, where it reaches a higher temp and pressure. • The hot vapour enters a condenser and gives off heat as it condenses – this is transferred to the heating system. • The refrigerant then moves to the expansion valve, where it drops in pressure and temperature and returns to the evaporator.
    • Renewable Energy – heat pumps GSHP what do you need?
    • Renewable Energy – heat pumps Air source pumps • As the temperature variations are greater, the COP (coefficient of performance) declines with temperature. • Therefore more electricity is required. • Usually can provide 50-75% of heating requirement (Ground source 75-100%), and therefore more likely to utilise other heating sources. • Shorter life than ground source as more ‘exposed’ parts • However suitable for many applications
    • Renewable Energy – heat pumps water source pumps • Requires a water body! • Very efficient if groundwater used • Open water less efficient (greater COP as greater temp. variation)
    • Renewable Energy – heat pumps GSHP – case study • Plumpton College – new science centre • Requirement for heating (620m2) and hot water (35-40ºC) • Field adjacent to building
    • Renewable Energy – heat pumps GSHP – case study • Viessman heat pump • ‘Wet’ under floor heating system • 200L buffer tank (with immersion heater) • 300ms of coil in 6 - 50m trenches, 1.8m deep and 30cm wide with 5 m separation – total area = 1340m2 = 0.134ha
    • Renewable Energy – heat pumps GSHP – case study Heating system Capital cost Economic life 10yr lifetime fuel cost 10 year lifetime cost annual CO2 poduction (Kg) GSHP 35,000 20 27,190 62,190 195 31kw LPG boiler 6,500 15 133,134 139,634 503 10 year savings 105,944 annual savings 10,594 Payback 3.03 years Assumptions: 30.7kw heat load annual energy consupmption 2071kWh/ year electricity @ 6p kWh LPG @ 4.5p kWh GSHP includes £16,000 for ground works COP (coeficience of performance) of around 4.57 - therefore with electricity at 6p for every 1kwh of thermal energy produced only 1.31p of electricity will be required
    • Renewable Energy – heat pumps GSHP – ‘typical costs’ A typical system to heat a 3 bedroom house would require an 8kW system, which would cost in the range of £800 - £1400 per kW of peak output with trench systems being at the lower end of the range. Typical installed cost of an 8kW system would be between £8000 and £14000 plus the cost of the distribution system (ideally underfloor heating). An equivalent air source system would cost between £500 - £700 per peak kW output, but has a lower COP and cannot provide year round heating requirements meaning more electricity or alternative heating source will be required.
    • Renewable Energy - Wind Wind turbines - background • Converting the power of moving air into rotating shaft power and electricity • Power from the wind is proportional to the wind speed – small variations make a big difference to output • Big variations in turbine sizes from a few hundred watts to 2- 3MW • Wind turbines create a DC supply. Needs a ‘converter’ to change to AC.
    • Focus on wind The UK wind resource • We have 40% of Europe's total wind energy resource! • Largely untapped – currently meeting 0.5% of our electricity requirements • It is theoretically possible to obtain 1000TWh or electricity per annum – 3 times the UKs total energy demand! • Practically, due to protected areas, residencies, grid strength and economics we could achieve 50TWh per annum (on land)
    • Renewable Energy - Wind Wind turbines – how do they work?
    • Renewable Energy - Wind Wind turbines – local wind conditions Wind speed at 10m above ground level (m/s) 5.6 5.6 5.3 5.3 5.7 5.5 5 5.6 5.7 Wind speed at 25m above ground level (m/s) 6.4 6.4 6.2 6.2 6.5 6.3 5.9 6.4 6.5 Wind speed at 45m above ground level (m/s) 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.7 7 6.8 6.5 6.9 6.9 • Available on NOABL wind database – www.bwea.co.uk
    • Renewable Energy - Wind Wind turbines – local wind conditions – what does this mean? • Power generated is related to wind speed by a cubic ratio. • Therefore if you halve wind speed the power goes down by a factor of 8 (2 X 2 X 2), a quarter of the windspeed gives you a 64th of the power (4 X 4 X 4). • Really need an average wind of over 6m / s
    • Focus on wind Types of turbine • Big variations in turbine sizes from a few hundred watts to 3MW Make / mode Swift 1.5 Proven 2500 Proven 6000 Westwind 20 WinWind 1 rating 1500Wp 2500Wp 6000Wp 20000wp 1MWp 1.5kwp 2.5kwp 6kwp 20kwp Height (m) 1.75 10m 15m 18 70 Blade diameter 2.1 3.5 5.5 10.4 60 (m) Expected energy 1031kwh 3164kWh 7805kwh 23,000kwh 1,000,000kwh production – per annum Cost (£) 1,600 10,900 22,000 50,000 350,000 No. of 0.2 0.8 2 6 90 households!
    • Renewable Energy - Wind Planning • Usually requires planning permission from local authority • Planners will consider visual impact, noise and conservation. • Discuss with your planner early!
    • Focus on wind Case study – 20kwp westwind turbine • Farm in Chichester – good average winds of 13 m /s at 15m. • Large energy requirement for student accommodation and offices (anemometer) • Turbine size based on how much they wanted to spend and paybacks!
    • Focus on wind Case study – 20kwp westwind turbine
    • Renewable Energy - Wind Case study – 20kwp turbine • 15m tower plus 10m blades • Costs £40,000 + 10,000 for cabling plus £1,500 annual maintenance. • Produced 30,000kWh per annum
    • Renewable Energy - Wind Case study – 20kwp turbine Expenditure £ TOTAL Capital cost 50,000 Annual Income ROCS 2,700 30,000 *9p (based on 2 ROCS ) Annual Savings 3,000 Presuming all electricity is used on site. Energy price of 10p / kWh has been used TOTAL Income and 5,700 savings Payback 9 years
    • Renewable Energy - Wind Bigger = better paybacks Expenditure 20kwp 6kwp TOTAL Capital cost 50,000 30,000 Annual Income ROCS 2,700 702 Annual Savings 3,000 780 TOTAL Income and 5,700 1,482 savings Payback 9 years 20 years If wind conditions good and you can use or sell all the energy
    • Renewable Energy - Wind Case study 2 – large turbine – Westphalia - Germany • 7 farmers formed a co – op • 65m capable of producing 1,000,000kWh per annum • Actually produces 600,000 – 700,000 kWh per annum • Capital cost E500,000 • Energy is supplied to local village (average house uses 3000kW per year)
    • Renewable Energy - Wind Case study 2 – large turbine – Westphalia – Germany Income £ Notes Electricity sales 60,000 1000MW @ £60MW LECs 4,000 1000MW @ £4MW ROCs 39,000 1000MW @ 39MW TOTAL SALES 103,000 Expenditure Rent 1,000 Maintanence £6,700 Depreciation 17,000 Finance 17,600 Total Over heads 42,300 Net Margin 60,700
    • Renewable Energy - Wind Case study 3 – Chicken Farm Berkshire • ‘Off grid’ system • 500 bird units • 24 hour lighting required in early stages of life • Houses regularly moved • Cost of grid connection 50K +
    • Renewable Energy - Wind Case study 3 – Chicken Farm Berkshire
    • Renewable Energy - Wind Case study 3 – Chicken Farm Berkshire • Combined wind and solar system • 270Ah deep cycle battery – (can store 3 days worth of energy) • Whole system is mobile • Cost £5000 per chicken house
    • Renewable Energy - Wind Typical costs • Including mast, inverters, turbine and installation would range from £2,000 for a 1kw system average estimated power output per year to £18,000 for a 6kw system. • A 1MW system may cost in excess of £350k
    • Renewable Energy – small scale hydro Small scale hydro - background • The oldest method of harnessing renewable energy • Uses the stored ‘kinetic’ energy to turn a turbine and create electricity • Allowances need to be made for seasonal variations • Efficiency is 50 – 90% depending on system • Energy source is ‘predictable’
    • Renewable Energy – small scale hydro Small scale hydro - background • Micro hydro refers to systems producing less than 100kWh • 2 kinds of system • ‘low’ and ‘high’ head • ‘Low’ head – old mill sites with weirs and sluices • ‘high’ head – fast flowing streams (usually upland).
    • Renewable Energy – small scale hydro Small scale hydro – how do they work? • An intake • A penstock pipe • A powerhouse • An outflow • Cables to transmit elec.
    • Renewable Energy – small scale hydro Small scale hydro – permissions • Planning • An abstraction license
    • Renewable Energy – small scale hydro case study 1 – the mill at Sonning • Existing mill with race and wheel • High energy use for cinema and attractions during the day • Low use and export at night
    • Renewable Energy – small scale hydro case study 1 – the mill at Sonning • 18.5kW Propeller and turbine fitted • EA permissions granted, no abstraction license as ‘Millers rights’ • Project cost £54,000 • Generates about 153MW/year
    • Renewable Energy – small scale hydro case study 1 – the mill at Sonning 2006 / 2007 Income £s Notes Energy sales 2,280 76MW * £30 (3p / kW) ROCs 5,967 153MW*39 LECS 612 153MW*4 Total income 8,859 Savings 4,408 76MW * £58 (5.8p kW) Total 13,267
    • Renewable Energy – small scale hydro case study 1 – the mill at Sonning 2008/ 2009 Income £s Notes Energy sales 3,876 76MW * £51 (5.1p / kW) ROCs 5,967 153MW*39 LECS 612 153MW*4 Total income 10,455 Savings 7,828 76MW * £103 (10.3p kW) Total 18,283
    • Renewable Energy – small scale hydro case study 1 – the mill at Sonning • Seasonal variation – trash rack fills in the autumn and needs regular cleaning • No good in floods as no head! • Potential to expand and double the power!
    • Renewable Energy – small scale hydro Small scale hydro – further information • www.britishhydro.org.uk • www.flowline.co.uk • www.segen.co.uk/hydro • www.hydrogeneration.co.uk • www.environmentagency.org.uk
    • Renewable energy – biomass • Focus on woodchip
    • Woodland Cover in SE England: Ancient Woodland Other Woodland
    • The Resource Woodland Cover in South East England % Ancient & Plantations Total County: Woodland Woodland Total Land semi- on ancient ancient Area Cover Area natural woodland woodland woodland sites (as per Figures comprise all land which featured 2002 on the Provisional Ancient Woodland Inventory & Inventory and in the 2,000 Inventory inc. all woods > 0.1 ha) Berkshire 18,308 14.5 125,880 3,600 1,770 5,370 Buckinghamshire 17,573 9.4 187,675 4,885 3,910 8,795 Oxfordshire 18,235 7.0 260,595 5,075 2,650 7,725 Surrey 37,564 22.4 167,715 6,640 2,640 9,280 Hampshire 66,939 17.7 377,870 18,680 9,290 27,970 Isle of Wight 4,549 12.0 38,015 800 710 1,510 West Sussex 37,507 18.9 198,810 9,530 7,300 16,830 East Sussex 29,924 16.7 179,540 12,055 6,135 18,190 Kent 39,487 10.6 373,500 18,780 8,280 27,060 TOTALS: 270,084 14.0 1,909,600 80,045 42,685 122,730
    • What might this provide? • Conservatively all woodland in SEE is growing at, at least, 4m3 per ha per year = > 1,000,000m3 • Of this perhaps 25% may be readily available for the wood fuel market = 200,000 dry (30% mc) tonnes = 70 million litres of oil • Could be much more but is price dependent
    • Fuel costs per kWh
    • Value of Coppice used for Fuel 15 year old sweet chestnut yields 70-80 tonnes/acre Standing Value 75 tonnes/acre (180t / ha) If you can sell worth £100-200 say £150 £150.00 Sell as fuel 60t @ £50 / t £3,000 Cost of producing woodchip For woodchip - 1 acre felling £10 / t - £750 £750 Chipping £10 / t £600 Delivery £10 / t £600 Sundries £5 / t £300 £2,250 £750.00 NB 75 t green @ 50% moisture content air seasoned to reduce MC to 30% Weight reduces to 60 tonnes 1t woodchip@30%mc is approx equal to 400 litres of heating oil 60 t is approx' 24,000 litres Woodchip can reduce heating costs Increase income for woodland owner Improve Woodland management - grants etc Sell the best chip the rest!
    • Carbon Dioxide Emissions From A Single Family Home Using 18,000kw hours per year 5,000kg 4,140kg 90kg Fossil CO2 Fossil CO2 Fossil CO2 Oil Gas Wood
    • HOW? Do you get from the woodland to the boiler?
    • Medium Scale Heat
    • Medium Scale Heat
    • Case Study Conversion of farm buildings to offices with communal woodchip heating system
    • Worten Farm Office Conversion 3 Units – gross internal area 3,200 sq ft Oil Woodchip Capital Costs £7,500 £26,000 Annual Fuel £2,150 £600 Cost Additional Cost of Woodchip System £18,500 Saving £1,500 per annum 12 years to recoup additional cost at current oil price
    • Annual Fuel Price Comparison 3000 2500 2000 1500 Oil Woodchip 1000 500 0 Budget Actual Budget oil costs based on 30p/litre. Actual cost 48p/litre Woodchip costs based on £50 per tonne
    • Renewable Energy - CHP Combined Heat and Power
    • Renewable Energy - CHP Combined Heat and Power – Trial site • Requires 2.5 tonnes of biomass a day – forestry waste, straw, woodchip, miscanthus etc. • 100kWh of electricity through a micro air turbine • 200kWh of hot water • Cost approx £300,000
    • Renewable Energy – Biogas Biogas – Anaerobic digestions - background • A natural process where bacteria breakdown organic matter in an environment with little or no oxygen • Methane is produced (plus about 40% CO2) • Methane is burnt in an engine to produce energy and hot water • Usually large scale collaborative projects • A 500Kw plant would cost in excess of £1,000,000
    • Renewable Energy – Biogas Biogas – Anaerobic digestion manure CHP Agricultural Gas residues storage Digestate storage Imported organics pasteurisation digester
    • Renewable Energy – Biogas Biogas – Anaerobic digestions – background
    • Renewable Energy – Biogas Case study 2 – 500kWh plant on dairy farm • 4 farmer Co – op • 1.5 ha site (planning a big issue!) • Plan to digest 20,000m3 of manure and 7,000 m3 of maize • Expected production 4,000,000kW / year • Plus 2,000,000kW hot water per year • Long term plan to move from maize to food ‘waste’
    • Income MWh / year rate Total Electricity sales 4,000 45 180,000 Hot water sales 2,000 0 5,000 digestate sales 0 0 0 ROCs 4,000 80 320,000 LECs 4,000 4.4 17,600 (gate fees) 0 0 0 Total 522,600 Expenditure maize 300ha £400 / ha 120,000.00 land rental 300ha £150 45,000.00 cereal - slurry / manure - labour 1.00 50,000.00 management costs 10% 5,000.00 water 12,000.00 electricity 12,000.00 fuel 4,000.00 spreading digestant 4,000.00 annual maintanence 16,000.00 maintenance contract - ROCS mmt. Charges 2,000.00 electricity charges - fees / charges (legal) 10,000.00 insurance 5,000.00 sundry 5,000.00 accountancy fees 3,000.00 depreciation 157,333.00 interest 88,114.00 Total 538,447.00 Net profit / loss 15,847.00
    • Consider… £ Heat What are your What Heat and Efficiencies energy resources power first requirements are available Power
    • Paul Holmes-Ling paul@laurencegould.com 0771 3334821 01444 232822