Renewable Energy - An Introduction to Everything you Need to Know

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A brilliant overview by Anita Watts of all that you need to know to get you underway with the different technologies.

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Renewable Energy - An Introduction to Everything you Need to Know

  1. 1. Renewable Energy Anita Watts
  2. 2. • FIRST - Energy Efficiency • No point in generating renewable energy to waste it in energy in-efficient homes and businesses • Use renewables to attract attention to energy efficiency
  3. 3. Cost of energy • Heating and powering homes • Price at the pumps • Cost of food etc… • Renewables started to be looked at seriously in 1970’s
  4. 4. Renewable energy technologies Heat ? Electricity ?
  5. 5. HEAT •Solar water heating panel
  6. 6. • Wood fuels
  7. 7. • Biomass crops
  8. 8. • Wood combined heat and power (CHP)
  9. 9. • Anaerobic digestion
  10. 10. Source: Easy heat systems • Ground source heat pump • Air source • Water source
  11. 11. • Geothermal plant
  12. 12. • Solar photovoltaic panel (PV)
  13. 13. • Solar photovoltaic panel (PV)
  14. 14. Source: Greengage • Micro hydro plant
  15. 15. Source: Greengage • Hydro dams
  16. 16. Source: EST • Wave power, using the motion of waves on the surface of the sea • Pelamis Wave Energy Converter
  17. 17. Source: EST • Wave power
  18. 18. • Tidal power, using the movement of the tides.
  19. 19. • Tidal power, using the movement of the tides.
  20. 20. Source: EST • Tidal Barrage in Bretagne, France
  21. 21. • Wind turbine
  22. 22. • Wind farm
  23. 23. Solar water heating Domestic hot water
  24. 24. • Do we get enough sun for solar thermal systems to work here?
  25. 25. • Active solar heating systems will typically convert 30–60% of the solar energy falling on the solar collectors into useful heated water • 4m2 system can offset 1800 kWh / year • 25 years – 45,000 kWh • Oil at 64p/l = 7.38p/kWh (85% efficiency) • £3321
  26. 26. 1. Should face south, or between SE and SW 2. Tilted ideally 30–45 degrees 3. Avoid shading 4. Room for a larger storage cylinder 5. Keep run distances short 6. Meets about 40–60% of DHW demand 7. Needs conventional water heating as back up 8. Use accredited installers 9. RHI to follow
  27. 27. Premium payment grant
  28. 28. Renewable heat incentive •Non Domestic •Domestic – TBC – 20 years = 36,000kWh @ 8p = £2880 (index linked)
  29. 29. Wood fuels Space heating & hot water
  30. 30. Types of wood biomass fuel
  31. 31. • Forestry residue or tree thinning • Seasoned logs burn well • A bulky fuel which needs a lot of storage space • Hard to handle • Manual processing • Manual loading and lighting • Relatively cheap or free source of fuel • Hardwoods provide more energy than softwoods as they are more dense Logs
  32. 32. • Made from sawdust • Lignin binds the pellet • High-quality fuel • High-energy density • Uniform • 2.5-cm long, 6-8mm diameter • Moisture < 10% • Ash < 1% • Most processed of the wood fuels - cost • Pellets can also be made from willow, hemp, straw etc… for multi-fuel boilers Pellets
  33. 33. Source: Viesmann Pellet system • Pellets are delivered by tanker usually once or twice a year • They are blown into the pellet store • The pellet are moved from the store to the boiler by a fully automated feed system • All that is left is <1% of the pellets as ash • The well insulated buffer hold the hot water until it is needed for heating radiators or domestic hot water
  34. 34. • Forestry residue, coppicing, waste wood • Most bulky of the wood fuel so they need the most storage space • 40-km supply radius • Supply contracts • Moisture < 20% • Waste wood contamination • Relatively cheap fuel • Boilers are expensive • Best for large heat demands Chips
  35. 35. Pellets example Pellets 4.66p / kWh
  36. 36. Premium payment grant
  37. 37. Renewable Heat Incentive •Non Domestic •Domestic – TBC – 25,000 kWh heat demand – Pellets: 4.66p / kWh = £1,165 – Oil: 7.38p / kWh = £1845 – RHI payment = £1,600 (index linked for 20 years)
  38. 38. Heat pumps Space heating & maybe hot water
  39. 39. • Heat pumps types are generally classified and described based on the source of stored heat they tap into • There are four main types: – Ground source heat pump (horizontal and slinky) – Bore hole heat pump (vertical) – Water source heat pumps (open and closed) – Air source heat pump (Ambient and exhaust)
  40. 40. • Coefficient of performance (CoP) is the ratio of useful heat energy output to electrical energy input • A CoP of 3 means that for every 1kWh of electricity input you will get 3kWh of heat output • The energy required to concentrate heat is much less than the energy which must be liberated by burning a fuel
  41. 41. • Make sure that the building is as well insulated as possible. • Install the heat pump with low temperature underfloor heating or low temperature radiators. • The heat pump must be correctly sized and all elements installed to the manufacturers recommendations • Insist upon understandable, user-friendly controls with a detailed customer handover. • Keep it simple. The field trial findings categorically show that the simplest system designs achieve the best efficiencies. • Responsibility for the installation should be with one company, and ideally be contractually guaranteed to ensure consistency in after-sales service.
  42. 42. Premium payment grant
  43. 43. Renewable Heat Incentive •Non Domestic •Domestic – TBC – 25,000 kWh heat demand – Heat pump (COP:3) ~8.53/kWh (E7 85%) = £710 (+18%) – Oil: 7.38p / kWh = £1845 – RHI payment = £2,175 (index linked for 20 years)
  44. 44. Solar electric PV
  45. 45. Source:Greengage • PV
  46. 46. • Electricity generated by the system works hand in hand with the existing electrical supply to power the household appliances and lighting • There will be import and export of electricity • Grid connected • Stand alone
  47. 47. Grid-connected systems • NIE Network • Connection to a high technical standard • Upgrades may require planning permission • Upgrades may incur costs • An import export meter must be installed to sell electricity • Secondly, the turbine must shut down if there is a grid power failure. • Current EU legislation - Protect maintenance personnel • Not a backup in a power cut.
  48. 48. • Behaviour change • Maximise usage of electricity during the day • Timers and programmers
  49. 49. • Clean power source • Reduces bills • Increases awareness of electricity use • Increases the value of your property • Extremely low maintenance • Long functional lifetime of 25yr + • Silent in operation
  50. 50. ROCs •Renewable Obligation Certificates • 4 ROCs for every 1000kWh generated •Tradable commodity •17.64p / kWh
  51. 51. • Economics in NI • Up to 50kWp • ROCs = 17.64p • Spill = 5.41p • Save = 14-15p (+18%) • 4kWp system – Approx.: 7year payback – £20,000 lifetime savings
  52. 52. Wind power
  53. 53. Vertical-axis style
  54. 54. Horizontal axis • Most large wind farm turbines are the traditional three blade horizontal wind turbines
  55. 55. • Common sizes of domestic wind turbines are in the range 2.5–20kW.
  56. 56. • Antrim area hospital’s 660kW turbine
  57. 57. • Offshore wind farms • 3 – 5 MW
  58. 58. Site Factors • Altitude - The higher the better – higher wind speeds • Aspect - Ideally SW slopes, coastal, open terrain • Obstructions/turbulence - buildings, trees, hills, cliffs • Access - For erection, maintenance • Space/Proximity to dwellings - Noise, flicker, room to erect and maintain, cable run, planning, environmental, visual • Demand profile - Load factor, timing of demand • Grid - distance, three phase/single phase
  59. 59. NIROC Support bands for Wind • Up to 250kW • 4 ROCs - 17.64p/kWh • 250kW – 5MW • 1 ROC - £44.10/MWh
  60. 60. Micro hydro power
  61. 61. Source: British Hydro Association • Power can be captured wherever a flow of water falls • By the end of the 19th Century there were over 30,000 watermills in Britain
  62. 62. • Head - H • Flow - Q
  63. 63. Advantages of Hydropower • High capacity factor (typically towards 50%) • A high efficiency (70 - 90%), by far the best of all energy technologies. • A high level of predictability, varying with annual rainfall patterns • Slow rate of change; the output power varies only gradually from day to day (not from minute to minute). • A good correlation with demand i.e. output is maximum in winter • It is a long-lasting and robust technology; systems can readily be engineered to last for 50 years or more
  64. 64. Up to 20kW 4 ROCs = 17.64p/kWh 20-250kW 3 ROCs = 13.23p/kWh 250-1MW 2 ROCs
  65. 65. Renewable Energy Anita Watts watts-anita@aramark.ie
  66. 66. • Oil reserves to production ratio – 54 years
  67. 67. • Oil reserves to production ratio – 54 years • Gas reserves to production ratio – 64 years
  68. 68. • Oil reserves to production ratio – 54 years • Gas reserves to production ratio – 64 years • Coal reserves to production ratio – 112 years
  69. 69. • Renewables accounts for 3.9% of global power generation, with the highest share in Europe and Eurasia • An unlimited resource • In abundance in Northern Ireland
  70. 70. Source: Association for the study of peak oil • Dr Colin Campbell – peak oil expert • As resources become scarce the become more expensive
  71. 71. Source: Association for the study of peak oil Security of supply • 98% of the energy in NI is imported • End of a long supply chain • £2.3B spent on energy in NI every year
  72. 72. Source: Association for the study of peak oil Environmental • Carbon emissions • Green house effect • Global warming • Climate change • Weather chaos
  73. 73. Source: Association for the study of peak oil Environmental • Carbon emissions • Green house effect • Global warming • Climate change • Weather chaos
  74. 74. Targets • 15% of energy, including electricity, heat and transport, from renewable sources by 2020 • 2050 decarbonisation of the electricity network and all buildings are carbon neutral

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