E.Lara Rosales Marcoms Cadbury Assignment Apr08

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Final assignment at LCC (Univeristy of the Arts London)
Analysis of the Cadbury Dairy Milk 2007 \'Gorilla\' campaign: to what extend can advertising creativity serve marketing ROI.

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E.Lara Rosales Marcoms Cadbury Assignment Apr08

  1. 1. Emily LARA ROSALES MA Student Sup de Pub Conceptual Frameworks for Marketing Communications Assignment April 2008 ‘Gorilla’ campaign 2007
  2. 2. ABSTRACT A dvertising and marketing are going through an important change, a ‘renaissance’1. Mainly due to the progressive discovery of the web’s possibilities, two main motors are driving today’s context: a new brand/consumer relationship, and a move towards IMC, TTL, CRM and on-line based campaigns as the new standards: - A dialog relationship, where consumers have gained a power of response and choice regarding the brands - a good indicator of this trend is the development of ‘permission’ marketing. - To stand out, brands have to deal with the extension of communication means consumed by their audiences. In addition, topical trends such as an ambient financial crisis and the context of a mature economy -where market shares are hard to hold and to win- enhance the pressure upon marketers and advertising agencies. Because return-on-investment is harder to measure (and obtain?) with ‘standard’ advertising than with other marcoms devices (sales promotions, events, on-line marketing…), does the new context imply ATL campaigns’ decline? In fact, advertisers still get along with the idea of paying a high price to have their commercial on mass media, whilst they could spend less on more targeted communication means. Is it that change takes time, just as the renewal of generations? Is it that mass advertising is not dying - only changing? And what role does / can advertising creativity play on marketing goals in such context? The 2007 ‘Gorilla’ campaign for Cadbury Dairy Milk is relevant of the issues encountered and questions raised by such evolutions. 1 Misloski, 2005 2
  3. 3. INDEX BACKGROUND: Brand and Campaign..................................................................................... 4 Market overview ................................................................................................................ 5 THE CAMPAIGN............................................................................................................................ 6 Sales promotion competition.............................................................................................. 7 Dedicated Website.............................................................................................................. 7 The Film ............................................................................................................................. 8 HOW DOES IT WORK?................................................................................................................... 9 Entertain to catch attention................................................................................................. 9 Involve to create complicity............................................................................................... 9 Choose your weapons......................................................................................................... 9 A subtle branding strategy................................................................................................ 10 The message ..................................................................................................................... 10 A SUCCESS BEYOND HOPES? ...................................................................................................... 11 An advertising success ..................................................................................................... 11 A marketing success? ....................................................................................................... 12 ‘A BIRD IN THE HAND IS WORTH TWO IN THE BUSH’: improving advertising success to marketing success ................................................................................................................... 13 A limited success: when the parts overshadow the sum .................................................. 13 A DIALOG TO DRIVES SALES ...................................................................................................... 14 1. The importance of branding ......................................................................................... 14 2. Efficient IMC: the ‘3 rights’ rule: right time, right place, right message .................... 15 3. Create long-term dialog: Web and crm ........................................................................ 16 CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................................................... 14 APPENDIX.................................................................................................................................. 19 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................... 192 3
  4. 4. BACKGROUND: BRAND AND CAMPAIGN Cadbury Dairy Milk is the flagship confectionery brand for Cadbury Schweppes. Chocolate bar leader in the UK, it was worth more than 360£ million in 2006 and was purchased by 65% of the UK population2. Until recently, it has been Cadbury Limited’s3 best selling product. At its launch, it was the only English chocolate brand with milk in its recipe. From this insight, the brand has built an identity around a slogan quot;A glass and a half of full cream milk in every half poundquot;, and a logo: the two glasses pouring milk into the chocolate. 2 Cadbury website 3 confectionery brand of Cadbury Schweppes 4
  5. 5. MARKET OVERVIEW In 2006, the ‘healthy-eating’ trend and the raw materials’ price increase began having an impact on the UK confectionery market. The sector has lost 3 % of growth and the sales of key products, such as large chocolate blocks, have dropped. Cadbury Dairy Milk’s 2006 exercise has been even worse: in addition, the brand has been through a salmonella scare crisis leading to a massive product recall, and ended up with a 5% decline in sales value (30£ million), a damaged image, and a 1£ million fine4. However, according to the brand’s annual report, the 2007 exercise renewed with growth (see chart). The confectionery branch has overcame its decrease and renewed with an increasing trend. As reported by the brand, this growth was led by Trident and Cadbury Dairy Milk. Source: Annual Report & Accounts 2007, Cadbury Schweppes plc The start of this new growth coincides with the launch of a new advertising campaign airing on television: Fallon’s 2007 ‘Gorilla’. 4 Simon Bowers Much aped chocolate advert scores with public, The Guardian, 20/02/2008 5
  6. 6. THE CAMPAIGN The 6.2£ million campaign is one phase of a long-term advertising strategy scripted by Fallon (Cadbury’s ad agency), planned to be running on 2007 and 2008. According to Phil Rumbol5 and Kate Harding 6, the campaign’s aim was to recreate an emotional relationship with key customers: ‘We want to […] tap into the emotional reward of having chocolate. It should be the emotional highlight of your day when you have that piece of Cadbury Dairy Milk’. Thus, the campaign proposition is based on the consumer benefit from consuming the product and aimed to be the fulcrum of the whole campaign (see Figure I, Appendix). ‘GORILLA’ media flowchart 5 New marketing director at Cadbury Trebor Basset 6 Acting Head of Customer Relations 6
  7. 7. SALES PROMOTION COMPETITION The competition ‘Win a Prize and a Half’ is available on all Cadbury Dairy Milk products. It was launched simultaneously to the TV advert to support the media advertising and get people involved with the brand by offering ‘money-can’t-buy-prizes’ (see Figure II, Appendix) To enter it, customers must go on Cadbury’s general website. DEDICATED WEBSITE http://www.aglassandahalffullproductions.com Created to host the film, it also had a contact page where viewers could leave their details to be contacted by the brand. 7
  8. 8. THE FILM The quirky film features an actor in a gorilla suit playing a Phil Collins’ famous drum solo, “In the Air Tonight”. Launched on the 31st August 2007 during the ‘Big Brother 8’ final, it ran with a sponsorship of the Rugby World Cup, and then until the end of the year. It was aimed to be seen by 84% of the UK’s adult population an average of 10 times7. ‘Gorilla’ stands out by its format (3 times as long as a standard ad), and its totally unexpected content: the product is not seen until the final pack shot, in the last seconds. Far from hard-selling, the ad is a 90’ interpretation of a pure feeling: joy. Film pack shot Source: dedicated website This unusual campaign achieved appealing a huge audience, for various reasons. But mainly, this campaign achieves understanding one of the current advertising’s major evolutions: the increasing importance of content. 7 Cadbury Trebor Basset, Talking Retail, 4th Sept 2007 8
  9. 9. HOW DOES IT WORK? ENTERTAIN TO CATCH ATTENTION Media advertising is intrusive. But this advert catches its target’s attention by offering an entertaining content instead of a hard-selling one. The use of a global cultural reference, Phil Collins’ song, conjugated in a quirky way with the unexpected gorilla character, has increased the potential of the ad. INVOLVE TO CREATE COMPLICITY Had ‘Gorilla’ only been entertaining, people would have watched it once, and for all. Yet, it generated a lot buzz and user generated content -we will come back on more details further on. This ad is an example of another transformation of today’s ad context: more than entertainment, the key to success is creating involvement. Indeed, consumers now have more tools to avoid advertising they consider as intrusive. From this, two things: profound knowledge of the audience’s attitudes, behaviours, interests, becomes more essential than ever, and user generated content is turning to be a new type of success measurement. The current (r)evolution happening in media advertising is leading the industry to turn to more entertaining and consumer involving content, but also to adopting more sharply targeted media plans. CHOOSE YOUR WEAPONS If the ad content is essential, a smart media plan is non-less fundamental to achieve advertising goals. In today’s context, there are two main strategies: finding events broadcasted on television that will appeal the right audience (positioning issue), or avoiding mass media and using much sharper targeted channels. For ‘Gorilla’, there is an interesting use of sponsorship with the Rugby World Cup strategy, which attracted on the whole 26.3m viewers. After a massive prime-time launch on Big Brother 8’s final, the ad aired on the rugby matches, and was tailored for each game - a changing message on the gorilla’s drums. This strategy has been so efficient in involving viewers that the character became a sort of mascot for the game, and most important of all, it got people expecting the ad. This shows that success lies today on the combination of an effective media plan and an involving content. 9
  10. 10. A SUBTLE BRANDING STRATEGY Rare enough to mention it, Cadbury has accepted to pay for an ad where the product is not shown until the pack shot. Though no immediate product presence in the ad, a number of brand cues are spread in the ad’s environment: the studio’s name and logo remind CDM’s logo and signature, the brand’s purple is everywhere… Everything surrounding the central gorilla character reminds, unconsciously, the product. It is that Cadbury Dairy Milk is a low involvement product “purchased with a relatively lower degree of conscious decision-making activity”. Thus it needs consumers’ ‘ego-involvement’ to create behavioural change and increase sales8. Now, not all brands could get away with this type of creative branding, but CDM benefits from its long-lasting advertising history (see Figure III, Appendix), and relationship with its customers: just as in the Pavlov experience, they were taught the brand’s most recognizable signs. THE MESSAGE ‘Gorilla’ expresses the product’s consumption benefit: people’s joy when eating chocolate. Again, a number of symbolic signs support this goal: the song’s lyrics, the gorilla’s attitude expressing a moment of personal enjoyment, the freedom suggested by the choice of instruments (drums)… Everything works to convey the message of an intense, individual, emotional pleasure. Since ‘Gorilla’ was the second campaign after the salmonella scare (the first one, ‘Love at first bite’ failed in reconnecting with consumers) Cadbury needed to go further in its positioning and creative ideas. There came the gorilla character. Though it is not sure how it was meant to be interpreted, the gorilla conveys an idea of strength, an image of raw natural being, not human but not quite far from it. But then, what about the link between a gorilla playing drums and a chocolate brand? A pure, primitive, feeling: joy. Cadbury applies here as a case study the marketing conditioning process consisting in encouraging a want by “associating a product’s acquisition with the satisfaction of a need” rather than trying to create new needs9. 8 James A. Bayton, 1958 9 Moutinho et al., 1996 10
  11. 11. A SUCCESS BEYOND HOPES? AN ADVERTISING SUCCESS Undeniably outstanding, this campaign has achieved creating one of the biggest advertising buzz in the UK. REACH FOR YOUR AUDIENCE On television, the effective media strategy led the film to be seen by more than 32m people: some 5.5m at its launch for Big Brother 8 final and over 26m with the Rugby World Cup sponsorship. On internet, the YouTube post and the dedicated website appealed 10m viewers, making it the most watched ad ever. SUCCEED IN ADVERTISING TESTS The advert ranked in the top 5 for enjoyment of all adverts tested in pre-tests by Millward Brown and received the highest recognition scores ever recorded by Hall & Partners. WIN SOME PRESTIGIOUS ADVERTISING AWARDS Campaign magazine awarded ‘Gorilla’ as 2007 #1 of top 10 cinema and television ads, and #1 of Top 10 virals. But that it has also been elected ‘Campaign of the year’ is more surprising, for it questions the traditional definition of an ad campaign: the ‘Gorilla’ film seems to have eclipsed the rest of the campaign, producing an uncomfortable unbalance between the different elements. CONSUMER APPROPRIATION ‘Gorilla’ has not only been recognized by the profession. If, today, customer re-appropriation of an advert is a new measure of achievement, the campaign is undoubtedly a success: it generated a very large number of internet posts, spoofs, blog content, social network groups, and spontaneous viral marketing. In terms of advertising, ‘Gorilla’ is undoubtedly a success, its main achievement being the brand’s image notable improvement after 2006’s crisis. Indeed, after this new campaign, Cadbury has renewed with positive features and started generating positive journalistic content and headlines. Moreover, the large number of user generated contents shows consumers’ involvement and recognition to the brand… Or was it only to the ad and its tremendous gorilla? Let us now compare the marketing results to the advertising ones we just went through. 11
  12. 12. A MARKETING SUCCESS? It appears that there a two distinct periods in Cadbury Dairy Milk’s 2007 results, and as we will see in fact, the marketing results seem to not be as consequent as expected. ON AIR! The brand’s sales have shot up quite impressively while the ad was running. By the end of October 2007, the sales value had increased by 7% and weekly sales, on a year on year basis, went up 9%. SALES RESULTS Cadbury Schweppes reported a revenue growth of 5% for 2007 exercise. And, according to the Checkout Nielsen Top 100 Brands report, Cadbury Dairy Milk is UK’s 5th brand and number 1 as a confectionery brand (see Figure IV, Appendix) As it appears, sales actually increased during the airing period, but it seems that the rest of the campaign has had little impact on 2007’s results. 12
  13. 13. ‘A BIRD IN THE HAND IS WORTH TWO IN THE BUSH’ IMPROVING ADVERTISING SUCCESS TO MARKETING SUCCESS A LIMITED SUCCESS: WHEN THE PARTS OVERSHADOW THE SUM As just shown, there are reasons of thinking that Cadbury is keeping its Dairy Milk’s results blurred on purpose, preferring to point up the confectionery overall results -which were consequently driven by Trident gum in 2007. This attitude raises a number of questions. What is the real return-on-investment of the 2007 campaign? Has the damaged image of the firm absorbed all the positive effects of the campaign, leaving nothing for the product? Was it part of the long-term strategy to aim ‘Gorilla’ at creating a new relationship with CDM’s audience, postponing the sales objectives for the 2008 campaign - but then why wait a year? It actually seems that the success of the gorilla idea was unexpected -and unprepared. People have identified the gorilla as the main feature of the campaign: the idea was so powerful that it cannibalized both the campaign and the brand. This statement is sustained by the user generated content produced about the campaign, which does not refer to the ‘Glass and a Half Full’ proposition but to the ‘Gorilla’. This said, how can the campaign’s effectiveness be improved to turn an advertising success into a marketing success? 13
  14. 14. A DIALOG TO DRIVES SALES Taking the campaign from the start, here are some recommendations to improve its efficiency on sales. The 3 suggested levels of improvement are organized by priority according to the existing campaign. 1. THE IMPORTANCE OF BRANDING Expressing the pleasure of eating chocolate the ad could suit any chocolate brand, and worse any brand positioned on a benefit of joy. To improve the ad/product relationship, whilst keeping the entertaining and non-hard-selling aspects, the subtle branding can be reinforced by adding milk symbols (the product’s insight!) to the ad: the gorilla could have spilled fresh milk on his chest (leave mysterious the way it happened), there could be some milk on the floor, or the brand’s two glasses somewhere in the room… There are many ways to improve the ad’s branding, but the milk idea seems to be one of the simplest. ARE ENDANGERED SPECIES DANGEROUS? The gorilla is central feature of the advert and of the generated buzz: the same film with a human would not have worked as well. But the use of a disappearing specie raises a few questions, amongst which the issue of ethics. Indeed, Cadbury is quite often the epicentre of scandals, and their unethical or inappropriate behaviours have already been pointed out in the past10. Thus, having a specimen of a disappearing specie serve the snacking market could seem inappropriate. Fortunately for the brand, consumers just stuck to the entertaining message of ‘Gorilla’ and are not used to go further in investigating brands’ Corporate Social Responsibility11, yet. 10 J. Dawkins, 2004; Friends of The Earth, 2003 11 J. Dawkins, 2004 14
  15. 15. 2. EFFICIENT IMC: THE ‘3 RIGHTS’ RULE: RIGHT TIME, RIGHT PLACE, RIGHT MESSAGE In this new era, the ‘Age of the Consumer’12, more and more brands want IMC campaigns. Unfortunately, few are those taking the most advantage of it, thus consumers tend to slip from marketers’ grip. Since the gorilla idea cannibalized the campaign, the IMC plan is less efficient. The ad alone, at the most, can only achieve getting consumers to a preference state towards Cadbury Dairy Milk, but cannot go further, to conviction and a change of behaviour13. Thus, a more effective approach would be enhancing -and assuming from the start- the gorilla idea, and using it as the campaign proposition: the message would have been stronger and much clearer for the audience14. Moreover, people would have associated it more easily with the product, what could have had an impact on marketing results as well15. Cadbury could push the ad’s success by extending it to a sensible experience: either with packaging or even product innovation, the brand can create a limited ‘Gorilla’ edition for Christmas. Of course, as seen earlier, there is no point in keeping the character too long, but playing on its advertising success and offering an accomplice relationship to consumers, as a tribute to the film they loved, would increase coherence and have an effect on sales. Regarding the campaign as a whole, the teasing phase could also improve its impact. Having it more focused on the release of the gorilla ad and not only on the product, and getting it to be on more targeted media than just outdoor, would be more effective on results16. 12 Misloski, 2005 13 Schultz and Wang, 1994 14 Caywood 1997; Smith 1995 15 Chaffee, 1982; Hornik, 1989; Valente, 1993; Valente, Poppe, & Merritt, 1996, quoted by Schultz and Wang, 1994 16 Gestalt’s ‘Law of Continuity’ 15
  16. 16. 3. CREATE LONG-TERM DIALOG: WEB AND CRM . A lot of companies do not use all resources offered by the web yet, what is a shame with such potential in the Cadbury case. A web strategy, as the centre point of the IMC campaign, can create involvement, dialog, and most of all, a durable relationship with consumers. The dedicated website was a good point, but it remains quite empty and pointless for users: giving it some reason of being will create interest for the users. This is done by including two types of content: information and entertainment. INFORMATION CONTENT: WHAT ARE WE REALLY TALKING ABOUT? The campaign’s website is dedicated to the fake production studio. But in the end, it is actually dedicated to the product (the studio is fake, the product is real...and sellable). Then why not having Cadbury Dairy Milk’s information on it, instead of keeping it on the Cadbury’s main website? Conjugated with a good positioning in search engines, by using some coherent keywords (e.g. gorilla, milk chocolate …), this can increases traffic and message efficiency. ENTERTAINMENT CONTENT: KEEP THEM INTERESTED More than just allowing people to watch the film over and over -what they do better on YouTube - the website could also host the competition. Improving the link between the film and the product increases chances of being top of mind for consumers when they purchase chocolate. Besides, since the competition continues after the ad has stopped running, hosting the competition could keep the website’s traffic up. By being reactive, the brand can make profit on the large number of user generated contents created. The spoofs, tributes, comments people left on the web are as many free publicity and communication channels for the brand. For instance, Cadbury could create a dedicated space on the website to frame this expression and have users voting for the best spoofs. It can also offer them links to a selection of the best contents found on the web: the website appears as a platform through which users are implicated in the campaign. This creates dialog: it is not the brand sending a message to the consumers, but consumers having fun with the brand. This level of implication requires a management from the brand (caution for brand image), but well employed it turns to be very efficient on consumers. As an alternative or tin addition, simple advergames based on the gorilla concept can be implemented. They create interaction and give people a reason for coming back on the website. They also reinforce the general coherence of the campaign and the link with the product. All tools mentioned above create the necessary implication for users to be likely to communicate their personal details to the brand. Then, the information collected has to be used, and smartly. This implies that Cadbury will not send dozens of untargeted mails to its 16
  17. 17. contacts, but instead will use this database to build a long-term relationship with its customers (permission marketing), by keeping them interested and entertained (new games, competition results, new products …). To conclude on the importance of the internet for Cadbury Dairy Milk: ‘Gorilla’ has an unquestionable viral potential and the more the campaign is able to integrate the web, the better tracking and measurement - what is good news for marketers’ ROI accountability issues in general. 17
  18. 18. CONCLUSIONS Advertising is not an exact science -results are not exactly predictable. It is not art either -it has marketing goals to achieve. The ‘Gorilla’ campaign is quite a case study of what is occurring currently. It highlights the points on which marketing communications strategies have to improve to fully adapt to the new context. First, brands can no longer consider advertising creation on one hand and communication channels on the other: media and advertising agencies have to work together to increase their campaigns’ results. Secondly, not expecting a creative success is one thing, but if people appropriate themselves an idea, a campaign, brands need to be reactive and exploit it. And to conclude, advertising cannot - if it is still the case - be considered as an independent device: to create solid relationships with customers, a brand needs to think on long-term strategies based on strong CRM devices. In today’s context, building dialog relationships is the key to success: between brands and consumers, and between fields that used to be in a competition or separated: marketing insights, media strategy, consumer research, advertising creativity. 18
  19. 19. APPENDIX INDEX FIGURE I: DECLENSIONS OF THE CAMPAIGN PROPOSITION .......................................................... II FIGURE II: COMPETITION PRIZES ................................................................................................. II FIGURE III: ADVERTISING HISTORY ...........................................................................................III FIGURE IV: CADBURY DAIRY MILK’S YEAR-ON-YEAR SALES CHANGE .....................................III 19
  20. 20. FIGURE I: DECLENSIONS OF THE CAMPAIGN PROPOSITION Competition 'Win a Prize and a Half' Outdoor 'A glass and a half full of milk' Website Fake production studio 'A Glass and a Half Full Production' FIGURE II: COMPETITION PRIZES Source: Cadbury website 20
  21. 21. FIGURE III: CADBURY DAIRY MILK'S ADVERTISING HISTORY Source: Cadbury website FIGURE IV: A 1.9% INCREASE FOR CADBURY DAIRY MILK SALES Brand MAT £m to... 30-Dec-06 29-Dec-07 yoy change COCA-COLA 938.5 959.9 2.30% 1 WARBURTONS 516.8 609.5 17.90% 2 WALKERS CRISPS 403.6 424.5 5.20% 3 HOVIS 404.6 386.6 -4.50% 4 5 CADBURY DAIRY MILK 364.7 371.8 1.90% NESCAFE 331.7 346.9 4.60% 6 LUCOZADE 296.6 337.7 13.80% 7 ANDREX 326.6 336.1 2.90% 8 KINGSMILL 284.3 302.1 6.30% 9 ROBINSONS 277.3 283.8 2.40% 10 Source: Nielsen Top 100 Brands report, 2007 21
  22. 22. REFERENCES BAYTON, J. A., JAN. 1958, Motivation, Cognition, Learning - Basic factors in consumer behaviour, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 22, No. 3 pp. 282-289, National Analysts Inc., Philadelphia BASHFORD, S., 2008, Big events still pull the viewers, Marketing on Brand Republic, 26 Feb. BOWERS, S., 2008, Much aped chocolate advert scores with public, The Guardian (online), 20 Feb. [accessed March 2008] CADBURY SCHWEPPES PLC, 2008, Cadbury Schweppes Annual Report & Accounts 200, St Ives Westerham Press, UK CADBURY TREBOR BASSET, 2007, Cadbury Dairy Milk launches gorilla TV ad campaign, Talking Retail, 4 Sept. CAMPAIGN MAGAZINE, 2007, Campaign Annual 2007: Advertising Agency of the Year - Fallon, Brand Republic, 14 Dec. CAMPAIGN MAGAZINE, 2007, Campaign Annual 2007: Campaign of the Year - Cadbury's Dairy Milk, Brand Republic, 14 Dec. CAMPAIGN MAGAZINE, 2007, Campaign Annual 2007: Top 10 TV and Cinema Ads, Brand Republic, 14 Dec. CAMPAIGN MAGAZINE, 2007, Campaign Annual 2007: Top 10 Virals, Brand Republic, 14 Dec. CHARLES, G., 2007, Crisis, what crisis?, Marketing on Brand Republic, 04 Sep. IPSOS-ASI THE ADVERTISING RESEARCH COMPANY, OCT. 2002, Building Brand Equity Through Advertising, Research Article Five, Presented at the ARF Week of Workshops MARSDEN, P., Brand positioning: meme's the word, 2002, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Volume 20 Number 5 pp. 307-31, MCB University Press ISSN 0263-4503, University of Sussex, Brighton MAYFIELD, A., 2008, Cadbury's Gorilla - what next?, Open (minds, finds, conversations), 24 Feb. MISLOSKI, W., 2005, Marketing’s Neo-Renaissance: an opportunity for tomorrow’s multi- channel integrated marketer, Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications, Northwestern University. 22
  23. 23. MORGAN, P., VOOLA, R., 2000, Integrated Marketing Communications (Imc) In A Social Marketing Context: An Application To Practice - Drug And Alcohol Treatment Services, ANZMAC Visionary Marketing for the 21st Century: Facing the Challenge, School of Management, Faculty of Economics and Commerce, The University of Newcastle MOTAMENI, R., SHAHROKHI, M., 1998, Brand equity valuation: a global perspective, Journal of Product & Brand Management, Volume 7 Number 4 pp. 275-290, MCB University Press ISSN 1061-0421 NIELSEN, 2008, Cadbury Dairy Milk, Checkout Nielsen Top 100 Grocery Brands on Talking Retail, 28 Feb. NIELSEN, 2008, Top 100 Grocery Brands 2008: table, Talking Retail, 28 Feb. TNS WORLD PANEL, 2007, Biggest brands: Top 10 by category, Marketing on Brand Republic, 22 Aug. [All web sources were accessed during March 2008] 23

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