Perhaps the oldest way of developing ideas. Can be skimmed when scanning & reviewing
Narrate…and describe what you need to within that. Narration is the structure.
A character, a setting, foreshadowing, plot, descriptive adjectives. The purpose? Hook the reader. Humanize the issue. We narrate processes, but might better be called analysis. What to leave out?
Should be read closely when scanning & reviewing
Studies, surveys, interviews, theories, experts (w quotes & paraphrase). Some stories already told.
Has a thesis—driving to a point. Takes a new look. Expanding the readers view. Moving toward a point. Old way A, I show it’s really B. Move from definition to thesis. Berry's nonfiction serves as an extended conversation about the life he values. According to him, the good life includes sustainable agriculture, appropriate technologies, healthy rural communities, connection to place, the pleasures of good food, husbandry, good work, local economics, the miracle of life, fidelity, frugality, reverence, and the interconnectedness of life. The threats Berry finds to this good life include: industrial farming and the industrialization of life, ignorance, hubris, greed, violence against others and against the natural world, the eroding topsoil in the United States, global economics, and environmental destruction. As a prominent defender of agrarian values
Doesn’t do it…or it’s too interesting, or indefinable.
Up elaborates on up
Late 14c., "setting of boundaries," from O.Fr. definicion , from L.definitionem . “a power and not a construct, a struggle and not a concept.”
Choking vs panic in “The Art of Failure”. “Just as bullets are traced to a gun, photos may one day reveal the camera that made them (“Seeing is Not Believing” )
the ancient Greek ἀνάλυσις (analusis, "a breaking up",) - the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts to gain a better. "Analysis as an independent subject was created in the 17th century during the scientific revolution. Kepler, Galileo, Descartes, Newton and Leibniz, contributed. The field of chemistry uses analysis in at least three ways: to identify the components of a particular chemical compound (qualitative analysis), to identify the proportions of components in a mixture(quantitative analysis), and to break down chemical processes and examine chemical reactions between elements of matter.
Paragraph development fd
PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT Methods, with examples
THE METHODS1. Narration and description2. Definition3. Elaboration4. Comparison/contrast5. Summarization6. Analysis Classification (parts) Process (steps) Causation (causes and/or effects)
FROM BILL BRYSON’S A SHORT HISTORY OFNEARLY EVERYTHINGIn the first lively second [of the big bang] (a second that many cosmologists will devote careers to shaving into ever-finer wafers) is produced gravity and the other forces that govern physics. In less than a minute the universe is a million billion miles across and growing fast. There is a lot of heat now, ten billion degrees of it, enough to begin the nuclear reactions that create the lighter elements--principally hydrogen and helium, with a dash (about one atom in a hundred million) of lithium. In three minutes, 98 percent of all the matter there is or will ever be has been produced. We have a universe. It is a place of the most wondrous and gratifying possibility, and beautiful, too. And it was all done in about the time it takes to make a sandwich.
DESCRIBE A PROCESS Kennedy’s mistake, in technical terms, was that he failed to keep his wings level. That was critical, because when a plane banks to one side it begins to turn and its wings lose some of their vertical lift. Left unchecked, this process accelerates. The angle of the bank increases, the turn gets sharper and sharper, and the plane starts to dive toward the ground in an ever – narrowing cork screw. Pilots call this the graveyard spiral.
NARRATION & DESCRIPTIONIN ―SEEING IS NOT BELIEVING‖ Lance Corporal Ted ―Joey‖ Boudreaux Jr. was bored. It was the summer of 2003 in Iraq […] and you can joyride around the desert in a dusty Humvee only so often. Loitering at the back gate of his base, mingling with locals, Boudreaux says he scribbled ―Welcome marines‖ on a piece of cardboard and gave it to some kids, who then posed with him, smiling, for a snapshot. He e- mailed the picture to his mom, a cousin and a few friends[….] That wasn’t the last of the photo, though. Steve Casimiro
SUMMARIZATIONNarrative condensed and denuded of detail, with amore statement of or connection to theme.
FROM THE ART OF FAILURE – A SEGUEWAYBETWEEN NARRATIVE & THEMEHuman beings sometimes falter under pressure. Pilotscrash and divers drown. Under the glare ofcompetition, basketball players cannot find the basket andgolfers cannot find the pin. When that happens, we sayvariously that people have ―panicked‖ or, to use the sportscolloquialism, ―choked.‖ (summary)But what do those words mean? To choke or panic isconsidered to be as bad as to quit. But are all forms offailure equal? (intro of central comparison and theme)
SUMMARIZING THE HISTORY OF LOBSTER, FROMCONSIDER THE LOBSTER Up until sometime in the 1800s, though, lobster was literally low-class food, eaten only by the poor and institutionalized. Even in the harsh penal environment of early America, some colonies had laws against feeding lobsters to inmates more than once a week because it was thought to be cruel and unusual, like making people eat rats. Narrative would be: a particular person in a particular prison scowling at the sight of, oh no, lobster. Again.
Late 14c., "setting of boundaries," from O.Fr. definicion , from L.definitionem , noun of action from definire . In logic, meaning "a statement of the essential nature of something" isfrom late 14c.; http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/definition DEFINITION 1. The act of defining or making definite, distinct, or clear. 2. Optics. Sharpness of the image formed by an optical system.
DEFINITION WITH DRIVE Skill is the connection between life and tools, or life and machines. Once, skill was defined in qualitative terms: How well did a person work. But as machines grow larger and more complex […] we tend to define skill quantitatively: How speedily and cheaply can a person work? And the more quantifiable skills become, the easier they are to replace with machines. Wendell Berry, ―The Un- settling of America‖
STEREOTYPETHREATEvery heard of it?It’s defined on page 91of ―The Art of Failure‖(after a summaryof a study)
ELABORATIONDescribing the indescribableBringing in expertsGiving examples
WHAT IS DUENDE?Definition: Duende is a difficult-to-define word usedin Spanish arts. Originally meaninga fairy- or goblin-like creature. Looselytranslated as having soul, a heightenedstate of emotion, expression andauthenticity, often connected with flamenco. WikipediaElaboration with expert: The duende is a power and not aconstruct, a struggle and not a concept. I heard an oldguitarist, a virtuoso, remark, ―The duende is not in thethroat, the duende comes from inside up, up from the verysoles of the feet.‖ That is to say, it’s not a question ofaptitude, but of blood. --Federico Garcia Lorca example
WHAT IS LOBSTER: ELABORATION VIA NICELYORDERED FACTS Taxonomically speaking, a lobster is a marine crustacean of the family Homaridae, characterized by five pairs of jointed legs, the first pair terminating in large pincerish claws used for subduing prey. Like many other species of benthic carnivore, lobsters are both hunters and scavengers. They have stalked eyes, gills on their legs, and antennae. There are dozens of different kinds worldwide, of which the relevant species here is the Maine lobster, Homarus americanus. The name ―lobster‖ comes from the Old English loppestre, which is thought to be a corrupt form of the Latin word for locust combined with the Old English loppe, which meant spider.
DEFINE OR ELABORATE WITH NEGATIVESLove is not all: it is not meat nor drinkNor slumber nor a roof against the rain;Nor yet a floating spar to men that sinkAnd rise and sink and rise and sink again;Love can not fill the thickened lung withbreath,Nor clean the blood, nor set the fracturedbone;Yet many a man is making friends withdeathEven as I speak, for lack of love alone.
1. COMPARE & CONTRAST IN ORDER TO Reveal unseen qualities/efficacy of A by analogy to more familiar B.‖ Just as bullets are traced to a gun, photos may one day reveal the camera that made them. [B then A] --―Can Digital Photos Be Trusted‖
COMPARISON STRUCTURES Compare in blocks, in order: Axyz then Bxyz (two paragraphs) or point by point: Ax Bx / Ay By / Az BzPanic […] is the opposite of choking. Choking isabout thinking too much. Panic is about thinking toolittle. Choking is about loss of instinct. Panic isreversion to instinct. They may look the same, butthey are worlds apart [….]
ANALYSIS Classification – parts & their relationships Process – mechanism and sequence Causation – causes and/or effects
ANALYZING PROCESSES Consider what happens when you double the size of an image in Photoshop. You start with a 100-by- 200-pixel image and enlarge it to 200 by 200. Photoshop must create new pixels to make the image bigger [….] Photoshop will ―look‖ at a whote pixel and an adjoining black pixel and decide that the best option for the new pizel being inserted is gray. [a ―digital watermark‖] -- Can Digital Photos be Trusted? With Narration assisting
ANALYZING CAUSATION(CAUSES OR EFFECTS)It won’t take long—if it hasn’t happened already— before every image becomes potentially suspect. So?[A]s fakes proliferate, real evidence, such as the photos of abuse at Abu Ghraib pruison in Iraq, could be discounted as unreliable. Doesn’t affect meAnd then there’s the judicial system, in which altered photos could harm the innocent, free the guilty, or simply cause havoc.
GROUPWORK #3 Assign a development method to each group member• Narration and description• Definition• Elaboration• Comparison/contrast• Summarization• Analysis • Classification (break down by parts) • Process (break down by steps) • Causation (break down by causes and/or effects Then create a short essay with several well- developedparagraphs on our chosen topic.