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  • 1. Module-1 Getting Started with Python
  • 2. LIVE On-line Class Class Recording in LMS 24/7 Post Class Support Module Wise Quiz and Assignment Project Work on Large Data Set Verifiable Certificate Slide 2 How it Works?
  • 3. Slide 3Slide 3 Course Topics  Module 1 » Getting Started with Python  Module 2 » Sequences and File Operations  Module 3 » Deep Dive - Functions, Sorting, Errors and Exception Handling, Regular Expressions and Packages  Module 4 » Object Oriented Programming in Python  Module 5 » Debugging, Databases and Project Skeletons Module 6 » Machine Learning Using Python – I Module 7 » Machine Learning Using Python – II Module 8 » Introduction to Hadoop  Module 9 » Hadoop and Python  Module 10 » Web Scraping using Python and Project Work
  • 4. Slide 4 Objectives Understand Python- an Object-oriented Programming Language. List the users of Python for Data Analytics. Define Identifiers and indentation. List Operations on Numbers and Operations on Strings. Run a Python Script. At the end of this module, you will be able to:
  • 5. Slide 5 Python is a very-high-level dynamic object-oriented programming language. Python is easy to program and read. Similar to PERL, but with powerful typing and object oriented features. What is Python? Commonly used for producing HTML content on websites <type ‘object’> <class ‘A’> <class ‘B’> <class ‘C’> Useful built-in types (lists, dictionaries) Clean syntax, Powerful extensions Great for text Processing txt .pyc, .pyd, .pyo <html> <body> <Content> <Sidebar> <html> <body>
  • 6. Slide 6 Why Python? Software Quality Developer Productivity Program Portability Support Libraries Component Integration Enjoyment » Python focuses on readability, coherence, and software quality in general which sets it apart from other languages in the scripting world.
  • 7. Slide 7 Why Python? Software Quality Developer Productivity Program Portability Support Libraries Component Integration Enjoyment » Python code is typically one-third to one-fifth the size of equivalent C++ or Java code. That means there is less to type, less to debug, and less to maintain.
  • 8. Slide 8 Why Python? Software Quality Developer Productivity Program Portability Support Libraries Component Integration Enjoyment » Python programs run unchanged on all major computer platforms. For Example- Windows, Linux, MAC OS etc.
  • 9. Slide 9 Why Python? Software Quality Developer Productivity Program Portability Support Libraries Component Integration Enjoyment » Python comes with a large collection of prebuilt and portable functionality, known as the Standard Library. This library supports an array of application-level programming tasks, from text pattern matching to network scripting.
  • 10. Slide 10 Why Python? Software Quality Developer Productivity Program Portability Support Libraries Component Integration Enjoyment » Python scripts can easily communicate with other parts of an application, using a variety of integration mechanisms.
  • 11. Slide 11 Why Python? Software Quality Developer Productivity Program Portability Support Libraries Component Integration Enjoyment » Because of Python’s ease of use and built-in toolset, it makes the programming more pleasurable.
  • 12. Slide 12 About Python Invented in the Netherlands in early 90s by Guido van Rossum. Named after “Monty Python”, a comedy group, as Python is fun to use. Open source and interpreted language. Considered a scripting language, but is much more than that. Scalable, object oriented and functional. Used by Google, increasingly popular. Python job trends from shows remarkable increase Python is at the top of the list among the top-dogs—Java, Javascript and PHP (according to Red Monk first quarter plot for 2014 ranking) Reference:  
  • 13. Slide 13 Users of Python » Dropbox web-based file hosting service is implemented using Python » Both the Dropbox server (running in the cloud) and desktop client software are primarily written in Python. » Yahoo acquired Four11, whose address and mapping lookup services were implemented in Python. » Yahoo Maps uses Python. » Many components of the Google spider and search engine are written in Python. » Youtube is originally written in Python and mysql. Reference:
  • 14. Slide 14 Users of Python » Zope Corporation has developed Blue Bream (a powerful Web application server) using Python that's available as free software. - » Ultraseek Server, a commercial search engine product, is implemented as an elaborate multi- threaded Python program. » The program contains over 11,000 lines of Python code, and the user interface is implemented with over 17,000 lines of Python-scripted HTML templates. » Shopzilla is a family of comparison shopping sites. » Shopzilla uses Python for configuration management and deployment, automated testing and internal tool development. » YUM, a package management utility for RPM- compatible Linux operating systems is written in Python. Reference:
  • 15. Slide 15 Traditional Uses of Python Internet Scripting Cpython Interpreter Your C/C++ Program Embedded Scripting Database Programming Image Processing System Utilities GUIs(Tkinter, gtk, Windows) Artificial Intelligence
  • 16. Slide 16 Uses of Python in Data Analytics New use-cases of python are the major growth driver for the increasing demand for python skills. These Use-cases are emerging because of various reasons. One of which is the new packages that were added into the standard library such as Pydoop, Pandas, Scipy etc. We will see how to use them in further sessions. Risk Management Analytics Weather Forecasting Ad Targeting Scientific Analysis
  • 17. Slide 17 Python Users for Data Analytics Used for weather forecasting by AppNexus a real-time online-advertising-platform company uses the Python programming language to help conduct heavy-duty data analysis. The company is a leading provider of multi-manager/multi-asset risk management analytics. A complete Risk Management System is written in Python. Scientists in the Theoretical Physics Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory are using Python to control large-scale physics codes on massively parallel supercomputers, high-end servers, and clusters. Python plays a central role in controlling these simulations, performing data analysis, and visualization.
  • 18. Slide 18 Python Timeline January 1994 October 16, 2000 December 3, 2008 Python 1.0 Python 2.0 Version 3.0 Python 1.5 - December 31, 1997 Python 1.6 - September 5, 2000 Python 2.1 - April 17, 2001 Python 2.2 - December 21, 2001 Python 2.3 - July 29, 2003 Python 2.4 - November 30, 2004 Python 2.5 - September 19, 2006 Python 2.6 - October 1, 2008 Python 2.7 - July 3, 2010 Python 3.1 - June 27, 2009 Python 3.2 - February 20, 2011 Python 3.3 - September 29, 2012 Python 3.4 - March 16, 2014
  • 19. Slide 19 Which Version?  In this course we are going to use Python version 2.7.6 It is because:  The library support for version 3.x is not adequate to fulfill day to day business needs.  In the industry, most of the softwares are using version 2.x and hence it is the most widely used version. Python 2 or Python 3
  • 20. Slide 20 YOU’RE FLYING! HOW?? PYTHON Language Features
  • 21. Slide 21 Dynamic Interpreted Language Features YOU’RE FLYING! HOW?? PYTHON Highly Readable Object- oriented Interactive Functional
  • 22. Slide 22 Installation: Python is pre-installed on most Unix systems, including Linux and MAC OS X. The pre-installed version is 2.x You can check the version installed on machine by executing the below command: python --version Please refer the detailed Installation Guide available in the LMS.(You will find the installation guides under Pythons Installation tab.) How to get Python? Note: We will be using Ubuntu virtual machine for practicals.
  • 23. Slide 23 Getting Help in Python Python interpreter has a built-in function called help(‘Object’). This function is intended for interactive use which invokes the help system. To use this function, type- help() or help(‘Object’) To exit the help press ‘q’ For Example: Run help(‘for') - This displays the help for the for function. Run help() – This will open the help shell.  Type for “help” in Version 2.x & 3.x
  • 24. Slide 24 Pydoc Pydoc is a documentation module for Python which gets installed with any Python distribution. Pydoc allows programmers to access Python's documentation, generate HTML pages with documentation specifics, and find the appropriate module for a particular job. Pydoc can be accessed from a module-specific GUI from within the Python Interpreter, or from a command line shell. Getting Help in Python(Contd.) “pydoc” (needs to be executed on Terminal)
  • 25. Slide 25 Python IDE IDE is “Integrated Development Environment” which is used as the code editor, including a series of peripheral components and attachments. The most important feature of the Python IDE is beyond ordinary text editor, it offers a variety of language-specific shortcut editing functions which make it fast and comfortable for programmers while coding. The IDE that we will be using is Pycharm.
  • 26. Slide 26 You can download Free Community Edition of Pycharm from the below link: Python IDE
  • 27. Slide 27 To start Python, all you need to do is type python into your command line. Example: From here on, the $ sign denotes the start of a terminal command line, and the # sign denotes a comment. Python ignores anything written to the right of a # sign on a given line. $ python # Type python into your terminal's command line >>> # After a short message, the “>>>” symbol will appear. This signals the start of the Interpreter. Starting Python Starting “python” Interpreter
  • 28. Slide 28 In addition to being a programming language, Python is also an interpreter. The interpreter reads other Python programs and commands, and executes them. Note that Python programs are compiled automatically before being scanned by the interpreter. The scanning process is hidden which makes Python faster than a pure interpreter. Once you're inside the Python interpreter, type in commands at will. Using the Interpreter
  • 29. Slide 29 Comments: Any text to the right of the # symbol is mainly useful as notes for readers. Bulk Comments: Enclose the code in triple quoted strings (“””). Literal Constants: Any number or string that represents itself. Example: The number 2 always represents itself and nothing else - it is a constant because its value cannot be changed. Comments and Literals
  • 30. Slide 30 Python supports several different numeric types: Integers Examples: 0, 1, 1234, -56 Integers are implemented as C longs Note: Dividing an integer by another integer will return only the integer part of the quotient, e.g. typing 7/2 will yield 3. Long integers Example: 999999999999999999999L Must end in either l or L Can be arbitrarily long Floating point numbers Examples: 0., 1.0, 1e10, 3.14e-2, 6.99E4 Implemented as C doubles Division works normally for floating point numbers: 7./2. = 3.5 Operations involving both floats and integers will yield floats: 6.4 – 2 = 4.4 Types of Numbers
  • 31. Slide 31 Octal constants Examples: 0177, -01234 Must start with a leading 0 Hex constants Examples: 0x9ff, 0X7AE Must start with a leading 0x or 0X Complex numbers Examples: 3+4j, 3.0+4.0j, 2J Must end in j or J Typing in the imaginary part first will return the complex number in the order Re+ImJ Types of Numbers
  • 32. Slide 32 Python Identifiers: Rules for Variable names A Python Identifier is a name used to identify a variable, function, class, module or other object. An identifier starts with a letter A to Z or a to z or an underscore (_) followed by zero or more letters, underscores and digits (0 to 9). Python is a case sensitive programming language. Python does not allow special characters such as @, $ and % within identifiers. Variables are used by just assigning them a value. No declaration or data type definition is needed/used. Identifier naming convention for Python Class names start with an uppercase letter and all other identifiers with a lowercase letter. Starting an identifier with a single leading underscore indicates by convention that the identifier is meant to be private. Starting an identifier with two leading underscores indicates a strongly private identifier. If the identifier also ends with two trailing underscores, the identifier is a language-defined special name. Identifier
  • 33. Slide 33 Hello There!! My name is Annie. I love quizzes and puzzles and I am here to make you guys think and answer my questions. Annie’s Introduction
  • 34. Slide 34 Annie’s Question 1. Which one of the below Identifiers is incorrect? A. _var B. __var C. $var D. var
  • 35. Slide 35 Annie’s Answer $var is incorrect. It is because in python one cannot start the name of the identifier with special character.
  • 36. Slide 36 Basic algebraic operations Four arithmetic operations: a+b, a-b, a*b, a/b Modulo : a%b Exponentiation: a**b Other elementary functions are not part of standard Python, but included in packages like NumPy and SciPy Comparison operators Greater than, less than, etc.: a < b, a > b, a <= b, a >= b Identity tests: a == b, a != b Operations on Numbers Arithmetic Division
  • 37. Slide 37 Annie’s Question 2. When a = 5 and b = 2 then, what will be the value of (a*3*b) < (((a*b)-(b*b))/b)*(a*b) ? A. True B. False
  • 38. Slide 38 Annie’s Answer The answer is False. It is because the value of left expression ( (a*3*b) ) and the right expression ( (((a*b)-(b*b))/b)*(a*b) ) are equal. (a*3*b) = (((a*b)-(b*b))/b)*(a*b) = 30
  • 39. Slide 39 Bitwise operators Bitwise OR : a | b Bitwise and: a & b Bitwise exclusive or: a ^ b Operations on Numbers(Contd.) OR Operator AND Operator XOR Operator Shift a left or right by b bits: a << b, a >> b Left Shift Operator 5 places to the left Right Shift Operator
  • 40. Slide 40 Annie’s Question 3. What is the output of ( 2 | 4 ), ( 2 & 4 ), and ( 2 ^ 4 ) respectively? A. 6, 0 and 6 B. 6, 6 and 6 C. 0, 6 and 6 D. 6, 0 and 0
  • 41. Slide 41 Annie’s Answer The answer is 6, 0 and 6.
  • 42. Slide 42 In Addition to other Operators: Not surprisingly, Python follows the basic PEMDAS (Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction) order of operations. Python supports mixed-type math. The final answer will be of the most complicated type used. Operations on Numbers(Contd.)
  • 43. Slide 43 Annie’s Question 4. What is the output of ( 100 * 20 ** 2 / 4 ) ? A. 1000000 B. 1 C. 10000 D. 100
  • 44. Slide 44 Annie’s Answer The answer is 10000. According to PEMDAS, exponent will be calculated firstt, then multiplication will done and finally division. The expression ( 100 * 20 ** 2 / 4 ) is evaluated as: ( ( 100 * (20 ** 2) ) / 4 ) = (( 100 * 400 ) / 4) = ( 40000 / 4 ) = 10000
  • 45. Slide 45 Python does not support a character type; these are treated as strings of length one, thus also considered a substring. Strings are immutable. Strings are ordered blocks of text Strings are enclosed in single or double quotation marks. Double quotation marks allow the user to extend strings over multiple lines without backslashes, which usually signal the continuation of an expression. Examples: 'abc', “ABC”. Concatenation and repetition Strings are concatenated with the + sign: >>> 'abc'+'def' 'abcdef' Strings are repeated with the * sign: >>> 'abc'*3 'abcabcabc’ Operations on Strings - I
  • 46. Slide 46 Indexing and Slicing Operation Python starts indexing at 0. A string s will have indexes running from 0 to len(s)-1 (where len(s) is the length of s) in integer quantities. s[i] fetches the ith element in s. Example : Operations on Strings - II
  • 47. Slide 47 Membership Checking In - Returns true if a character exists in the given string. not in - Returns true if a character does not exist in the given string. String Formatting Operator: % This operator is unique to strings and makes up for the pack of having functions from C's printf() family. Operations on Strings- III
  • 48. Slide 48 capitalize(): Capitalizes first letter of string. count(str, beg= 0,end=len(string)): Counts how many times str occurs in string or in a substring of string if starting index beg and ending index end are given. encode(encoding='UTF-8',errors='strict'): Returns encoded string version of string; on error, default is to raise a ValueError unless errors is given with 'ignore' or 'replace‘. decode(encoding='UTF-8',errors='strict'): Decodes the string using the codec registered for Encoding. Encoding defaults to the default string encoding. index(str, beg=0, end=len(string)): Same as find(), but raises an exception if str not found. Built-in String Methods
  • 49. Slide 49 max(str): Returns the max alphabetical character from the string str. min(str): Returns the min alphabetical character from the string str. replace(old, new [, max]): Replaces all occurrences of old in string with new or at most max occurrences if max given. upper(): Converts lowercase letters in string to uppercase. More String Methods
  • 50. Slide 50 Indentation Leading whitespace (spaces and tabs) at the beginning of a logical line is used to compute the indentation level of the line, which in turn is used to determine the grouping of statements. Indentation is MUST in Python There are no braces to indicate blocks of code for class and function definitions or flow control. Blocks of code are denoted by line indentation, which is rigidly enforced. The number of spaces in the indentation is variable, but all statements within the block must be indented the same amount. Standard is to use 4 whitespaces as per official recommendation. Some editors automatically takes care of the indentation. Indentation
  • 51. Slide 51 Python scripts are written in text files with the suffix “.py”. The scripts can be read by the interpreter in several ways: Running a Python Script Example: $ python # This will simply execute the script and return to the terminal afterwards Example Script “” Execution of “”
  • 52. Slide 52 Assignment Write a program to print the: » Number of lowercase “a” and “o” in the following sentence. » Number of uppercase “L” and “N” in the following sentence. ‘Discover, Learning, with, Edureka’ Write a program to remove the following from: » Remove all w’s before and after .edureka. » Remove all lowercase letter before and after .edureka. » Remove all printable characters
  • 53. Slide 53 Assignment Identify the type of numbers: » 0X7AE » 3+4j » -01234 » 3.14e-2 Write a program for String Formatting Operator % which should include the following conversions: » Character » Signed decimal integer » Octal integer » Hexadecimal integer (UPPERcase letters) » Floating point real number » Exponential notation (with lowercase 'e')
  • 54. Slide 54 Pre-work Basic idea about different sequences: Getting to know file operations:
  • 55. Slide 55 Further Reading A good set of information to begin with can be found at: » Official documentation page: »     For more on loops: »
  • 56. Slide 56 What’s within the LMS Click here to expand and view all the elements of this Module
  • 57. Slide 57 What’s within the LMS Pre-work Presentation Assignment Quiz Hands-on