HISTOLOGY OF ORAL MUCOUS
MEMBRANE AND GINGIVA
Vinay Pavan Kumar .K
1st year MDS
AECS Maaruti College of Dental Sciences
HISTOLOGY OF ORAL MUCOUS
MEMBRANE AND GINGIVA
Definition
Functions Classification
Structure
Organization
Histology of
ging...
 The oral cavity is in many respects a very
interesting part of the human body .
 Many different kind of tissue from the...
Functions of oral mucosa
Protection :
Barrier for mechanical trauma and
microbiological insults
Sensation :
Temperature (h...
Secretion:
Salivary secretion creates a moist oral
cavity helps in speech, swallowing,
mastication and in the perception o...
Classification of oral mucosa
Based upon primary function served
1. Masticatory Mucosa (25%)
2. Lining Mucosa (Covers 60%...
Based upon Location
1. Buccal Mucosa.
2. Lingual Mucosa.
3. Palatal Mucosa.
4. Labial Mucosa.
5. Alveolar Mucosa.

Structure of Oral Mucosa
Epithelium
Lamina Propria.
Submucosa
Epithelium
Epithelium of the oral mucosa is stratified squamous
epithelium.
It may be
1.Keratinized
2.Non keratinized
Ker...
Oral epithelium
Consists of two populations of cells:
Progenitor population
Maturing population
Progenitor cells funct...
Amplifying CellsStem cells
Progenitor Cells
• Slow dividing
• Maintain basal cell layer
• Rapidly dividing
• Form other ce...
Turn over time
Skin : 52 – 75 days
Gut : 4 – 14 days
Gingiva : 41 – 57 days
Cheek : 25 days
Junctional Epithelium : 5...
Keratinized oral mucous membrane
Keratinised Epithelium
(light microscopy)
Keratinised Epithelium
(Electron Microscopy)
Basal layer made of cell that synthesize DNA &
undergo mitosis.
Stratum Basale
Basal cells show ribosomes & elements of ro...
 Structureless zone seen under
light microscope is basement
membrane.
 1 – 4 microns wide.
 Under electron microscope,
...
Basal cells are attached to basal lamina by
hemidesmosomes.
Epithelial cell-cell contact is made through
desmosomes - macu...
i) Serrated- heavily packed with tonofilaments
which are adaptations for attachment.
ii) Non-serrated – stem cells – slowl...
Stratum spinosum or prickle cell
layer:
It is a layer of relatively large irregular polyhedral
cells.
Show first sign of m...
Stratum granulosum
 Flatter & wider & nuclei show signs of degeneration &
pyknosis.
Active in protein synthesis.
 Involucrin - soluble precursor protein of the
cornified envelope appears first in the spin...
Keratinosome or odland bodies or
membrane containing granules
Modified lysosomes
0.25µm in length.
Rich in phospholipid...
Stratum corneum
Made up of keratinised squamae, which are
larger & flatter than the granular cells.
Nuclei & other organ...
 Cell surfaces in this layer are more regular &
more closely adapted to adjacent cell surfaces.
 The filaggrin a non fib...
Types of keratinized epithelium
Parakeratinized Epithelium :The superficial cells
are dead but retain the nucleus
Orthok...
Non – keratinized epithelium
Nonkeratinized epithelial cells in the superfacial
layers do not have keratin filaments in th...
Difference
Keratinized
Layers - basal, spinosum,
granular, cornified layer.
Produce a cornified
surface layer.
Prickly ...
No nuclei-orthokeratinised
Pyknotic nuclei-
parakeratinised
Filaggrin present.
Numerous
tonofilaments,keratohyaline
granul...
Lamina Propria
Two Layers
 Papillary layer
Close to epithelial ridges.
Arranged loosely.
 Reticular layer
Parallel to ep...
Cells found in lamina propria
Fibroblast
Histiocytes
Macrophages
 Mast cell
 Polymorph nuclear leucocytes
Lymphocyte...
Submucosa
It attaches the mucous
membrane to the
underlying structures –
muscle or bone
 loose or a firm attachment
and ...
Nonkeratinocytes
Langerhan’s cells:Dendritic cells.
Merkel cell: touch receptors
 Melanocytes: melanin systhesis
 Infl...
Organization of the Oral Mucosa
3 types according to function:
Masticatory Mucosa:25% of total mucosa.
Lining Mucosa:60%...
Lining mucosa
Covers the floor of mouth, ventral (underside)
tongue, alveolar mucosa, cheeks, lips and soft
palate.
Lip
Li...
Vermilion border
Junction between the skin and mucous membrane
of the lip
Floor of the mouth
Loosely attached to the underlying structures
Submucosa – adipose tissue
Ventral surface of the tongue
The mucous membrane is tightly bound to the
muscle bundles of the tongue smooth and relative...
Cheek
Submucosa contains fat cells and small mixed
salivary glands
Mucosa of the Tongue - Specialised
mucosa
Anatomical division
It is divided into two parts by a V-shaped groove
known as s...
The different papillae found on the dorsal surface of
the tongue are:
1. Filliform papillae
2. Fungiform papillae
3. Circu...
1. Filliform papillae
Pointed extensions of the
keratinized epithelial cells
Most numerous papillae of the
tongue
Not asso...
2. Fungiform papillae
Fewer than the filliform papillae and are scattered
over the dorsal surface of the tongue
Rounded el...
3. Circumvallate papillae
Located at the junction of the anterior two thirds (body)
and posterior one thirds (base) of the...
4. Foliate papillae
Located in the furrows along the posterior sides of
the tongue
Lined with taste buds
Not prominent in ...
Taste Buds
They are small ovoid barrel shaped organs
40 micron thick and 80 micron high
Their outer surface is covered ...
Areolar mucosa
The areolar mucosa is a reddish-pink
tissue with blue vascular areas.
The epithelium is extremely thin no...
Hard Palate
Covered by masticatory mucosa
lateral regions of the posterior part contains
palatine glands
Gingiva
Covers the alveolar process of jaws and
surrounds the cervical portion of teeth.
It develops from the union of o...
Part of the oral mucosa
that surrounds the necks
of the teeth and forms the
free margin of the gingival
tissue
differentia...
Attached gingiva
Between the free gingival groove and the
alveolar mucosa
The junction of the attached gingiva and the
a...
Interdental papilla
Appear in-between teeth apical to the contact
points
Valley like depression in the interdental papil...
Gingival sulcus
Space or potential space between the tooth
surface and the free gingiva.
It is lined with sulcular epith...
Junctional epithelium
Forms the seal of the gingival epithelium and the
tooth
Floor of the gingival sulcus and extends a...
Sulcular epithelium
It is nonkeratinized.
No rete pegs in sulcular epithelium.
Sulcular epithelium is continuous With ging...
Gingiva contains dense fibers of
collagen:
Dentogingival : extends from the
cervical cementum into the lamina
propria of ...
Dentoperiosteal: fibers
can be followed from the
cementum into periosteum
of the alveolar crest & of
the buccal & palatal...
Biologic Width
Biologic width
The dimension of space that the healthy gingival
tissues occupy above the alveolar bone is the
biologic wid...
Passive Eruption
Effect Of Aging On The Oral
Mucosa
 Epithelial thinning
 Decreased keratinization
 Less prominent rete pegs
 Decreased...
Prosthetic considerations
Behaviour of oral mucosa under
stress
Under compression behaves in a viscoelastic fashion.
Loaded epithelium demonstrates ...
Tissue response
A. Recently made dentures:
Inflammation .
Soft tissue distortion.
Impingement of gingival margin.
Accu...
Soft tissue changes in oral mucosa
due to prostheses
soft tissue hyperplasia
fibrous hyperplasia.
epulis fissurata.
pa...
Soft tissue hyperplasia
Rolls of hyperplastic tissues under denture
base
Due to bone resorption, with lesion filling the...
Papillary hyperplasia
 Granular type of inflammation
seen in palatal region.
Numerous papillary projections
give a wart...
Epulis Fissuratum
It is a pathologic condition that
appears in the mouth as an
overgrowth of fibrous connective
tissue.
...
Denture stomatitis
Chronic inflammation
Ill fitting denture.
Nocturnal denture wearing.
Hypersensitivity.
Poor oral h...
Candidiasis
 Debilitated patients.
Systemic disease such as
diabetes.
Unhygienic conditions.
- Discard the existing
den...
Angular chelitis
SIGNS
Bilateral lesion that develops at the angle of
the lips.
Deep fissure or crack may be seen.
Appe...
Denture bearing area
Points to be considered while fabrication of
denture:
 Selective placement of forces by denture
base...
Selective placement of force can be achieved by
employing different impression techniques
depending on the patients oral c...
Crest of the residual ridge
(maxillary)
Firmly attached to the bone.
Keratinized epithelium.
Dense collagen fibers .
...
Palatine rugae
 Irregularly shaped rolls of soft
tissue in the anterior part of
hard palate.
 Clinical considerations
 ...
Mucous membrane of hamular notch
Space between the posterior part of
the maxillary tuberosity & pterygoid
hamulus.
It is...
Buccal shelf area
Partially keratinized.
Loosely attached.
Bone – compact bone.
Clinical implication
Impression should...
Slope of the residual ridge
(mandibular)
Keratinized epithelium .
When the soft tissue is
movable in the crest of the
ri...
F.P.D & oral mucosa
Sub gingival finish
 esthetics.
 old restoration extending into the
intracrevicular space.
 Insuffi...
Esthetics & oral mucosa
Case of Altered passive eruption(APE)
Implants and Biological width
It has been found that the biological
width need not be a vertical
dimension but can have a ...
CONCLUSION
References

Ten Cate A R, Oral histology development,structure
and function, 5th edition, India, Mosby, 1999, pp 345-
38...
Histology of oral mucous membrane and gingiva
Histology of oral mucous membrane and gingiva
Histology of oral mucous membrane and gingiva
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Histology of oral mucous membrane and gingiva

  1. 1. HISTOLOGY OF ORAL MUCOUS MEMBRANE AND GINGIVA Vinay Pavan Kumar .K 1st year MDS AECS Maaruti College of Dental Sciences
  2. 2. HISTOLOGY OF ORAL MUCOUS MEMBRANE AND GINGIVA Definition Functions Classification Structure Organization Histology of gingiva Prosthetic consideration Biological width
  3. 3.  The oral cavity is in many respects a very interesting part of the human body .  Many different kind of tissue from the hardest teeth to the softest, the salivary glands are found therein.  The oral cavity is lined with an uninterrupted mucosa which is continuous with the skin near vermillion border of the lips and with the pharyngeal mucosa in the region of soft palate INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. Functions of oral mucosa Protection : Barrier for mechanical trauma and microbiological insults Sensation : Temperature (heat and cold), touch, pain, Reflexes such as swallowing, gagging and salivation Absorption : Nitrates are absorbed sublingually
  5. 5. Secretion: Salivary secretion creates a moist oral cavity helps in speech, swallowing, mastication and in the perception of taste. Thermal regulation: Important in dogs not in humans Excretion: excretion of certain metabolites Esthetics : Lips and gingiva enhance facial esthetics
  6. 6. Classification of oral mucosa Based upon primary function served 1. Masticatory Mucosa (25%) 2. Lining Mucosa (Covers 60% of total area) 3. Specialised Mucosa (15%) Based upon keratinisation 1. Keratinised Orthokeratinized Parakeratinized 2. Non-keratinised.
  7. 7. Based upon Location 1. Buccal Mucosa. 2. Lingual Mucosa. 3. Palatal Mucosa. 4. Labial Mucosa. 5. Alveolar Mucosa. 
  8. 8. Structure of Oral Mucosa Epithelium Lamina Propria. Submucosa
  9. 9. Epithelium Epithelium of the oral mucosa is stratified squamous epithelium. It may be 1.Keratinized 2.Non keratinized Keratinized layer  ortho keratinized  Para keratinized
  10. 10. Oral epithelium Consists of two populations of cells: Progenitor population Maturing population Progenitor cells function is to divide and provide new cells Maturing cells continually undergo a process of differentiation or maturation to form a protective layer
  11. 11. Amplifying CellsStem cells Progenitor Cells • Slow dividing • Maintain basal cell layer • Rapidly dividing • Form other cell layers.
  12. 12. Turn over time Skin : 52 – 75 days Gut : 4 – 14 days Gingiva : 41 – 57 days Cheek : 25 days Junctional Epithelium : 5 - 6 days The time taken for a proginetor cell to pass through the entire epithelial thickness and reach the surface
  13. 13. Keratinized oral mucous membrane
  14. 14. Keratinised Epithelium (light microscopy)
  15. 15. Keratinised Epithelium (Electron Microscopy)
  16. 16. Basal layer made of cell that synthesize DNA & undergo mitosis. Stratum Basale Basal cells show ribosomes & elements of rough endoplasmic reticulum indicative of protein synthesizing activity.
  17. 17.  Structureless zone seen under light microscope is basement membrane.  1 – 4 microns wide.  Under electron microscope, Basal lamina  lamina lucida – light zone  lamina densa – dark zone
  18. 18. Basal cells are attached to basal lamina by hemidesmosomes. Epithelial cell-cell contact is made through desmosomes - macula adherens. These are anchored intracellularly by tonofibrils.
  19. 19. i) Serrated- heavily packed with tonofilaments which are adaptations for attachment. ii) Non-serrated – stem cells – slowly dividing cells which serve to protect genetic information of the tissue.
  20. 20. Stratum spinosum or prickle cell layer: It is a layer of relatively large irregular polyhedral cells. Show first sign of maturation. Nuclei stains less intense the intercellular spaces of the prickle layer are large and distended, with more prominent desmosomes
  21. 21. Stratum granulosum  Flatter & wider & nuclei show signs of degeneration & pyknosis.
  22. 22. Active in protein synthesis.  Involucrin - soluble precursor protein of the cornified envelope appears first in the spinosum. Protein synthesis rate progressively gets diminished as cell approaches stratum corneum. In the upper part cells of stratum granulosum, shows granules called ODLAND BODIES.
  23. 23. Keratinosome or odland bodies or membrane containing granules Modified lysosomes 0.25µm in length. Rich in phospholipids. Structure - layers of parallel lamellae, probably originating from golgi apparatus. Lamellar granules discharge their contents - permeability barrier.
  24. 24. Stratum corneum Made up of keratinised squamae, which are larger & flatter than the granular cells. Nuclei & other organelles disappear.
  25. 25.  Cell surfaces in this layer are more regular & more closely adapted to adjacent cell surfaces.  The filaggrin a non fibrous inter-filamentous matrix protien helps in this close adaptation.
  26. 26. Types of keratinized epithelium Parakeratinized Epithelium :The superficial cells are dead but retain the nucleus Orthokeratinized Epithelium : The nuclei are lost in epithelium
  27. 27. Non – keratinized epithelium Nonkeratinized epithelial cells in the superfacial layers do not have keratin filaments in the cytoplasm The surface cells also have nuclei This epithelium is associated with lining of the oral cavity
  28. 28. Difference Keratinized Layers - basal, spinosum, granular, cornified layer. Produce a cornified surface layer. Prickly appearance. Nonkeratinized Layers-basal,intermediate, surface layer. Do not produce a cornified surface layer. Intercellular spaces not obvious-no prickly appearance.
  29. 29. No nuclei-orthokeratinised Pyknotic nuclei- parakeratinised Filaggrin present. Numerous tonofilaments,keratohyaline granules present. Lack filaggrin,but contain involucrin. Less developed and dispersed tonofilments,lack keratohyaline granules. Stratum superficiale contains nucleated cells
  30. 30. Lamina Propria Two Layers  Papillary layer Close to epithelial ridges. Arranged loosely.  Reticular layer Parallel to epithelium. Fibers are very thick. Consists of cells , blood vessels, neural elements & fibers embedded in amorphous ground substance.
  31. 31. Cells found in lamina propria Fibroblast Histiocytes Macrophages  Mast cell  Polymorph nuclear leucocytes Lymphocytes Plasma cells Endothelial cells
  32. 32. Submucosa It attaches the mucous membrane to the underlying structures – muscle or bone  loose or a firm attachment and consists of glands, blood vessels, nerves, & adipose tissues. connective tissue of various thickness
  33. 33. Nonkeratinocytes Langerhan’s cells:Dendritic cells. Merkel cell: touch receptors  Melanocytes: melanin systhesis  Inflammatory cells
  34. 34. Organization of the Oral Mucosa 3 types according to function: Masticatory Mucosa:25% of total mucosa. Lining Mucosa:60% of total mucosa Specialized Mucosa:15% of total mucosa.
  35. 35. Lining mucosa Covers the floor of mouth, ventral (underside) tongue, alveolar mucosa, cheeks, lips and soft palate. Lip Lip is covered by lining mucosa
  36. 36. Vermilion border Junction between the skin and mucous membrane of the lip
  37. 37. Floor of the mouth Loosely attached to the underlying structures Submucosa – adipose tissue
  38. 38. Ventral surface of the tongue The mucous membrane is tightly bound to the muscle bundles of the tongue smooth and relatively thin
  39. 39. Cheek Submucosa contains fat cells and small mixed salivary glands
  40. 40. Mucosa of the Tongue - Specialised mucosa Anatomical division It is divided into two parts by a V-shaped groove known as sulcus terminalis. Anterior 2/3rd or papillary portion or body of the tongue contains lingual papillae. Posterior 1/3rd is lymphatic portion or base of the tongue contains lingual tonsil.
  41. 41. The different papillae found on the dorsal surface of the tongue are: 1. Filliform papillae 2. Fungiform papillae 3. Circumvallate papillae 4. Foliate papillae
  42. 42. 1. Filliform papillae Pointed extensions of the keratinized epithelial cells Most numerous papillae of the tongue Not associated with taste buds Scanning electron micrograph of Filliform papillae(arrow)
  43. 43. 2. Fungiform papillae Fewer than the filliform papillae and are scattered over the dorsal surface of the tongue Rounded elevations above the surface of the tongue Have taste buds on their superior surfaces Not keratinized
  44. 44. 3. Circumvallate papillae Located at the junction of the anterior two thirds (body) and posterior one thirds (base) of the tongue There are eight to twelve in number Lined with taste buds and also openings of serous glands The secretion from the serous glands washes away food for renewal of taste
  45. 45. 4. Foliate papillae Located in the furrows along the posterior sides of the tongue Lined with taste buds Not prominent in human beings
  46. 46. Taste Buds They are small ovoid barrel shaped organs 40 micron thick and 80 micron high Their outer surface is covered by flat cells which surround a small opening called the Taste Pore
  47. 47. Areolar mucosa The areolar mucosa is a reddish-pink tissue with blue vascular areas. The epithelium is extremely thin non- keratinized mucosa with a lamina propria
  48. 48. Hard Palate Covered by masticatory mucosa lateral regions of the posterior part contains palatine glands
  49. 49. Gingiva Covers the alveolar process of jaws and surrounds the cervical portion of teeth. It develops from the union of oral epithelium and reduced enamel epithelium Gingiva can be classified as Free gingiva, Attached gingiva and Interdental papilla
  50. 50. Part of the oral mucosa that surrounds the necks of the teeth and forms the free margin of the gingival tissue differentiated apically by the free gingival groove Free gingiva (marginal gingiva)
  51. 51. Attached gingiva Between the free gingival groove and the alveolar mucosa The junction of the attached gingiva and the alveolar mucosa is called mucogingival junction  In healthy mouth attached gingiva shows stippling
  52. 52. Interdental papilla Appear in-between teeth apical to the contact points Valley like depression in the interdental papilla called Col.
  53. 53. Gingival sulcus Space or potential space between the tooth surface and the free gingiva. It is lined with sulcular epithelium  Extends from free gingival margin to the junctional epithelium.
  54. 54. Junctional epithelium Forms the seal of the gingival epithelium and the tooth Floor of the gingival sulcus and extends apically to the enamel of the tooth Disturbances of epithelial attachment results in deepening of the sulcus which is a sign of gingival/periodontal disease
  55. 55. Sulcular epithelium It is nonkeratinized. No rete pegs in sulcular epithelium. Sulcular epithelium is continuous With gingival epithelium & the attachment epithelium
  56. 56. Gingiva contains dense fibers of collagen: Dentogingival : extends from the cervical cementum into the lamina propria of the gingiva. Circular: small group of fibers that circle the tooth & interlace with other fibers.
  57. 57. Dentoperiosteal: fibers can be followed from the cementum into periosteum of the alveolar crest & of the buccal & palatal or lingual surface of the alveolar bone. Alveologingival: fibers arise from the alveolar crest & extends into lamina propria.
  58. 58. Biologic Width
  59. 59. Biologic width The dimension of space that the healthy gingival tissues occupy above the alveolar bone is the biologic width. Connective Tissue attachment + junctional epithelium constitutes Biologic width 1.07mm +0.97mm= 2.04 mm Any restoration should be atleast 3mm above the alveolar crest to prevent the violation of the biologic width.
  60. 60. Passive Eruption
  61. 61. Effect Of Aging On The Oral Mucosa  Epithelial thinning  Decreased keratinization  Less prominent rete pegs  Decreased cellular proliferation  Loss of submucosal elastin and fat  Increased fibrotic connective tissue with degenerative alteration in the collagen.
  62. 62. Prosthetic considerations
  63. 63. Behaviour of oral mucosa under stress Under compression behaves in a viscoelastic fashion. Loaded epithelium demonstrates decrease in the depth of epithelial ridges & connective tissue papillae Care to be taken during impression procedures by applying minimal pressures.
  64. 64. Tissue response A. Recently made dentures: Inflammation . Soft tissue distortion. Impingement of gingival margin. Accumulation of dental plaque. B. Dentures in use for > 1 year Hyperkeratosis. Scarring of tissue in border area. Gross tissue distortion.
  65. 65. Soft tissue changes in oral mucosa due to prostheses soft tissue hyperplasia fibrous hyperplasia. epulis fissurata. papillary hyperplasia. inflammatory process under denture bases denture stomatitis. Candidiasis. ulcerative lesions angular chelitis.
  66. 66. Soft tissue hyperplasia Rolls of hyperplastic tissues under denture base Due to bone resorption, with lesion filling the space under denture base. Develops slowly, painless.  Surgical removal. New dentures.
  67. 67. Papillary hyperplasia  Granular type of inflammation seen in palatal region. Numerous papillary projections give a warty appearance. They show precancerous tendencies.  Discontinue denture wearing.  Surgery.  New dentures
  68. 68. Epulis Fissuratum It is a pathologic condition that appears in the mouth as an overgrowth of fibrous connective tissue. Also known as inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, denture epulis and denture induced fibrous hyperplasia. It is mainly caused due to ill fitting dentures
  69. 69. Denture stomatitis Chronic inflammation Ill fitting denture. Nocturnal denture wearing. Hypersensitivity. Poor oral hygiene. Infections –Candida albicans.
  70. 70. Candidiasis  Debilitated patients. Systemic disease such as diabetes. Unhygienic conditions. - Discard the existing denture. - Anti fungal therapy - New dentures.
  71. 71. Angular chelitis SIGNS Bilateral lesion that develops at the angle of the lips. Deep fissure or crack may be seen. Appear ulcerated. Exudatve crust may be present. Anti fungal therapy.
  72. 72. Denture bearing area Points to be considered while fabrication of denture:  Selective placement of forces by denture base on supporting tissues.  Form and placement of denture borders to accommodate normal function.
  73. 73. Selective placement of force can be achieved by employing different impression techniques depending on the patients oral condition Minimal pressure technique/Mucostatic technique . Selective pressure technique. Pressure / Muco-compressive technique.
  74. 74. Crest of the residual ridge (maxillary) Firmly attached to the bone. Keratinized epithelium. Dense collagen fibers . Sub mucosa – fat or glandular cells. Primary support for denture.
  75. 75. Palatine rugae  Irregularly shaped rolls of soft tissue in the anterior part of hard palate.  Clinical considerations  Secondary stress bearing area.  Resists forward movement of denture.  Tissue rebound phenomenon.  Maxillary major connector should end into depressions between the rugae.
  76. 76. Mucous membrane of hamular notch Space between the posterior part of the maxillary tuberosity & pterygoid hamulus. It is thick and made of loose areolar tissue.  Marks the distal end of denture.
  77. 77. Buccal shelf area Partially keratinized. Loosely attached. Bone – compact bone. Clinical implication Impression should cover the entire available area.
  78. 78. Slope of the residual ridge (mandibular) Keratinized epithelium . When the soft tissue is movable in the crest of the ridge ,impression should be recorded in its resting position.
  79. 79. F.P.D & oral mucosa Sub gingival finish  esthetics.  old restoration extending into the intracrevicular space.  Insufficient vertical length or height Margins should be smooth with proper fit.
  80. 80. Esthetics & oral mucosa Case of Altered passive eruption(APE)
  81. 81. Implants and Biological width It has been found that the biological width need not be a vertical dimension but can have a horizontal component. Platform switching provides this horizontal distance and so preserves the crestal bone.
  82. 82. CONCLUSION
  83. 83. References  Ten Cate A R, Oral histology development,structure and function, 5th edition, India, Mosby, 1999, pp 345- 385. Kumar G S, Orban’s oral histology and embryology, 12th edition,India, Elsevier,2006, pp 210-257 Zarb G.A, Bolender C L, Prosthodontic treatment for edentulous patients, 12th edition, India, Elsevier, 2004, pp 84-86, 211-223,233-241 Avery J K, Oral development and histology, 3rd edition, New York, Thieme, 2002, pp 243-252.
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