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BRT: Made in Latin America

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By Dario Hidalgo, Director of Research and Practice, EMBARQ

By Dario Hidalgo, Director of Research and Practice, EMBARQ

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  • SIBRT is a member-driven, non-profit association of public transportation agencies in Latin America committed to advance urban public transportation and improve quality of life in the region’s cities

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  • 1. BRT: Made in Latin America Dario Hidalgo Luis Gutierrez EMBARQ, The WRI Center for Sustainable Transport Brookings Institution Washington DC, March 8, 2011
  • 2.  
  • 3. BRT around the world
      • 120 cities with BRT Systems and Bus Corridors
      • 4,335 km
      • 6,683 stations
      • 30,000 buses
      • 26.8 million passengers per weekday
        • 1% of the world´s urban population (2010)
        • 1.4 times the combined population of New York and Newark (2010)
  • 4. Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011
  • 5.
    • 1,330 km (31%)
    • 2,686 stations (40%)
    • 16,856 buses (56%)
    • 17.6 million passengers per weekday (66%)
    Source: CTS Brasil, EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011 32 cities in LAC with BRT or bus corridors (26% of the world)
  • 6. Curitiba, RIT, 72 km median busways 2.3 million pax/day Initial Corridor 1972
  • 7. Curitiba new BRT Corridor (2009-2010) Rodovia BR116 “Before” Photo: URBS Linha Verde “Now” Photo: CTS Brasil Linha Verde “Future” Image: URBS
  • 8. Curitiba – 35 years with a coordinated land use and transport plan with a BRT backbone Fuente: Arq. Antonio Juarez Nakamura, Presentación en IV Seminario Internacional de Arquitectura – Universidad Piloto de Colombia, Bogotá, Agosto de 2002
  • 9. Travel Time (2007) Source: Observatorio Movilidad Urbana CAF http://omu.caf.com/ Hour/person/day
  • 10. Tailpipe Emissions(2007) Source: Observatorio Movilidad Urbana CAF http://omu.caf.com/ Ton per day per million people
  • 11. Road Safety (2007) Source: Observatorio Movilidad Urbana CAF http://omu.caf.com/ Road Fatalities per 100,000 people
  • 12. Quito, Metrobús-Q, 37 Km median busways, 440,000 pax/day Initial corridor in 1995
  • 13. Bogot á, TransMilenio, 84 Km median busways, 1,7 million pax/day Initial Corridor 2000
  • 14.
    • Bogotá TransMilenio
    • Eje Ambiental Avenida Jiménez
    Photo ITDP
  • 15. Expressway Lanes TransMilenio, Bogota
  • 16. Fuentes: Encuesta Anual “Bogotá ¿Cómo Vamos?” www.eltiempo.com ; Total Public Transport Traditional Public Transport TransMilenio BRTS Private (Car, Two Wheeler) Active Transport (Walking, Bicycle) Main mode of transport 1998-2009
  • 17. Fatalities in Bogotá Over Time Source: Anuario Estadístico, Ministerio de Transporte, Colombia
  • 18. Fatalities Reduced (Baseline vs. Project) Av. Caracas BRT Corridor, TransMilenio, Bogotá Data: TRANSMILENIO S.A.
  • 19. Sao Paulo, 104 Km median busways + preferential buslanes, 5,761,000 pax/day Initial busways 1980, Reconstructed in 2003
  • 20. León de Guanajuato, M éxico , Optibús, 31 Km median busways (60% segregated) Initial corridor 2003
  • 21. México City, Metrobús, 66 Km median busways, 570,000 pax/day Initial Corridor 2005
  • 22.  
  • 23. Pereira, Colombia, Megab ú s, 27 Km Busways, 155,000 pax/day Initial Operation in 2006
  • 24. Pereira, Colombia Photos courtesy of Megabus, Pereira, Colombia
  • 25. Guayaquil, Ecuador, Metrovía, 16 Km Busways, 96,000 pax/day Initial Corridor 2006 Photos by D. Hidalgo
  • 26. Santiago, Chile, 19 Km busways + 63 Km of road improvements, Integrated Network for 5 Million Trips/day Initial Operation in 2007
  • 27. Guatemala City, February 2007 Photo: Sapfan (Jan Pesula)
  • 28. Cali, Colombia 27 Km busways 130,000 pax/day Initial Operation in 2009 Photo: Metrocali
  • 29. Macrobús, Guadalajara, México
  • 30.  
  • 31. Transmetro, Barranquilla, Colombia
    • Opened 10 July 2010
    • 13.4 km dedicated busway
    • 15 Stations
    • 92 articulated buses
    • 32,0000 pax/day
    Photo via transmetro.gov.co Sources: http://transmetro.gov.co/web2010/ Ministry of Transport, Mass Transit Group, Oct 2010
  • 32. Metrol í nea, Bucaramanga, Colombia
    • Opened 21 December 2009
    • 8.9 km trunk corridor
    • 7.7 auxiliary corridors (25.2 km plan.)
    • 24 stations
    • 75,000 pax/day
    Photo: http://www.metrolinea.gov.co/ Source: Ministry of Transport, Mass Transit Group, Oct 2010
  • 33. Mexibús, Estado México, México
    • Initial operation Nov 30, 2010
    • 16 km exclusive busway
    • 21 stations
    • 130,000 pax/day (expected)
    Photo: http://transeunte.org/tag/mexibus/ Source: http://transporteinformativo.com/pasaje/inicia-operaciones-mexibus-con-63-autobuses-articulados-volvo
  • 34. Metropolitano, Lima, Peru
    • Initial Operation, May 2010
    • First high capacity bus system with CNG only
    • 27 km busways, 80% with overtaking at stations
    • 35 stations
    • 308 articulated buses
    • 82,000 pax/day south section (854,000 pax/day expected)
    • 21 km/hour commercial speed
    Photo: Protransporte, Lima, May 2010 Source: Menckhoff, G., Ochoa, C., Ardila, A. “El Metropolitano de Lima: Implementación y Primeros Resultados de un Nuevo Sistema BRT” CLATPU, Octubre 2010
  • 35. http://www.embarq.org/en/modernizing-public-transportation
  • 36. Varied throughput (2009)
  • 37. Commercial speed (2009)
  • 38. Capital Cost (2009)
  • 39. What Went Wrong Filename/RPS Number
    • Rushed implementation
    • Very tight financial planning
    • Very high occupancy levels
    • Early deterioration of infrastructure
    • Issues with technological components
    • Insufficient user education
    Common problems
  • 40.  
  • 41. Latin American Association of Integrated Bus Systems and BRT Agencies
  • 42.  
  • 43. Lessons for the US
    • Good performance
    • High capacity
    • Low cost
    • Rapid implementation
    • High positive impact
      • Travel time, emissions, accidents
    BRT is a feature or an aspiration of most cities
  • 44. ¡Muchas Gracias! Volvo Research and Educational Foundations
  • 45. Rapid growth of BRT Systems and Bus Corridors in 2010, specially in developing cities
    • 16 cities started operations in 2010 (13% growth)
      • China (4), Indonesia (3), Colombia (2), India, Thailand, Brazil, M é xico, Perú, UK, Canada
      • 21 corridors; 396 km; 464 stations; 2,047 buses
      • 1.4 million passengers per weekday (5% growth)
    • 7 cities expanded corridors in 2010, 125 km
    • 49 new cities with corridors under construction
    • 16 cities expanding their corridors
    • 31 new cities in planning stages
  • 46. Cities with the most used BRT/Bus Corridors Networks 2010 Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011 Dark color strong segregation, stations with prepayment Name Corridors Km Pax/day Prioridade Transporte Colectivo, Sao Paulo, Brazil 10 301.3 6,843,664 Rede Integrada de Transporte, Curitiba, Brazil 6 72.0 2,260,000 TransMilenio, Bogota, Colombia 7 84.0 1,700,000 Busways, Taipei, China Taiwan 10 30.3 1,680,000 Tehran BRT, Iran 5 91.0 1,440,000 Prioridade Transporte Colectivo, Porto Alegre, Brazil 10 57.2 1,170,000 Guangzhou BRT, China 1 22.5 800,000 Optibus, Leon, Mexico 4 31.0 700,000 Metrobus, Istanbul, Turkey 2 43.0 700,000 Metrobus, Mexico City, Mexico 2 66.0 570,000 Metrorapid, Los Angeles, USA 21 390.2 464,600 Metrobus-Q, Quito, Ecuador 3 42.2 440,000 Prioridade Transporte Colectivo, Belo Horizonte, Brazil 2 23.7 435,000
  • 47. Cities with the Longest BRT/Bus Corridors Networks 2010 Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011 Dark color strong segregation, stations with prepayment Name Corridors Km Metrorapid, Los Angeles, California 21 390.2 Prioridade Transporte Colectivo, Sao Paulo, Brazil 10 301.3 SmartBus, Melbourne, Australia 4 233.0 MIO, Cali, Colombia 6 179.0 Trans Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia 10 172.2 LINK, Phoenix, USA 4 128.0 Metrobus, Monterrey, Mexico 3 101.0 Tehran BRT, Iran 5 91.0 Trans Hulonthanlangi, Indonesia 3 90.0 Trans Jogja, Indonesia 3 90.0 TransMilenio, Bogota, Colombia 7 84.0 TransMetro, Pekanbaru, Indonesia 2 74.0 Rede Integrada de Transporte, Curitiba, Brazil 6 72.0
  • 48. Systems expansions 2010 125 km 3% increase over existing km in 2009 Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011 Name City Expansion (growth) Transjakarta Jakarta, Indonesia +48 km (34%) BRT Teheran Teheran, Iran +21km (31%) Janmarg Ahmedabad, India +20 km (105%) Select Bus New York City +14 km (121%) Xiamen BRT Xiamen, China +11 km (28%) Hangzhou BRT Hangzhou, China +6 km (46%) Optibús León, México +5 km (19%)
  • 49. Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011 Region Country 49 Cities with BRT/Bus Corridors under Construction Dec 2010 Africa (3) Ghana (1) Accra (Ghana), South Africa (2) Cape Town, Nelson Mandela Bay Asia (12) India (6) Surat, Indore, Bhopal, Vishakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Rajkot Jordan (1) Amman Korea, Republic (1) Changwon Turkey (1) Kocaeli (Izmit) Europe (23) France (20) Annenasse, Antibes-Sophia Antipolis, Cannes, La Rochelle, Lille, Lyon, Metz, Nancy, Nice, Nimes, Perpignan, Rennes, Saint-Brieuc, Saint-Etienne, Saint-Nazaire, Saint-Pierre-de la-Reunion, Sait-Paul-de-la-Reunion, Toulouse, Tours, Valenciennes Italy (1) Bologna, UK (2) Cambridge, Leigh-Salford-Manchester Latin America and the Caribbean (10) Argentina (1) Buenos Aires Colombia (3) Cartagena, Medell ín, Soacha México (1) Monterrey Panamá (1) Panamá City Paraguay (1) Asunción Perú (1) Arequipa Puerto Rico (1) San Juan Venezuela (1) Barquisimeto USA and Canada (9) USA (9) Albany (NY), Austin (TX), Berkeley (CA), Fort Collins (CO), Grand Rapids (MI), Roaring Forks Valley (CO), San Bernardino (CA), San Francisco (CA), Seattle (WA)
  • 50. Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011 Region Country 16 Cities with BRT/Bus Corridors under Expansion December 2010 Africa (1) South Africa (1) Johannesburg Asia (4) India (3) Ahmedabad, Jaipur, Pune Iran (1) Teheran Latin America and the Caribbean (10) Brasil (5) Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador Colombia (2) Bogotá, Cali Guatemala (1) Guatemala City México (2) León, México City USA and Canada (1) USA (1) New York City (NY)
  • 51. Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011 Region Country 31 Cities Planning BRT/Bus Corridors December 2010 Africa (11) Ethiopia (1) Addis Abeba Kenia (1) Nairobi South Africa (7) Tshwane (Pretoria), Bloemfontein, Durban (eThekwini), East London, Ekurhuleni, Polokwane, Rustemburg Tanzania (1) Dar es Salaam Uganda (1) Kampala Asia (4) China (5) Shanghai, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Wuxi, Xi'an Mongolia (1) Ulan Bator Europe (2) UK (2) Bath-Sommerset, Glasgow Latin America and the Caribbean (12) Brasil (3) Fortaleza, Rio de Janeiro, Uberlandia Colombia (1) Cúcuta Ecuador (1) Cuenca El Salvador (1) San Salvador México (6) Chihuahua, Chimalhuacan, Guadalajara, Mexicali, Oaxaca, Tijuana Oceania Australia Brisbane (expansion) USA and Canada (2) USA (2) Chicago, IL; Santa Clara, CA