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Coastal Eco-systems, Vulnerability, and Sustainability: Social Science Perspectives. by-Hemantkumar chouhan & D. Parthasarathy


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Delineated the extremely significant and sensitive issue of Socio-Economic aspect of CRZ; elaborating on the dubious purpose of CRZ- what is it trying to protect?

Delineated the extremely significant and sensitive issue of Socio-Economic aspect of CRZ; elaborating on the dubious purpose of CRZ- what is it trying to protect?

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  • 1. Hemantkumar A. Chouhan and D.Parthasarathy Department of Humanities and Social Sciences IIT Bombay
  • 2. Motivations for CRZ laws? Why regulate? The study of coastal zones – need for inter – and multi – disciplinary studies Development vs environment, biodiversity vs urbanization, tourism vs ecology, livelihoods vs conservation Coastal zones in India: densely population, economically dynamic, ecologically sensitive and significant
  • 3. 1. Vulnerability  Risk and vulnerability: nature of risk; community and individuality; importance of the state;  The problem of inequality: prismatic vulnerability  Ecologically fragile, socially marginal, highly vulnerable  Assessing and mitigating vulnerability – the dilemma of infrastructure development in coastal zones
  • 4. 2. Governance Multiple agencies in planning, implementation, disaster management  DP, SRA, SWM, Water, Transport – the invisibility of coastal issues Principal-Agent problem, conflict of interests, Moral hazard
  • 5. 3. Inequality  Conflicts: rich vs poor or poor vs poor?  Politics of aspirations  Migration  The context of „development‟  Gender, ethnicity, age
  • 6. 4. Commons Coastal zones as commons: land, sea, mangroves, wetlands o customary and modern management practices o free-rider and “tragedy of the commons”? (Hardin, 1968) New design principles? (Ostrom) o micro, meso, and macro levels (Nested Institutions) Participatory governance: take advantage of constitutional provisions (74th amendment)
  • 7.  In the name of “development” Tourist Industry, Infrastructural Projects violates CRZ I, in all 9 states (Equation 2008).  The Esselworld Amusement Park at Gorai in Mumbai:  destroyed 700 acres of mangrove fields by spraying chemicals CRZ I.  Thermal Power Plant at Dahanu:  reclaimed vast wetland of more than 1,000 acres for construction of the plant and dumping of ashes.  Worli–Bandra sea-link bridge in Mumbai:  70 acres of estuary area of the Mithi river at Mahim have been reclaimed.
  • 8.  In 1965-66 govt. began to reclaimed area for constructing residential and commercial buildings for the rich.  Fishing community 200-250 families protested this reclamation. As part of protest the dependant families shifted their residence at Badhwar Park.  Encroachment by migrants: Garib Janta Ngr, Mahatma Phule Ngr, and Dhobi Ghat .Not dependant on fish catching.  Sea became dump yard for their debris. Leads to pollution of sea water, stop fish breeding.
  • 9.  Water Pollution  S F forced to go for deep fishing.  fishermen finding hard to catch even with net also.  Smaller nets get entangled with the bigger trawler an Persian nets. Boundary not demarcated.  Beautification: CPRA garden, covered sixty (60m) metres of reclaimed land in the seaside which is violation of CRZ I.  Environmental Damage: Due to cutting of mangroves, the ecology of the coastal area is being destroyed.
  • 10.  Declared an Important Bird Area (IBA)  More than 60,000 birds seen annually, both resident and migratory.  Notable among them: Greater and Lesser Flamingo, Pied Avocet, Wooly- necked Stork, Painted Stork etc.  Land reclassified from CRZ-I to CRZ- III.  Handed over for construction of an SEZ in prime mangrove location.  Concerned Govt. Departments: MCZMA, MCGM, Environment Department  Jeopardy: Dumping of solid waste on nearby mangroves by the MCGM! 
  • 11.  Water Pollution: Main reasons  the industrial construction ◦ outlet of the sewerage pipe line directly into sea water and destruction of mangroves ◦ Polluted water leads to increases of mosquitoes, where fisherman cannot catch the fishes  Decrease in species of fish: ◦ In such a situation fish cannot live and cannot generate new species  Varieties of fishes available in this creek were: ◦ Kala fish (Pila pea), ◦ Jitadi (Sneeper), ◦ Chimbori (Crabs), ◦ Small sine (Sins), ◦ Karpal (Tiger pounds), ◦ Boi (silver fish), ◦ Kullim (Tinny streen) in this creek ◦ Only the Kala fish remains. ◦ Sneeper and other species of fish are no more to be found.
  • 12.  1 km stretch between Joggers’ park and Bandra Bandstand  80 per cent small fish catching  Violations: ◦ A number of illegal constructions ◦ 2 & 3 three storey bungalows right on the beach in the last 7 years ◦ builders and their construction process violate the CRZ norms.  Beautification Project:  The BMC officials have come up with Rs. 4 Crore beautification plan for area with an aim to improve its environmental conditions.
  • 13.  Water Pollution:  No land is available for parking boats and the market area, selling their fishes on beach ◦ taken over by some elite group association Advanced Legislative Management Society (ALM) and BMC  No land available drying area: ◦ Ground available near the Jogger’s Park which leads to the Chimbai pumping station available for drying fishes. But this plot is also taken over as part of the beautification plan.  fight between small fishermen and elite groups
  • 14.  Sewri Mangrove Park declared by BPT in 1996.  Was supposed to develop the area to showcase mangroves and Flamingo habitat.  Park consists of 15 acres of mangroves in the mudflats between Sewri and Trombay.  Reality: 30 Hectares of mangroves completely wiped out and the entire belt in danger of getting destroyed.  Cause: The improper location and storage of coking coal in the immediate locality.
  • 15.  Water pollution:  The discharges from the Bombay Port Trust include coal and oil which are directly dumped into the sea water. Due to this the mangroves are drying and being destroyed  Decrease in fishing activity and alternative livelihood  Boi, Bangda, Tarla, Tingala, Pale, Sewad, Kolambi, Pamplet, Goli, Rawas, Toli, Wam were available. But now they are catching only crabs in deep sea water.  Construction & Encroachment:  Though BPT is encroaching land inside sea.
  • 16.  Natural and are a renewable resource.  Buffer Zone between the land and sea.  Protect the coast against erosion due to wind, waves, water currents and protect coral reefs, sea- grass bed and shipping lanes against siltation  clean air by absorbing pollutants in the air.  Host a number of threatened or endangered species, different animal species- mammals, reptiles, amphibians and bird- offer nutrients to the marine food web and provide spawning grounds to a variety of fish and shellfish
  • 17.  Catching Small Fish only  monsoon fish catching is ban.  Size of nets used is small  Mangroves are not cut down ruthlessly  Follow some unwritten law  Manage fishes according to availability of species small fishes are not target.  Overexploitation of natural resources not happen by fishing community, Pressure of Urban development
  • 18.  In 2009, 24 complaints were registered ◦ MCZMA had issued a letter to concern authority. ◦ No one complaint was taken action against any violations  In 2010 there were 42 complaints ◦ only 10 complain were under directive process, rest of complain were issued letter only  In the year of 2011 there were 99 complaints ◦ Only 3 complaints where MCZMA has stopped work ◦ 20 complaints were considered in the meeting of MCZMA NO ICZM Plan
  • 19.  Objectives of CRZ not fulfilled  enforcement agencies have been extremely apathetic with implementation of CRZ.  It deliberately ignores issues of public participation  so many areas in Mumbai are polluted by projects and leading to lack of fishes.  The natural resource of fish is destroyed by big trawler as well as per sian net owner.  Government tried to satisfy builder lobby, fishing community and environmentalist through CRZ 2011
  • 20.  Environmentalists concern is more to save or preserve biodiversity of coastal area rather than livelihood of dependent people of coastal areas.  This lack of concern for dependent communities is leading to growing commercial exploitation, reduction in the loss of biodiversity, continued alienation of indigenous communities, and the creation of administrative, policy and legal measures which remain paper tigers (Wani, Taraporvala, 2012).  It also has implications for local participation in biodiversity and mangrove sustainability issues, due to the absence of local champions for environmental causes, which remain an elite or middle class issue.  There are several institutions and agencies functioning separately  If the state is serious about environmental protection of coastal areas, it is time that the fishing communities are made integral stakeholders in CRZ implementation such that livelihood issues and ecosystem conservation can both be efficiently addressed.
  • 21. Thank You!!!