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FRBR, FRAD and RDA I don't speak cataloging why should I care


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  • 1. FRBR, FRAD and RDA : I don’t speak cataloging, why should I care? Presented by Deann Trebbe Technical Services Librarian Grand Canyon University Library at the Arizona Library Association Annual Conference 30 November, 2011 Tucson, Arizona 1Disclaimer: I am not an expert on this subject – far from it – but I am what I would call a next-gen old-school cataloger. Old school because I was trained in the traditional methods, next-genbecause I was then thrust into the world of electronic documents. I attended LibrarySchool at The Catholic University of America in the late 80’s, early 90’s so my catalogingeducation began as I straddled the gap between the card catalogs of old and the OPACs ofthe next generation. I did an internship at the Library of Congress where for 8 hours aweek I would sit in front of a monochrome computer monitor entering MARC recordsfrom a stack of catalog cards.As the Library of Congress goes – so go I, as a cataloger – and so with the nationallibraries decision to implement RDA no sooner than Jan. 2013, I began the seeking theinformation I would need to make the jump at the same time. Here is a compilation ofwhat I have been able to glean so far….
  • 2. What does it all mean? 2True confessions – I am a recovering United States Marine Musician. Truth be known –I’m not really in recovery at all, I still think like a Marine, act like a Marine and talk like aMarine. And Marines – much like librarians – tend to speak in acronyms. Occasionally atour library staff meetings hilarity occurs (in my mind anyway) when the reference andcurriculum librarians use acronyms that are common knowledge to our library. Forexample, when the curriculum librarian mentions AWS the rest of the staff translate that toAcademic Web Services in their minds. Having spent the bulk of my formative adult yearsin the Marine Corps, I hear Amphibious Warfare School. On the other hand when I startmentioning acronyms like FRBR or RDA I generally get blank stares in return. So Ithought we should start off this morning by exploring some of the acronyms and what theymean before we launch into the discussion of why this is important to start thinking abouthow the library and it’s users will be affected by them.
  • 3. FRBR = Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records FRAD = Functional Requirements for Authority Records RDA = Resource Description and Access … and lurking around the corner 3Let’s start with some definitions and then we will explore a bit more in-depth.FRBR = Functional Requirements for Bibliographic RecordsFRAD = Functional Requirements for Authority RecordsRDA = Resource Description and Access… and lurking around the corner
  • 4. FRSAR! FunctionalRequirements for Subject Authority Records 4
  • 5. What FRBR is not: A set of rules An international standard A system design for online catalogs 5Let’s start with FRBR and what it isn’t:It is not a set of rulesIt is not an international standardIt is not a system design for online catalogsIt can not be implemented because it is conceptual, it doesn’t cover every possible way thatsomething might appear. It says most of the time it looks like this.(Taylor 2007, 4)
  • 6. What FRBR is …. A conceptual model – based on the entity-attribute- relationship model of analysis Entity = Thing (key object of interest to the user) Attribute = Characteristic RELATIONSHIP = Interaction 6What FRBR is: It is what it is ….So, what is FRBR?FRBR is a conceptual model for the bibliographic universe. The bibliographic what?....The International Cataloging Principles glossary defines Bibliographic universe as “Therealm related to the collections of libraries, archives, museums, and other informationcommunities. *OK – so what does that mean – sounds kind of Star War-ish.*(Source: IFLA Meetings of Experts on an International Cataloguing Code [i.e. thecollective meetings from 2003-2007])”FRBR is an evolving conceptual model describing the bibliographic universe that weorganize and control through cataloging codes. It is designed to help users easily navigatecatalogs and find the material they want, in the form they want it. In addition to the thingslibraries and other institutions might collect. It also includes all people, corporate bodiesor families that might interact with those collections in any way. Including, but notexclusively, authors, owners, producers, etc. It is intended to connect everyone toeverything. It also includes all concepts that might be needed to describe these entities.
  • 7. Late 1980’s many in the cataloging world … recognized that fundamental changes werehappening in the environment that might require a rethinking of the way we conceive ofand organize information.A 1990 conference in Stockholm, sponsored by the International Federation of LibraryAssociations and Institutions, better known as IFLA, commissioned a study of thefunctions of bibliographic records. The agreed upon core components were to be basednot on the convenience of the cataloger – or on perceived pressure to reduce costs, but onthe needs of users of the records. (Maxwell, 2008, p.2-3)The result is the FRBR model.[FRBR] … will go a long way toward helping untangle the explosion of information that ischaracteristic of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. (Maxwell, 2008)FRBR considers that each work has a unique entry point and from that you can thendescribe that work in its various formats through their relationships and attributes. FRBRand FRAD both are big on relationshipsSome FRBR terms you need to knowEntity = Thing (key objects of interest to user’s of databases)Attibute = characteristicrelationship = interactionEither entities or relationships can have attributesFRBR describes user tasks that serve as criteria to determine which attributes andrelationships are important in bibliographic description
  • 8. FRBR Entities Group 1 = AACR2 Bibliographic Description WEMI •Work •Expression •Manifestation •Item Group 2 = AACR2 Access points Person and or corporate body Group 3 = AACR2 Subjects •Concept •Object •Event •Place … In other words: Title, author, subject 8 The first group comprises the products of intellectual or artistic endeavour that are named or described in bib records: work, expression, manifestation, and item. The second group comprises those entities responsible for the intellectual or artistic content, the physical production and dissemination, or the custodianship of such products: person and corporate body. The third group comprises an additional set of entities that serve as the subjects of intellectual or artistic endeavour: concept, object, event, and place.(LeGrow, 2010, Taylor 2007, 4-8) J. Bowen writes in FRBR: Coming soon to your Library in the July 2005 issue of LibraryResources and Technical services “Most FRBR entities and attributes are already presentin library catalog records, and the influence of FRBR can also be seen in existing libraryactivities. FRBR is thus not something totally foreign, but a fresh, more rigorous way ofthinking about what libraries already do that provides a basis for designing new ways toimprove users access to library resources.” Bowen, J. FRBR: Coming Soon to Your Library?. Library Resources & Technical Services v. 49 no. 3(July 2005) p. 175-88
  • 9. 9This slide shows the relationships of the Group 1 entities to each other.
  • 10. Oliver, 2011 10Here are some examples of the links between entities.
  • 11. FRBR maps the attributes and relationships to user tasks -- find entities that correspond to the user’s stated search criteria -- identify an entity -- select an entity that is appropriate to the user’s needs -- acquire or obtain access to the entity described FRBR Users -- End users of information retrieval systems -- Information workers assisting users -- Information workers maintaining databases (Taylor 2007, 15)11FRBR is all about the user and is based around 4 user tasks-- find entities that correspond to the user’s stated search criteria -- identify an entity -- select an entity that is appropriate to the user’s needs -- acquire or obtain access to the entity describedFRBR Users-- End users of information retrieval systems-- Information workers assisting users-- Information workers maintaining databases
  • 12. Oliver, 2011 12Let’s put it all together now. From the user’s standpoint.
  • 13. Oliver, 2011 13From the library staff’s standpoint.
  • 14. FRBR example 14RDA is on the way! (Le Grow)The FRBR model can be used to present options tousers in a more clear and user-friendly manner. Would it not be easier to see one basic overview record for “Jane Eyre” and choices forversions and availability rather than a long list of records of different editions of Jane Eyrewith not much information on the initial hit list page to differentiate them? U.S. edition (Random House) British edition (Hodder & Stoughton)These are manifestations of the regular print expression Large print editon (Thorndike Press) Large print editon (Chivers Press)These are manifestations of the large print expression Book on CD (Macmillan Audio) Book on CD (Blackstone Audiobooks)These are manifestations of the sound recording expression
  • 15. 15Here is an example of what this might look like in an online catalog. VTLS’s Virtuasystem
  • 16. What is FRAD? Functional Requirements for Authority Data Like FRBR it is a conceptual Model ◦ Provide a clearly defined structured frame of reference for relating the data that are recorded in authority records to the needs of the users of those records ◦ Assist in an assessment of the potential for international sharing and use of authority data both within the library sector and beyond ◦ Framework for Group 2 entities in FRBR FRBR defines person as “An individual, presumably human, living or dead. 16Functional Requirements for Authority DataLike FRBR it is a conceptual ModelFRAD’s purpose is to(1) Provide a clearly defined structured frame of reference for relating the data that arerecorded in authority records to the needs of the users of those records(2) Assist in an assessment of the potential for international sharing and use of authoritydata both within the library sector and beyondLike FRBR, FRAD models describe the relationships and connections in our bibliographicuniverse that inturn can be used to design systems that will enable users to navigate through this universeto things they need or may like to know about.FRAD is the framework for Group 2 entities in FRBR.
  • 17. RDA: Describe an entity associated with a resource (a person, family, corporate body, concept, etc.) find identify clarify understand Based on the user tasks defined in IFLA Working Group on Functional Requirements and Numbering of Authority Records (FRANAR), Functional Requirements for Authority Data: A Conceptual Model (RDA Toolkit, Introduction) 17The data created using FRAD to describe an entity associated with a resource (a person,family, corporate body, concept, etc.) are designed to assist users performing the followingtasks: *find—i.e., to find information on that entity and on resources associated with the entityidentify—i.e., to confirm that the entity described corresponds to the entity sought, or todistinguish between two or more entities with similar names, etc.clarify—i.e., to clarify the relationship between two or more such entities, or to clarify therelationship between the entity described and a name by which that entity is knownunderstand—i.e., to understand why a particular name or title, or form of name or title, hasbeen chosen as the preferred name or title for the entity.
  • 18. FRAD: Designed for 2 groups of users: 1. Authority record creators who create and maintain authority files 2. End-users who interact with authority data, directly or indirectly through controlled access points in bibliographic records ◦ Find ◦ Indentify ◦ Contextualize ◦ Justify (Patten, 2007, p. 22) 18Like FRBR, the FRAD model also defines user tasks and maps the entities, attributes andrelationships to those user tasks. The IFLA working group has defined two groups ofusers:(1) Authority record creators who create and maintain authority files (Catalogers!)(2) Users who use authority information either through direct access to authority files orindirectly through the controlled access points(authorized forms references, etc.) incatalogs, national bibliographies, other similar databases, etc. (Everybody else!)
  • 19. What makes FRAD better than what we already have? A short history borrowed from Ed Jones… 19What makes FRAD better than what we already have? (From the – if it ain’t broke, don’tfix it camp)A short history borrowed from Ed Jones…Yes – that is his real name
  • 20. Authority records in a card catalog The system guided the user to the resource The system anticipated the user’s missteps The user couldn’t make a typo The user got exercise The system was carbon-neutral Jones, Ed. FRAD : A Personal View, ALA Annaheim, 2008) 20There were some real benefits to the card catalog.[read slide]On the other hand, while users didn’t have to know the cataloging rules, they did need toknow the filing rules—there was no keyword searchingHow has the card catalog worked online?
  • 21. Online, the card catalog doesn’t work so well Jones, Ed. FRAD : A Personal View, ALA Annaheim, 2008) 21Umm…This is the result of the same search strategy onlineActually, I’ve given the user the benefit of several doubts here: He didn’t look under“Department” and he somehow avoided making a typoThe problem is he looked under the full heading in English, and the system assumed hewould look only under the first element—the name of the university—like in a cardcatalogSo he’s plopped down in limboWe’ve developed some work-arounds in our OPACs, but I wanted to show that ourauthority records are still optimized for the card catalog
  • 22. Bibliographic entities, names, and controlled access points Džo Šmo (person) ◦ Džo Šmo (name) Šmo, Džo (controlled access point) Džo Šmo (controlled access point) ◦ Josef Schmo (name) Schmo, Josef (controlled access point) Josef Schmo (controlled access point) ◦ Joseph “Jojo” Chmeau (name) Chmeau, Joseph (controlled access point) Chmeau, Jojo (controlled access point) Joseph “Jojo” Chmeau (controlled access point) Jones, Ed. FRAD : A Personal View, ALA Annaheim, 2008) 22Ed used this slide to jump into his next section (he goes into undifferentiated names next –let’s not go there) – I threw it up on the screen because I found it amusing – but it doesserve a point – it shows the FRAD structure. Unless of course you would rather I explainit this way (next slide)We’re used to just seeing the controlled access pointsHere is the person Joe SchmoeAnd here are 3 namesThere’s the one in whatever language and script he wrote in, and there are the two used onthe German and French translations. According to Ed, in France, he was very popular andaffectionately known as “Jojo”
  • 23. I’m going to ignore this – it’s scary … Jones, Ed. FRAD : A Personal View, ALA 23 Annaheim, 2008)This is from a really nasty section called “Authority Records in the Library Sector” of theFRAD manualI’m going to ignore this – it’s scary(Back up one slide)
  • 24. Conclusion As the FRBR conceptual model has encouraged us to look at bibliographic records in new ways, so the FRAD model encourages us to look at authority data in new ways Like libraries, these conceptual models are growing organisms Jones, Ed. FRAD : A Personal View, ALA Annaheim, 2008) 24Don’t get excited – this is only the conclusion for FRAD. Ed says: This is my conclusion,because people expect conclusions. I agree with Ed.
  • 25. RDA Where is my RDA suit? Why do you need it?! (With apologies to Frozone) 25Where is my RDA suit?Why do you need it?!Why do we need a new standard? For that matter do we need standards? Ask any of ourstudents and they will tell you that you can find anything you want through Google.Google is in effect a great big online Union catalog – do we want them setting thestandard? I don’t think so. Here is my take on cataloging standards and why we needthem – and yes – there will be a defense of catalogers included. As a matter of fact – let’sstart there.
  • 26. Jesse Sheras Two Laws of Cataloguing: Law #1 No cataloguer will accept the work of any other cataloguer. Law #2 No cataloguer will accept his/her own work six months after the cataloguing. University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library Science. Dec. 1977. LeGrow, RDA is on the Way 26I laughed out loud when I first saw this slide – but as I was working out this presentation itoccurred to me that there is a lot of truth in both statements – but there is a reason as well.The information world is spinning at a tremendous rate and along with it the standards arechanging at a tremendous rate of speed just trying to keep up.In the next sequence of slides I will attempt to illustrate for you what this has translated toin my mind as I have labored to draw all of this together in a coherent fashion. It’s allrelated.
  • 27. This is a cataloger’s brain …. 27This is a catalogers brain – slighty cracked – but sunny and fresh
  • 28. This is a cataloger’s brain on AACR2 28This is a cataloger’s brain on AACR2Flat file structure – a tad crusty around the edges
  • 29. This is a cataloger’s brain on RDA 29This is a cataloger’s brain on RDA – scrambled, but if you look hard enough there is apattern to it – and note how the egg white and the yolk have melded into a tasy morsal, andhow the pepper adds definition, making it more palatable to the user – it’s all aboutrelationships!
  • 30. Jesse Sheras Two Laws of Cataloguing: Law #1 No cataloguer will accept the work of any other cataloguer. Law #2 No cataloguer will accept his/her own work six months after the cataloguing. University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library Science. Dec. 1977. LeGrow, RDA is on the Way 30According to Richard Murray in an article titled “The Whimsy of Cataloging” - Thestereotype of the cataloger is, for many, the hermit hiding in the bowels of the libraryshackled to an OCLC terminal all day, counting pages of plates and measuring the heightsof books. On the rare occasion he or she is let out of the dungeon, it’s to be the one atmeetings who speaks in unintelligible MARC-ese about “non-filing characters” and“second indicator blank” and “space colon space.” The cataloger’s role in the library is toenforce rules that nobody understands and to make things as difficult as possible foreveryone involved. Right?I confess, I do nothing to try to belay that stereotype (it’s fun to mess with the referencelibrarian’s minds).Feb 2002, LIScareer.comCareer Strategies for Librarians
  • 31. Library Journal, October 15, 2002 MARC Must Die By Roy Tennant, Manager, eScholarship Web & Services Design, California Digital Library. 31When MARC was created, the Beatles were a hot new group and those of us alive at thetime wore really embarrassing clothes and hairstyles. Computers were so large, complex,and expensive that it was ludicrous to think that you would one day have one in yourhome, let alone hold one in the palm of your hand. Although age by itself is not necessarilya sign of technological obsolescence (how much has the wooden pencil improved in thelast 40 years?), when it comes to computer standards it is generally not a good thing.The very nature of the MARC (machine-readable cataloging) record is, to some degree, ananachronism. It was developed in an age when memory, storage, and processing powerwere all rare and expensive commodities. Now they are ubiquitous and cheap.Kelley is a bit more respectful of MARC and less likely to have Henrietta Avram twirlingin her grave. She says MARC was a brilliant, visionary solution in its day, but it wasconceived in different times when the limits of what technology could do were much moreconfining. MARC was designed for an environment where data storage was very, veryexpensive and data was read linearly from tapes.
  • 32. There ‘s No Catalog Like No Catalog – LITA ALA Annual 2008 The library catalog is the greatest repository of the most “anal retentive, obsessive- compulsive” activity” … ever seen. Anal-retentive, obsessive-compulsive is good for airplane mechanics, carpenters, lawyers, and doctors – but catalogers? Why do cataloger’s have these standards? to save our libraries and our users time and money (Weinheimer 2010, 188-189) 33There are some in the Library world that advocate dumping the catalog altogether. At asession titled – There’s no catalog like no catalog at ALA annual in Anaheim in 2008,One panelist said that the library catalog is the greatest repository of the most “analretentive, obsessive-compulsive” activity” that he has ever seenJames Weinheimer goes on to say that theResponse from audience was embarrassed laughter (although none of the catalogers I wasthere with showed the slightest bit of amusement) but led the author to believe that therewas some sort of general agreement that anal-retentiveness in cataloging was a bad thing.He goes on to make the case that though he sympathizes with the viewpoint, blindadherence to standards is not always such a bad thing, he cites airplane mechanics andhome builders as 2 examples. And continues that while medicine and law are two moreexamples where compliance with standards is a good thing, the same can’t be said ofcatalogers – can it?Legal and health professionals rely on research found through bibliographies and catalogs,and as a result they rely on those who prepare these items to make sure that they are up-to-date and accurate. Errors in information retrieval for a physician or lawyer can put theirclients at risk.
  • 33. Why do catalogers have these standards? Job security? Secret society? – According toWeinheimer (and Barbara Tillet and the JSC) The reason we have these standards is tosave our libraries and our users time and money(Weinheimer 2010, 188-205) Pop quiz: 6 p. L., [17]-274, [1] p. incl. front., illus. 22 cm. 274 p. : ill. ; 22 cm. 274 pages : illustrations ; 22 cm. How many cataloger’s does it take to change a lightbulb? (Weinheimer 2010, 189-190) 34Pop quiz: what does this mean|a 6 p. L., [17]-274, [1] p. |b incl. front., illuse. |c 22 cm.What is the point? This is an example of highly complex pagination and illustration datafrom the physical description field of the MARC record. In the early days of catalogingpeople would include blank pages, the beginnings and endings of pg. Sequences and so on.AACR2 simply cites the final page of each sequence of pages.Weinheimer asks the question – why as a cataloger does he care how the pagination isrecorded and his answer is – he doesn’t care about the minute details of the rules – as longas we are all playing by the same rules. He goes on to point out that when he goes tocatalog a new item – he will check the bibliographic details of existing items in the catalogto make sure he isn’t re-inventing the wheel when he only needs to add a copy to theholdings.
  • 34. Weinheimer’s conclusion: Library cataloging can provide one thing, and one thing alone, that automatic means cannot, at least not yet: and that is quality. Quality means that some kinds of standards are followed, and that someone using a product that follows those standards, … can safely rely on it.” (Weinheimer, 2010, pg. 203) 35Weinheimers conclusion: “When it comes to metadata libraries cannot provide more,faster, or cheaper metadata in comparison to automatic production because computers canprovide such information in quantities and at speeds that humans cannot hope to challenge.Library cataloging can provide one thing, and one thing alone, that automatic meanscannot, at least not yet: and that is quality. Quality means that some kinds of standards arefollowed, and that someone using a product that follows those standards, whatever thatproduct happens to be – traveling safely in an airplane, or eating Chicken that is free ofdisease, or drinking water that is clean -- can safely rely on it.”
  • 35. 36I’m going to pick on my own catalog here – it’s a work in progress – to point out theimportance of reliable description and access in this case authority control – between thisslide and the next it makes it pretty clear that basing the authors name on how it appears inthe text is not good enough.A search on Mark Twain shows that there are 412 records that match that criteria in thekeyword search. Of those 412 records 291 records are for the author Mark Twain. Noneof these records link to Samuel Longhorn Clemons.
  • 36. 37A search on Samuel Clemens brings up 10 records with the Author Mark Twain and 3records under Samuel Clemens. Where did the other 281 records go and why didn’t these3 show up under a search for Mark Twain?Weinheimer further concludes that these traditional library tasks of description and accessmay be accomplished using completely different methods than those we use today.Enter FRBR, FRAD and RDA!
  • 37. If you can find it in a library, thank a cataloger! Cataloging codes describe resources in a predictable consistent way The codes build a database that shows our users the organization that we provide to make it easier to find what they are looking for, and to show them related resources in our collections and beyond. This service to our users is our reason for existence as libraries and builds on a long tradition of organizing information (Tillett, 2007) 38So - If you can find it in a library thank a cataloger!In an article titled "High-tech heretic : why computers dont belong in the classroomand other reflections by a computer contrarian" by Clifford Stoll he says"Computerized search engines are no substitute for a well-cataloged library. Librarycatalogers -- perhaps the least thanked of a seldom thanked profession -- add value toalready valuable information. Like indexers, they classify, categorize. And like indexers,theirs is a job thats perceived as easily automated. It aint so. The cataloger interprets.Looks for meaning. Provides context, cross-references, weaves diverse threads into easilyseached end terms."-- From "High-tech heretic : why computers dont belong in the classroom and otherreflections by a computer contrarian" by Clifford Stoll. Page 191 Doubleday 1999. ISBN 0385489757 Cataloging codes provide instructions to catalogers so they can describe resources in a predictable consistent way The codes build a database that shows our users the organization that we provide to make it easier to find what they are looking for, and to show them related resources in our collections and beyond. This service to our users is our reason for existence as libraries and builds on a long tradition of organizing information
  • 38. The Catalog Then – Emphasis on Books and other printed materials In-between - Microforms, Audio tapes, LP’s video tape, CDs, DVDs, etc. Now - Computer technology Electronic documents Streaming audio & video MP3 & MP4 file formats Future – Who knows …. To infinity … and beyond! 39The Catalog-- development of computer technology and electronic document production presents asignificantly different challenge than libraries had only fifty years ago-- information resources and the libraries that held them still rooted in the era of books andperiodicals-- the card catalog was the entry point to the librarys physical holdings.early cataloging rules, dating back to the catalog of the British Museum in 1841, evolvedprimarily to handle textual, published resources and rules were developed for linearpresentation, either in printed book catalogs or in alphabetically arranged card catalogsHeadings, in alphabetical order, were once the only access points into the catalog.The effect of computers and networks of information resources on the mission of librariesis still being debated, but the very existence of libraries in the future rides on their abilityto respond to todays – and tomorrows – technology.
  • 39. In 2007 Arlene Taylor wrote that she believes that the solution to the lack of order found inour current catalogs, with the effect of making it difficult for users to sort out what isavailable in the way of versions of a work and other resources related to that work =Combination of 3 thingsAccept principles espoused by FRBRConstruct rules for creating cataloging and other metadata based on this model (RDA)Design systems that will display metadata based on this modelHere are some examples of systems based on the FRBR model WorldCat 40* OCLC’s WorldCat – notice the search facets at the side
  • 40. 41VTLS’s Virtua system – This is our catalog from GCU and notice some of our searchfacets – we have had requests from our ground students to be able to search by the physicalform alone.
  • 41. 42VTLS’s Virtua system - here is another view of a VTLS SaaSP* catalog*Software as a Service
  • 42. Ex- Libris 43Ex Libris’s Next Generation ILS
  • 43. National Library of Sweden
  • 44. 45This one is my favorite as a FRBRized example:OLAC’s (Online Audio-visual catalogers) FRBR-inspired prototype audio-visual“discovery interface”
  • 45. 46This slide shows how using FRBR, libraries can inform the users of versions of thatresource on in multiple languages or editions, related resources, works by same creator,same subject, etc.And still provides surrogate to lead users to resources not yet available online, fulfillingthe old role of that catalog as well as the newOLAC’s (Online Audio-visual catalogers) FRBR-inspired prototype audio-visual“discovery interface”
  • 46. The Role of the Library as an extension of the mind Vinod Chachra, Ph.D. US/audio/Library_extension_of_mind.mp3 Also available through: Download Vinod Chachra-The Role of the Library as an Extension of ... 3 technologies that represent a million fold multiplication 1. Communications technology 2. Nuclear energy 3. Computers Computers + communications technology (Chachra, 2006) 47Technological advancements can be measured by the multiplier by which human being becomemore productive through the use of certain objects • Technological advancements which have huge impacts are called revolutions • There where 2 major influences on the Agricultural revolution – 2 factors, • (1) the invention of the plow and • (2) the use of chemical fertilizers (100 fold multiplier) • Industrial revolution - Steam engine (1000 fold multiplier) • There are 3 technologies that represent a million fold multiplication • communications technology – wire, wireless etc • Nuclear energy – don’t yet understand full capabilities • ComputersThe evolution of technologies took a major turn with the creation of the Internet. computers +communications technology = Million multiplication of a million multiplier.Library systems developers have worked hard to create a machine-readable library catalog thatprovided functionality beyond that of the analog card catalog (i.e., MARC), for instance byallowing keyword searching of all data in the catalog record. However, the struggle toaccommodate technological change with data created using the old rules is clearly not optimal,and hinders the ability of libraries to create innovative services.
  • 47. Libraries – designed to remove barriers Spatial barriers Temporal barriers Financial barriers Intellectual barriers New barriers • Discipline independence in a multi disciplinary world • language in a global world • Is literacy necessary in a multi-media world? (Chachra, 2006) 48Libraries – originally designed to remove barriers • Spatial barriers – meeting places • Temporal barriers – don’t need to live during time of author to take advantage of their knowledge • Financial barriers – equality of access • (new rule) Intellectual barriersNew barriers • Discipline independence in a multi disciplinary world – no matter how much we learn about one discipline there will always be some discipline we know nothing about • language in a global world – knowledge not limited to any single language – should not be necessary for us to learn another language in order to cope with the information • Is literacy necessary in a multi-media world – still need a medium of exchange – need to look for solutions and systems that become literacy independent (shouldn’t have to learn exoticlanguage in to have access to information)
  • 48. • Differences between computers and people (John Gale): • People learn through inference • Human memory fades – computers never forget • Human memory is limited – not so for computers • Humans can visualize – computers pretend to visualize • Humans learn through inference and association leveraging what they learn • Computers are deterministic – people are probabilistic (Chachra, 2006) 49Contrast development of computers with people – develop in opposite ways, the opportunity ofcombining the best of these two things.Symbiotic relationship between computers and people. We are more and more dependant.John Gale sums it up this way: • Differences between computers and people (John Gale): • People learn through inference (accessive learning) (which doesn’t happen in computers yet) and association (imbedded in links) • Human memory fades – computers never forget • Human memory is limited – not so for computers (supposedly) • Humans can visualize – computers pretend to visualize (though that is changing … HAL) • Humans learn through inference and association leveraging what they learn – computers are starting to do this but not as quickly • Computers are deterministic – people are probabilistic • Human memory is like Data • Software can be considered an encoding language • In what way is software similar or different from human DNA
  • 49. Systems must interconnect and data must expose itself – need to know the content of repositories or databases before you start using it New System Design Considerations Different languages have different scripts and different encoding schemes Indexing and searching tools (like Google) have been written using the Latin alphabet Tools and Rules are still the answer Create high quality data based on how we want the data to be visualized (Chachra, 2006) ) 50The Challenge is to create computer systems that take the best advantage of capabilities ofHumans and combine them with best capabilities of computers to bring about systemswhich allow computers to become an extension of the human mindSimplify processes so extensive training is not necessary (This is something that VTLS hasbeen working at diligently in their system design)Systems must interconnect and data must expose itself – need to know the content ofrepositories or databases before you start using it- Different languages have different scripts and different encoding schemes - Indexing and searching tools (like Google) have been written using the Latin Alphabet - Creates a problem for non-Latin languages because they don’t work - Employing it for different languages is very difficult
  • 50. - for ex. Thai has no spaces between words – how do you search it? – most search engines depend on word searches – have to create artificial spacesExposing dataHow do we organize the worlds organization and how do we visualize depth and contentof dataGoogle can be described as one big virtual Union Catalog – best model for organizing theworld’s information – not really –why? No standardization – search of FRAD first time on iPhone brought up Fraud. AsVinod pointed out earlier computers do learn – when I was writing this and tried the searchon my work computer I got FRAD, FRBR, FRBR blog (along with a YouTube video of 7minutes of totally inane junvenile commentary called FRAD goes to school, which Ibelieve to be another cry for standards!)Humans don’t want entire dataset – smaller manageable content ( I experienced this to anextent while putting together this presentation – I started out with 515 slides and moreinformation that I haven’t even had time to look at.)One answer to this problem is visualization by segmentation (facets?) exposure – showswhat is in the collection without having to create a complicated search (Chamo – get somescreen shots from our catalog)The answer to the information glot is still Tools and Rules (give user a lot of tools, createsoftware that enforces the rules)Then we the catalogers need to create high quality data based on how we want the data tobe visualized
  • 51. That being said …..Standing still with AACR2 is not an option if libraries are to remain viable. If not AACR then what? 51We’re at a crucial time for the development of new information systems, more global innature, more Internet oriented, that can make cataloging easier and make the results ofcataloging much more flexible and useful to our users. The Challenge is to createcomputer systems that take the best advantage of capabilities of Humans and combinethem with best capabilities of computers to bring about systems which allow computers tobecome an extension of the human mind
  • 52. RDA Resource Description & Access 1Resource Description and Access, is designed to help us transition to the technologicalcapabilities of the Internet, today and into the future by having us identify the entities andrelationships at the element level that machines can use better than they have been able toin the past in our MARC records.RDA was originally named AACR3, but after further thought, in order to achieve many ofits goals the title Anglo-American Cataloging Rules was abandoned and a more globalview was taken, which led to the title Resource Description and AccessFrom the start it was meant to build on the Anglo American cataloging traditions, theconceptual models of FRBR and FRAD and the International Cataloging Principles (Tillet2007, 88) The concepts in RDA are not new concepts – they are simply a new view oftraditional cataloging. A new way of looking at the bibliographic universe, usingvocabulary that we hope system designers and future generation of librarians willunderstand. (Tillett, 2007, 88)
  • 53. What RDA will NOT do… RDA will have NO influence on presently used classification schemes RDA will not change the creation of records at the manifestation level Not a display standard (as is AACR2) ◦ Does have appendix D for ISBD and appendix E for AACR2 style for access points Not an encoding standard ◦ Use whatever schema you prefer (MARC 21, Dublin Core, etc.) 53Let’s start again with what it is not:-- RDA will have NO influence on presently used classification schemes. If your libraryused Dewey yesterday – it will still use Dewey tommorrow. The same for LC, NML orany other classification scheme your library may be using.-- RDA will not change the creation of records at the manifestation level but the structureof the new code will be affected by the FRBR user tasksRDA is not an encoding system or a presentation standard for displays. It is schema-neutral. In other words, it doesn’t tell you how to dress up your data or how your datashould communicate – it simply tells you what data is should be recorded to be effective
  • 54. What are the intended benefits of RDA for libraries and the communities they serve? Rules that are designed to be more flexible and more usable across information communities Rules that are a better fit with emerging technologies, especially sharing data with the publishing community Rules that can support an improved discovery experienceRDA is designed to take advantage of the efficiencies and flexibility in data capture,storage, retrieval, and display made possible with new database technologies, but to becompatible as well with the legacy technologies still used in many resource discoveryapplications.OCLC describes the intended benefitsRules that are designed to be more flexible and more usable across informationcommunitiesRules that are a better fit with emerging technologies, especially sharing data with thepublishing communityRules that can support an improved discovery experienceI thought we did away with Rules ….
  • 55. RDA provides a set of guidelines and instructions on formulating data to support resource discovery. (RDA Toolkit, Introduction) FRBR: FRAD: Find Find Identify Identify Select Contextualize Obtain Justify • ICP’s highest principle = “convenience of the user” 55It’s more like a guideline.RDA provides a set of guidelines and instructions on formulating data to support resourcediscovery. FRBR provides the conceptual foundation for RDA RDA includes the FRBR terminology Example: the names of bibliographic entities: “work”, “expression”, “manifestation”, and “item”)Responding to those user needs coincides with the main principle stated in the Statementof International Cataloguing Principles: convenience of the user.RDA is a set of practical instructions built on the foundation of a theoreticalframework/modeldata that responds to user needsaccurate dataprecise datausable datavisible dataa standard with an expanded scope
  • 56. RDA based on IFLA’s international models and principles Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR; 1998) Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD; 2009) Statement of International Cataloguing Principles (ICP; 2009) RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 56RDA is based on two international conceptual models, FRBR and FRAD, developed byworking groups of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutionswith worldwide input and review. A third model for subject data (FRSAD) has just beenpublished; subject data chapters will be added to RDA in the future.Intended to be a set of instructions for the content of descriptive metadataBibliographic recordAuthority recordOther data structuresStandard for the web environment
  • 57. Why are the models important? Broad international support for the explanatory power of the models common international language and conceptual understanding of the bibliographic universe as the foundation for a standard: • easier to apply in international context • easier for our data to interoperate with other data generated on the basis of a FRBR/FRAD understanding of the bibliographic universe [Oliver, 2011] 57According to Chris Oliver, there is Broad international support for the explanatory powerof the models and the models provide a common international language and conceptualunderstanding of the bibliographic universe as the foundation for a standard:easier to apply in international contexteasier for our data to interoperate with other data generated on the basis of a FRBR/FRADunderstanding of the bibliographic universeFocus on local user needsChoice of agency preparing the description:Language of additions to access pointsLanguage of supplied dataScript and transliterationCalendarNumeric system
  • 58. RDA in Europe: making it happen! (8 Aug 2010, Royal Library, Copenhagen) Countries represented Austria Belgium Canada Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Germany Iceland Ireland Italy Netherlands Norway Palestine Poland Spain Sweden Switzerland Tunisia United Kingdom USA 58The next 2 slides give you an idea of the kind of international support that exists for RDA. International interest in the subject of cataloguing 59This slide is from Lynne LeGrow’s presentation RDA is on the Way.
  • 59. Wider scope of resources Response to what’s being acquired in libraries ◦ More elements for non-printed text resources ◦ More elements for non-text resources ◦ More elements for unpublished resources Compatible with specialist manuals (DACS, CCO, DCRM(B) etc.) RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 60RDA also covers the wider scope of resources being acquired in libraries today. RDA forgeneral libraries is compatible with specialist manuals for various categories of resources;the JSC (the Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA) consulted with thosespecialist communities during the development of RDA.Expanded scopenot just for libraries anymore!-- It connects libraries with other cultural heritage communitiese.g. additions and changes for archives-- instructions designed to describe a wide variety of resources & the possibility for othercommunities to adopt/adapt- release from MARC 21 record format also helps build connections to other communities- awareness of practices and standards in other metadata encoding communities
  • 60. Importance of relationships Categories: ◦ Persons/families/corporate bodies to resources ◦ Resources to other resources ◦ Person/families/corporate bodies to other persons/families/corporate bodies RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 61Providing relationships is important to meeting the needs of users to tell them what elseconnected to one resource in some way also exists and is available. RDA supports theclustering of bibliographic records to show relationships between works and their creatorsto make us more aware of the works different editions, translations, or physical formats. There are many types of relationships. Those relationships can be explained by the use ofrelationship designators found in three of the RDA appendices. Examples: relationship terms artist abstract of (work) etcher choreography for sponsoring body (work) composer concordance to (work) translator screenplay (work) editor of compilation sequel interviewee finding aid photographer (expression) cartographer libretto (expression) director; producer mirror site former owner reproduced as performer descendants enacting jurisdiction founder employer 62
  • 61. RDA: A Response to change Changes in technology ◦ Impact on descriptive/access data book catalogs card catalogs OPACs next generation Move from classes of materials to elements and values (more controlled vocabularies) Move from individual library to international audience RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 63RDA is designed for the digital environment. As with other cataloging codes before it,RDA reflects both the technology of the time and the types of materials that we areorganizing, describing, and making available to our users. RDA provides guidelines oncataloguing digital resources and will improve searching and browsing for usersOne of the most significant changes from AACR2 is the move in RDA from AACR2’sclass of materials concepts to identifying elements needed to describe things in order to bemore useful on the Web – we will be moving beyond the library-centric MARC Format tonew ways to share linked data over the Web.RDA recognizes that the value of cataloging data is moving from just an individual libraryto an international audience.
  • 62. Ch-ch-ch-ch-ch-changes… What’s Different – what’s the same Oh where, Oh where have my LCRI’s gone? LC’s decisions in Library of Congress Policy Statements (LCPSs) available in the RDA Toolkit and as pdfs at tml 64Ch-ch-ch-ch-ch-changes…A whole lot of changin’ goin’ on hereLets start with LCRI’s – they are now called Library of Congress Policy StatementsMore new terms comin’ up
  • 63. AACR2 to RDA vocabulary GMD media type + carrier type + content type preferred sources Chief source Heading, Main entry, Added entry, Authorized Access point heading See references Authorized access point Uniform title Variant access point Elements Preferred access point FRBR attributes 65The GMD, often an inconsistent presentation of different categories of information, hasbeen replaced by three elements: media type, carrier type, and content type. We’ll look atthem later in this section.also note that the change is not only in the term but also that the sources for informationhave been expanded from a single source to multiple sources.Also – we seem to have a pattern emerging in the new vocabulary. It’s all about access!RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010)
  • 64. ICP representation principle Transcribed information = “Take what you see” and “accept what you get” General guideline at RDA 1.7.1 addresses transcription of what is on the resource: ◦ Capitalization: follow appendix A or accept found form ◦ Punctuation, abbreviations, inaccuracies, symbols, initials, numbering: generally follow what is on source 66The International Cataloging Principals principle of representation underlies the changefrom AACR2 generally not to alter what is on the resource when transcribing information.“Take what you see” has becomes our motto. RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010)Most catalogers don’t like this idea.I was thinking what if Marie and Debra Barone were catalogers (Loosely based on episodeHumm Vac (#5.18) (2001))Debra Barone: A clean catalog is not the most important thing in the world.Marie Barone: You know who says that? A messy person.RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010)
  • 65. Punctuation and Capitalization AACR2 dictated that certain marks of punctuation (such as ellipsis) should be replaced with other marks of punctuation. RDA specifies that punctuation should be transcribed exactly as it appears AACR2 rules of capitalization no longer apply RDA specifies that capitalization should be transcribed exactly as it appears 67Could this lead to ….. Capitalization choices Accepting found capitalization: 245 10 $a Cairo : $b THE CITY VICTORIOUS / $c Max Rodenbeck. 250 ## $a FIRST VINTAGE DEPARTURES EDITION. Changing found capitalization: 245 10 $a Cairo : $b the city victorious / $c Max Rodenbeck. 250 ## $a First Vintage Departures edition. RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 68THIS?!!!!Shown here are two versions of four transcribed elements: the first with capitalization asfound on the resource, the second with capitalization adjusted according to the guidelinesin appendix A. The use or not of uppercase letters does not affect searching and retrieval;many Web applications use uppercase letters.Also note that not adjusting words such as “first” to a numeral and “edition” to anabbreviation are examples of transcribing what you see.
  • 66. Correcting found errors? Principle of representation (RDA ◦ Don’t correct errors in titles proper of monographs = no more “[sic]” or “[i.e., ___ ]” – give note (246 field in MARC) to explain ◦ Do correct errors in titles proper of serials and integrating resources to have a stable title ◦ Don’t correct errors in other transcribed elements; give note if considered important RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 69The “take what you see” principle applies to errors in transcribed elements.With RDA we will use square brackets only for information not found in the item,regardless of source within the item.With RDA "[sic]" or bracketed additional letters will no longer be used after typos. Create246 with corrected title spellings.We will continue to correct errors in titles proper of serials and integrating resources tohave a stable title.Use cataloger judgment to give a note and/or an access point if important.
  • 67. An odd bit of punctuation … When an element ends with an abbreviation followed by a full stop or ends with the mark of omission and the punctuation following that element either is or begins with a full stop, include the full stop that constitutes or begins the prescribed punctuation. AACR2 = 250 $a 3rd ed. RDA = 250 $a 3rd ed.. Note: This example assumes that the edition statement appeared on the prescribed source as “3rd ed.”AACR2 1.0C1 says 250 $a 3rd ed.RDA = 250 $a 3rd ed..Note: this is not a change initiated by RDA; appendix D reflects a change in ISBD as ofthe consolidated edition.
  • 68. Statement of Responsibility 245 00 / $c Sean Markey ... [et al.]. 245 10 / $c Sean Markey, John T. Pierce, Kelly Vodden, and Mark Roseland. Option: [and three others]. 245 10 / $c edited by Ronald W. Waynant ; foreword by the late Dr. Leon Goldman. 245 10 / $c by the Reverend R.M. Dickey ; edited by Art Petersen. Statement of responsibility taken from title page verso 24510 / $c by Edward J. Gregr and Ryan Coatta. (Look Mom! – no brackets!) Schiff, 2010 71In RDA, The ‘Rule of Three’ has been made optional.(The more access the better!) (Le Grow)In AACR2 1.1F7. Include titles and abbreviations of titles of nobility, address, honour,and distinction, initials of societies, qualifications, date(s) of founding, mottoes, etc., instatements of responsibility IF and then it goes on to give a list of what can be usedOtherwise, omit all such data from statements of responsibility. Do not use the mark ofomission.RDA says transcribe what you seeNo more brackets in the statement of responsibility as long as it is somewhere on the item!
  • 69. And a few more changes … -- Parallel Titles -- International meteorological vocabulary = Vocabulaire météorologique international = Mezhdunarodnyĭ meteorologicheskiĭ slovar’ = Vocabulario meteorológico internacional. -- Place of Publication (RDA 2.8.2) -- [Place of publication not identified] not [s.l.] -- Publisher’s name (RDA 2.8.4) -- [publisher not identified] not [s.n.] -- Date of publication -- Copyright date (RDA 2.11) -- Separate element from date of publication -- Core element if no date of publication or of distribution -- Precede by copyright symbol (©) or phonogram symbol ( ) 73AACR2 1.1D2 gives instructions on how many parallel titles to record, and which ones.In preparing a second-level description (see 1.0D2), give the first parallel title. Give anysubsequent parallel title that is in English.RDA doesn’t have the concept of first-level, second-level, and third-level of description.245 10 $a International meteorological vocabulary = $b Vocabulairemétéorologique international = Mezhdunarodnyĭ meteorologicheskiĭ slovar’ =Vocabulario meteorológico internacional.Place of publication:If more than one, only the first recorded is required – no “home country” provisionPublisher’s name is the second core element in the statement. Again, only the firstrecorded name is required.RDA says to record the name as found – to “take what you see”, although a corporatehierarchy can be omitted. Do not abbreviate words in the name. The abbreviation Dept.will be replaced with the word Department ; Co. will be replaced with Company, etc.rather than the Latin abbreviation “[s.n.]”. Latin references S.l. (sine loco, for withoutplace) S.n. (sine nomine, without name) will no longer beIf no probable place, Give the explanation “[publisher not identified] – not “[S.l.]”The Date of publication is the last core element in the publication statement.
  • 70. Try to supply a probable date whenever possible because not doing so starts a chainreaction of identifying other dates and it’s easier to supply a probable date of publication.If you REALLY cannot supply a probable date and you’re cataloging a single-partmonograph, then give the explanation “[date of publication not identified]”.The last element to be discussed that is encoded in the MARC 260 field is the Copyrightdate. In RDA it is not a type of Date of publication; it is a separate element. To identify itin the 260 $c, precede it with the appropriate symbol. Identifying a person Definition (RDA 8.1.2) = “An individual or an identity established by an individual (either alone or in collaboration with one or more other individuals)” RDA 9.0: Includes fictitious entities (change from AACR2) ◦ Miss Piggy, Snoopy, etc. now in scope if presented as having responsibility in some way for a work, expression, manifestation, or item -- not just as subjects RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 74And finally – I want to talk a little more about new changes in RDA – that is – AuthorityData. We talked about some of this when we went over FRAD – so I promise to be brief.In RDA a person can be an individual or an entity established by one individual alone oran identity established in collaboration with one or more other individuals.I am going to touch briefly on some new things inThe scope statement at RDA 9.0 includes fictitious entities as persons, a change fromAACR2. So, they can now be represented by authorized access points as creators orwhatever role they play if they are presented on the resource as being responsible in someway.
  • 71. 1+ creators: always one in MARC 1XX RDA: 100 $a Brown, Susan. 245 $a Physics / $c by Susan Brown, Melanie Carlson, Stephen Lindell, Kevin Ott, and Janet Wilson. AACR2: no 1XX field if more than three entities. 75In AACR2 if there were more than 3 or if the first named individual was an editor therewould be no 1XX field – straight to 7XX With AACR2 if the work has more than 3 authors, or if the work has 3 authors AND has a collective title, then we use TITLE MAIN ENTRY. With RDA the first author gets the main entry (regardless of how many)
  • 72. Relationships are important When tracing names in 700 tags we will be using relator terms. (input in a subfield e) These relator terms will be spelled out and not input as abbreviations as they are now. Examples: 700 1 $aSmith, Chester.$esinger 700 1 $aDouglas, Keith.$econductor 700 1 $aManning, Ruth.$eco-author 76Note that these are no longer abbreviated – they are spelled out. (LeGrow)Relationship of person, family, or corporate body to resource being describedRelationship between resourcesRelationship between person, etc., and another person, etc.Can identify type of relationship via designators -- terms in RDA appendices or in othervocabularies Examples: relationship terms artist abstract of (work) etcher choreography for sponsoring body (work) composer concordance to (work) screenplay (work) translator sequel editor of compilation finding aid interviewee (expression) photographer libretto (expression) cartographer mirror site director; producer reproduced as former owner performer descendants enacting jurisdiction founder employer 77
  • 73. Scope of “family” Now considered creators, contributors, etc. ◦ Important for archives, museums, and special collections -- may supplement RDA with specialist manuals (e.g., Describing archives : a content standard (DACS)) ◦ Also possible for general library materials: genealogy newsletters, family reunion publications, etc. RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 78And speaking of relations … Considering families as creators and contributors, not justsubjects, is part of expanding the application of RDA beyond libraries to other informationcommunities such as archives and museums.
  • 74. Subject headings are being updated Inverted headings are gradually being changed to direct orderExample: Body, human is now Human body Antiquated terms are being updated to modern jargonExample: Cookery will change to Cooking LeGrow, Lynne (2010). RDA is on the way! 79655 Genre headings are usedmore Unlike 650 subject headings which tell the user what the material is ‘about’, genre headings tell the user what the material ‘is’. Examples: 655 7 $aMystery fiction.$2gsafd 655 7 $aEssays.$2lcsh 655 7 $aFilmed operas.$2lcsh LeGrow, Lynne (2010). RDA is on the way! 80
  • 75. Changes in MARC 21 Can encode RDA content in any schema but many libraries will be using MARC 21 when testing or first implementing RDA RDA/MARC Working Group made proposals for changes to MARC 21 RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 81Remember that RDA content can be encoded in any schema. For the transition to RDA,many libraries will continue to encode their RDA content in MARC.A joint RDA/MARC group wrote discussion papers and made proposals for some changesto the MARC formats to accommodate some, but not all, new RDA elements.
  • 76. Controlled values, the purpose of 3xx fields : or what have you done with my GMD 82The GMD is being replaced by three new 3XX field which are controlled values fornaming the types of content (like sound, text, still images, and so on), types of carriers(like a film reel, a computer disc, a volume), and other elements in RDA that havecontrolled lists of values- they are already being registered on the Web and can be used topresent displays and show pathways to related resources.I would be lying if I said that this comes as welcome news to a lot of people. Though to befair – outside of the cataloging world I don’t know how many people are actually disturbedby this. Still there will be considerations for the users as well as catalogers and systemdesigners.(Tillett, 2011)
  • 77. Examples of the GMD (and friends) The sweet hereafter [videorecording] / Alliance Communications presents an Ego Film Arts production ; a film by Atom Egoyan ; screenplay by Atom Egoyan ; produced by Camelia Frieberg and Atom Egoyan ; directed by Atom Egoyan. Rip Van Winkle [electronic resource] : a legend of the Catskills / a comparative arrangement with the Kerr version, by C. Burke. 1850. Get Rich Click! : The Ultimate Guide to Making Money on the Internet [Book on CD] By Cahill, Patrick Published: 2013 Private : #1 Suspect : #1 Suspect [Large Type] By Patterson, James/ Paetro, Maxine Published: 2012 The fiery cross / Compact Disc, by Diana Gabaldon. The Most fabulous classical Christmas album ever! [sound recording]. 10 secrets for success and inner peace by Dyer, Wayne W.... Issued on Playaway, a dedicated audio media player. ... 83For those of you who do not speak cataloging the GMD is the General Material Designatorand here are some examples of what they look like in the catalog
  • 78. Content type (RDA 6.9; MARC 336) Scope = “fundamental form of communication in which the content is expressed and the human sense through which it is intended to be perceived” ◦ “cartographic image,” “performed music,” “still image,” “text,” etc. For images, also whether in two or three dimensions and presence or absence of movement (e.g., “two-dimensional moving image”) RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 84Content type tells the user how the content of the work is expressed: what form ofcommunication and which human sense is used. Strangely enough it is found in theexpression record.RDA 6.9. Content type (MARC tag 336) is a categorization reflecting the fundamentalform of communication in which the content is expressed and the human sense throughwhich it is intended to be perceived. For content expressed in the form of an image orimages, content type also reflects the number of spatial dimensions in which the content isintended to be perceived and the perceived presence or absence of movement. Values:cartographic dataset; cartographic image; cartographic moving image; cartographictactile image; cartographic tactile three-dimensional form; cartographic three-dimensional form; computer dataset; computer program; notated movement; notatedmusic; performed music; sounds; spoken word; still image; tactile image; tactile notatedmusic; tactile text; tactile three-dimensional form; text; three-dimensional form; three-dimensional moving image; other; unspecified. Each value also has a MARC codeestablished for it that can be used in 336 $b.
  • 79. Media type (RDA 3.2; MARC 337) Scope = “a categorization reflecting the general type of intermediation device required to view, play, run, etc., the content of a resource” ◦ “audio,” “projected,” “microform,” “video,” etc. Broad categories; specific types in Carrier type (RDA 3.3) RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 85Media type is a broad categorization of what type of device, if any, is needed to be able tosee, hear, etc., the content of the resource.RDA 3.2. Media type (MARC tag 337) is a categorization reflecting the general type ofintermediation device required to view, play, run, etc., the content of a resource. Values inRDA: audio; computer; microform; microscopic; projected; stereographic; unmediated;video; other; unspecified. Each value also has a MARC code established for it that can beused in 337 $b.
  • 80. Carrier type (RDA 3.3; MARC 338) Scope = “a categorization reflecting the format of the storage medium and housing of a carrier in combination with the type of intermediation device required to view, play, run, etc., the content of a resource” ◦ “audio disc,” “computer disc,” “microfiche,” “slide,” “volume,” etc. Don’t confuse with term used in Extent (MARC 300 $a): some terms in common RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 86Carrier type gives more specific information than the Media type term does about the format,housing, and type of device needed if any.The most important thing to remember about Carrier type is that it is a separate element from theelement Extent; Carrier type is given in MARC field 338; Extent is given in MARC 300 subfield$a. The reason it is easy to confuse them is that some of the terms you’ll see in 300 $a are thesame as terms you’ll see in the 338 field.RDA 3.3. Carrier type (MARC tag 338) is a categorization reflecting the format of the storagemedium and housing of a carrier in combination with the type of intermediation device required toview, play, run, etc., the content of a resource. Each value also has a MARC code established for itthat can be used in 338 $b.Audio carriers: audio cartridge; audio cylinder; audio disc; audio roll; audiocassette; audiotapereel; sound-track reelComputer carriers: computer card; computer chip cartridge; computer disc; computer disccartridge; computer tape cartridge; computer tape cassette; computer tape reel; online resourceMicroform carriers: aperture card; microfiche; microfiche cassette; microfilm cartridge; microfilmcassette; microfilm reel; microfilm roll; microfilm slip; microopaqueMicroscopic carriers: microscope slideProjected image carriers: film cartridge; film cassette; film reel; film roll; filmslip; filmstrip;filmstrip cartridge; overhead transparency; slideStereographic carriers: stereograph card; stereograph discUnmediated carriers: card; flipchart; object; roll; sheet; volumeVideo carriers: video cartridge; videocassette; videodisc; videotape reelOther values established: other; unspecified
  • 81. MARC for content, media, carrier In each field (336-338): ◦ $a: term ◦ $b: code [give $a and/or $b] ◦ $2: “rdacontent” or “rdamedia” or “rdacarrier” as appropriate ◦ $3: materials specified - give if appropriate ◦ Ex. 336 $b txt $2 rdacontent $3 liner notes RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 87In each of the three fields for these elements, the term is recorded in subfield $a; that sameinformation can be given instead in coded form in subfield $b or both subfields $a and $bcan be given.In subfield $2 will be one of the terms as shown; it names the vocabulary used - these arethe terms in MARC identifying the RDA vocabularies. Subfield $3 is used as needed toidentify parts of the resource.
  • 82. 336-338 examples Book: 336 $a text $2 rdacontent 337 $a unmediated $2 rdamedia 338 $a volume $2 rdacarrier Music CD: 336 $a performed music $2 rdacontent 337 $a audio $2 rdamedia 338 $a audio disc $2 rdacarrier Score: 336 $a notated music $2 rdacontent 337 $a unmediated $2 rdamedia 338 $a volume $2 rdacarrier 88The following slides are examples of how these fields will be formatted.Let’s take a quick look at one example showing the three fields that will be present in atemplate for a book: - the content type in the 336 field is “text” - the media type in the 337 field is “unmediated” because a book does not need adevice for the content to be read - the carrier type is “volume”Remember that the terms in subfield $a are from controlled vocabularies.
  • 83. 336-338 examplesMap: 336 $a cartographic image $2 rdacontent 337 $a unmediated $2 rdamedia 338 $a sheet $2 rdacarrierDVD: 336 $a two-dimensional moving image $2 rdacontent 337 $a video $2 rdamedia 338 $a video disc $2 rdacarrierOnline PDF: 336 $a text $2 rdacontent 337 $a computer $2 rdamedia 338 $a online resource $2 rdacarrier 89336-338 examplesWebsite (with maps, text, and photographs): 336 $a text $2 rdacontent 336 $a cartographic image $2 rdacontent 336 $a still image $2 rdacontent 337 $a computer $2 rdamedia 338 $a online resource $2 rdacarrierOr subfield $a may be repeated in 336 field: 336 $a text $a cartographic image $a still image $2 rdacontent 90
  • 84. 336-338 examplesWebsite (with maps, text, and photographs): 336 $a text $2 rdacontent 336 $a cartographic image $2 rdacontent 336 $a still image $2 rdacontent 337 $a computer $2 rdamedia 338 $a online resource $2 rdacarrierOr subfield $a may be repeated in 336 field: 336 $a text $a cartographic image $a still image $2 rdacontent 90Some live examples from WorldCat 92
  • 85. WorldCat 93WorldCat 94
  • 86. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute 95Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute 96
  • 87. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute 97Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute 98
  • 88. I don’t know if you noticed, but … Life in the cloud! 99There was a lot of linked data in the last couple of slides I showed youSo, let’s talk about Linked Library Data and the Semantic Web.If you will kindly refer back to my disclaimer – it is even truer here. I am not an expert!But, I am game if you are - so here goes…
  • 89. Dunsire, Gordon (2011). Linked data and the implications for library cataloging. 1001. The first stage was automation. Here, all the metadata from the card have been stored ina computer file. The metadata are separated out into different attributes (or fields or cells)in a regular way; all records have the same set (or sub-set) of attributes. This structure isimplicit in the metadata on the card, where the attributes are indicated by variouspunctuation devices (such as brackets), but not always identified specifically. This type offile is known as a flat-file record, as all the metadata are stored in a monolithic two-dimensional , or flat, structure.2. The flat-file is not an efficient way of storing metadata if there is a lot of repetition ofcontent between records. One area of repetition in library metadata can be found in thenames of persons and organizations; a lot of authors write more than one book, and manydocuments can be produced by organizations in the course of their business. Repetition isminimized by storing a single record, itself also flat-file, containing metadata for theperson or organization. The record is linked to the related bibliographic record using anumerical identifier,. In library terminology, the bibliographic description and nameauthority records are linked via an authority control number3. The same approach works for subject descriptors taken from controlled vocabularies. Asingle subject authority record is linked to many bibliographic descriptions. Note that thecontrol numbers are transparent to humans; instead, he authority headings (name or subjectterm) are displayed on the fly using the link.4. This type of file structure is known as a relational database. The method of storingdescriptive metadata separately from authority headings which act as access points for thedescription began to be implemented in the 1970s, and is used by the majority ofautomated library catalogues today. But a new approach is being developed based on theFunctional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) model published in 1998.
  • 90. Dunsire, Gordon (2011). Linked data and the implications for library cataloging. 1011. In this example, the Work component of the FRBR record does not contain anymetadata content, just the structure in the form of attribute names, and transparent links tothe content of the authority files.2. RDA: resource description and access is the successor to the Anglo-AmericanCataloguing Rules for determining bibliographic record structure and content. It is fullycompatible with FRBR. One of its features is widespread use of controlled terms formetadata content. We can apply the same approach as for authority files, and store thecontrolled terms in their own file, linked to the relevant component of the FRBR record.Content type is one of the RDA attributes using a controlled vocabulary.3. The same for carrier type.4. The provenance attribute in the Item component record refers to the author and is animplicit duplication of some of the content of the author attribute, which is authority-controlled. We can minimize this duplication by refining the provenance attribute into themore specific donor attribute and isolating the author reference as the content of thatattribute. The donor attribute is then linked to the same name authority record as the authorattribute.5. This just leaves the manifestation title within the FRBR record. But we could link theattribute to a publisher or bookseller file of titles …6. And end up with a FRBR record which contains only attribute names and links.The record is reduced to its bare-bones structure, and effectively is extinct.
  • 91. Dunsire, Gordon (2011). Linked data and the implications for library cataloging. 102Where has the bibliographic record gone? Its content has been completely disaggregated tomultiple records stored elsewhere in the local system or in remote systems. Library ofCongress Subject Headings are already available in a format suitable for this approach,known as linked data. The Virtual International Authority File for names is also availableas linked data. Linked data is the basis of the Semantic Web.The bibliographic record is implicit. The attribute names and links are used to assemble anexplicit record on demand. The metadata content is efficiently stored and maintained (anychange to authority content is immediately reflected in the assembled record). Cataloguesdo not have to store any of the metadata locally just in-case a user needs it; the metadatarecord is presented just-in-time.The current pre-FRBR environment involves huge amounts of duplicated effort withmultiple copies of records being maintained separately at the local level. But we allhave backlogs of new bibliographic resources to describe.
  • 92. Dunsire, Gordon (2011). Linked data and the implications for library cataloging. 104A quick word about Library namespaces – this will make better sense in a few more slides(hopefully) Dunsire, Gordon (2011). Linked data and the implications for library cataloging. 105This should help as well.
  • 93. Linked data: The play’s the thing Ed Jones, National University (San Diego) ALA Annual Conference (New Orleans)So now I am going back to Ed Jones, you remember him from the section on FRAD, togive us a whirlwind tour of how RDA plays with the Semantic Web. Ed was asked to talkabout how RDA plays with the SW at ALA annual in New Orleans.This is an excellent presentation and unfortunately I don’t have time to go through thewhole of it now. There is a link to it in my bibliography. I am going to scale it down a lot.–but, hopefully you will get the idea. The playground [Linked open data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch,]So here’s the playgroundDbpedia is popular, as is ACM Who do we play with?
  • 94. Who we play withOurselves, mostly[Describe]The Germans are well-represented Lobid = North Rhine Westphalia Library Services Center (German) PSH = Polymathic Structured Subject Headings (Czech) P20 = 20th Century Press Archives (German) But if we’re going to look at how we play, we’re going to need some playground rules…
  • 95. Ranganathan’s first law of linked data: Data is for use [or, for the true die-hard, Data are for use] Playground rulesSo I have 1 playground rule and 2 corollariesThis seems pretty straightforward, but then so did Books are for use, and we’re still tryingto come to grips with that one and there are useful corollaries to this law …
  • 96. Functional granularity BISG Discussion Paper on ISTC: What gets an ISTC? Moby-Dick alternatives: 1. Every version is Moby-Dick (one ISTC) 2. All versions derive from an Ur-parent (Melville scholar) (one ISTC for Ur-parent, one ISTC for each derivative)  3. Some versions derive from different texts (librarian) (one ISTC for Ur-parent, one ISTC for each derivative text) 4. Some versions are augmented by introduction and notes that are separate works (“an even more pedantic librarian, dancing angels on the head of a pin”) (one ISTC for …, one ISTC for each component (introduction, biographical note, etc.) Corollary 1 to Ranganathan’s first lawIt involves the ISTC (International standard text code), an identifier for textual worksThe question was, What is a work?The point is selecting the one that works for you: functional granularityMichael Holdsworth (BISG discussion paper) favors 2, which approximates FRBRNote: in 3, different manifestations (e.g., Oxford and Penguin) may carry the samederivative textYou may detect a certain tension between the library and publisher communitiesSOURCE: The International Standard Text Code (ISTC): A Work in Progress. ASupply Chain Perspective, by Michael Holdsworth ©2010 BISG and BIC 1 Moby‐Dick Penguin Popular ClassicsISBN 2 Moby‐Dick Wordsworth ClassicsISBN 3 Moby‐Dick Norton Critical EditionsISBN 4 Moby‐Dick Oxford World’s ClassicsISBN 5 Moby‐Dick Barnes & Noble ClassicsISBN 6 Moby‐Dick Dover Giant Thrift EditionsISBN 7 Moby‐Dick Penguin Classics DeluxeISBN 8 Moby‐Dick Longman Critical EditionsISBN 9 Moby‐Dick Modern Library ClassicsISBN 10 Moby‐Dick Easy Read Large Print EditionBook Industry Study Group (BISG)
  • 97. “If you build it, they will come” 1. There is (or will be [maybe, hopefully]) a lot of linkable data out there 2. Others will want some of our data and make links 3. We will want some of theirs and make links Corollary 2 to Ranganathan’s first lawI think (1) is fairly certain(2) And (3) have yet to be provedMaking your data linkable is fairly straightforward once the translation has been doneBut while the metadata can be converted on an industrial scale, linking between individualrecords in different sets often requires manual intervention
  • 98. Martin Prince: Nelson Muntz: Playing nice Not playing nice Ralph Wiggum: Playing sort of nice ©2009 Twentieth Century Fox Film CorporationRDA as Martin: He aims to please.What can you say about Ralph? Ralph will be playing Goldilocks and the 3 bears.RDA as Nelson: What will never work well (MARC / legacy data)
  • 99. Playing nice: Tim Berners-Lee’s rules for linked data 1. Use URIs as names for things. 2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names. 3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL). 4. Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things.Tim Berners-Lee has his own playground rules[describe]Pretty straightforward RDA isn’t out on the playground yet, so it’s hard to judge how it will play, but some ofits playmates are (at least tentatively)
  • 100. How we play: Group 3LC makes available a number of its vocabularies and element sets, including LCSHThey’re available as RDF/XML, N-triples (N-Triples is a line-based, plain text format forencoding an RDF graph.), and JSONProvided (JavaScript Object Notation, is alightweight text-based open standard designed for human-readable data interchange.) “asis” (swap-meet rules)XML syntax for RDF called RDF/XML in terms of Namespaces in XML, the XMLInformation Set and XML Base
  • 101. How we play: Group 3Welcome to the MatrixDoes LCSH play by Sir Tim’s rules? Uses URIs as names Uses HTTP URIs When looked up, provides useful info Includes links to other URIsHowever… Links to Rameau include misleading links: Guerre mondiale (1939-1945) (exactMatch) _____--Finances (narrowMatch: should link from World War, 1939-1945—Finance) _____--Prisonniers et prisons des Soviétiques (narrowMatch: should link from WorldWar, 1939-1945—Prisoners and prisons, Soviet)No links to Rameau on LCSH records for these subdivisions How about Group 2?
  • 102. How we play: Group 2This is the VIAFIt is a veritable switching yard of links Let’s look under the hood
  • 103. How we play: Group 2Sir Tim would be really pleasedIt uses SKOS (The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a common datamodel for sharing and linking knowledge organization systems via the Semantic Web) andFOAF (The Friend of a Friend (FOAF) project is creating a Web of machine-readablepages describing people, the links between them and the things they create and do)There’s even an element from RDVocabLots of info from a plethora of authority filesLinks to those authority files and often to DbpediaVery nice Which brings us to the RDA vocabularies
  • 104. How we play: RDA element sets and value vocabulariesStill a work in progress. We satisfy 3 of Sir Tim’s rulesAnd the Germans have been here Speaking of which, on a playground far far away …
  • 105. Wie sie spielen: GNDThis is a German authority recordAlready using RDA vocabularies: rdaGr2:identifierForThePerson rdaGr2:gender = “” rdaGr2:dateOfBirth rdaGr2BiographicalInformationLinks to: VIAF, DBpedia, Wikipedia
  • 106. Summary: (Sir Tim’s rules) 1. There are some nice resource files of FRBR Group 2 and 3 entities available in RDF 2. RDA-specific vocabularies are making headway 3. The Germans are eating our lunch How much granularity in RDA? ◦Too little? ◦Too much? ◦Just right? Functional granularityI’ll give examples where RDA seems to have too little or too much granularity. In general,it’s just right First, too little granularity
  • 107. Too little granularity Sometimes it may be more useful to express an attribute at a more granular level RDA 7.12 Language of the content (captions) RDA 7.14 Accessibility content (closed captions) [041]17 $a en $j de $2 iso639-1 [546] $a Closed captioning in German. on general, too little granularity is a case of a disconnect between RDA and MARC 21 (thede facto cataloging code is a combination of the two)In this case, the MARC level of granularity represents the intersection of two RDAelements While this case is annoying, sometimes too little granularity can undermine linking
  • 108. Too much granularity? RDA 2.7 Production Statement 260 $a - c ◦ RDA 2.7.2 Place of Production 260 $a ◦ RDA 2.7.3 Parallel Place of Production 260 $a ◦ RDA 2.7.4 Producer’s Name 260 $b ◦ RDA 2.7.5 Parallel Producer Name 260 $b ◦ RDA 2.7.6 Date of Production 260 $c RDA 2.8 Publication Statement 260 $a - c ◦ Ditto RDA 2.9 Distribution Statement 260 $a - c ◦ DittoThis is the current situation: everything maps to 260 $a - $cAnd it requires a house of cards to make it workFortunately, MARBI is considering separate fields for these groups But we will also have interesting mappings to other vocabularies that don’t make thedistinction, such as ISBD
  • 109. ISBD RDF /[property] hasPlaceOfPublicationProductionDistribution <info:lccn/ca35000361> <isbd:P1016> “Paris” hasNameOfPublisherProducerDistributor <info:lccn/ca35000361> <isbd:P1017> “Pagnerre” hasDateOfPublicationProductionDistribution <info:lccn/ca35000361> <isbd:P1018> “1862” hasPublicationProductionDistributionEtcArea <info:lccn/ca35000361> <isbd:P1162> “Paris : Pagnerre, 1862.”In other vocabularies within our own community, there is less granularity(Aside: I picture scientists at CERN or Fermilab working on generating ISBD punctuationrather than inputting it explicitly) But beyond mappings to other vocabularies, how do we ourselves use publication data?
  • 110. RDA granularity may be like in Goldilocks and the Three Bears: 1. Some elements maybe too granular 2. Some elements maybe not granular enough 3. Some (probably most) elements just right Summary: Ralph Legacy formatIs what we call high-speed rail in the USThe Acela Express can reach a top speed of 150 mph (which anywhere else almostqualifies as high speed rail) but averages roughly 70 mph due to track limitations (Notilting between NYC and New Haven) and overhead cable limitations (south of NewHaven).
  • 111. An analogy RDA = Acela Express MARC 21 = Too-close tracks and outdated catenary supportThis is why I’m relieved to see the Bibliographic Framework Transition Initiative, whichhopefully will address these concerns Legacy dataLinked to the legacy format is of course the legacy data it carries…
  • 112. Links to resources (FRBR Group 1): ◦ Work/expression possibly via machine population of subfield $0 ◦ Otherwise manifestation level only, mainly serials/IR only (fields 760-787) Links to agents (FRBR Group 2): ◦ Probably via machine population of subfield $0 Links to subjects (FRBR Group 3): ◦ Probably via machine population of subfield $0 ◦ Links to other vocabularies: Nope Legacy dataWe should be able to generate satisfactory links to Group 2 and Group 3 entitiesAnd to related Group 1 entitiesPrimary Group 1 entities may be a challenge, but maybe not (240 $0 to link to a 1XX $a $tauthority record where these exist) Some descriptive fields are another matter …
  • 113. Where will Area 4 go? AACR2 X.4 (MARC 260) Publication, distribution, etc., area ◦ Place of publication, distribution, etc. ◦ Publisher, distributor, etc. ◦ Etc. ◦ Maps to … ??? RDA 2.7 Production Statement ◦ Place of Production ◦ Producer’s Name ◦ Etc. RDA 2.8 Publication Statement ◦ Ditto RDA 2.9 Distribution Statement ◦ DittoMaybe we can map to the ISBD RDF in these cases? Summary What to link? ◦ Whatever we find useful (functional granularity) How does RDA play with the SW? ◦ Potentially well. However… We have to get on the SW to play there We need appropriate levels of granularity to accommodate / exploit existing data We need to link more outside our little corner of the linked data cloudSo to summarize
  • 114. I ♥ ISBD Новая эстонская новелла : 1990-е годы : Пер. с эстон. / Сост.: Пирет Вийрес; Послесл.: Каяр Прууль. - Таллинн : Aleksandra, Cop. 1999. - 302, [1] с. : портр.; 21 см. - (Библиотека журнала Таллинн; 7). ISBN 9985-827-41-4 Художественная литература -- Эстония -- Эстонская литература -- 2-ая пол. 20 в. -- Рассказы -- Сборник разных авторов Хранение: 2P 8/44-2;ISBD plays well with everyone it seems …So out of the matrix and back to RDA RDA RDA Which way will you go? 133Either way there are some considerations you will need to keep in mind.
  • 115. I can’t see it … 134Have you ever noticed the prominence of the word Cat in Cataloger. It seems to me fromsome of the conversations I have heard at ALA and on the RDA ListServ, that a lot ofcatalogers don’t want to acknowledge the existence of RDA. If I can’t see you – youclearly can’t see me.Maybe we can ignore it …. ©œ×劉 MARC 040 ‡e = rda 040 ‡a DLC ‡b eng ‡c DLC ‡e rda 040 ‡a UPB ‡b eng ‡c UPB ‡e rda ‡d DLC 040 ‡a DLC ‡b eng ‡c DLC ‡d DLC ‡e rda ‡d ICU ‡d DLC 135Cataloger’s bumper sticker.Nope, sorry.The Oracle states: There are currently RDA records present in the bibliographic universe.We will know them by the presence of a subfield e “RDA” in the 040
  • 116. Regardless of RDA implementation decision … Impact on reference service and OPAC Cost If you do … Training documentation, etc. If you don’t … Training database maintenance dealing with legacy data 136 Impact on reference service and OPAC Some of the issues involved: ◦ labels used in OPAC displays ◦ placement of new MARC fields ◦ changes in searching strategies ◦ non-collocation of 1XX, 240, 7XX until non-RDA records updated ◦ non-collocation when more than three creators: 1XX in RDA records and no 1XX in non-RDA records ◦ explanations for users Cost ◦ If you do … Training documentation, etc.Pricing for the U.S. market is as follows.$325 for the first user2 to 9 concurrent users will be charged an additional $55 for each designated user10 to 19 concurrent users will be charged an additional $50 for each designated user20+ concurrent users will be charged an additional $45 for each designated userFor example: An institution that designates 3 additional users will be charged $435($325 plus 2 times $55) An institution that designates 12 additional users will be charged $875 ($325 plus 11times $50) If you don’t … Training database maintenance dealing with legacy data
  • 117. Library system impact if RDA records in your catalog Talk with IT staff and/or vendor to ensure MARC 21 RDA changes implemented (have been issued as regular MARC updates) Make decisions on display and indexing of new fields in your OPAC RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 137What ever you decide to do – you will need to talk to your it staff and or vendor about thedisplay and indexing.You need to ensure that your IT staff and/or vendor have implemented those changes.Then you can discuss with colleagues in all parts of the library how you want to index anddisplay these fields.
  • 118. Prepare your library: If implementing RDA Make policy decisions with colleagues from various areas: ◦ Elements beyond RDA core elements you will include in own records and accept in copy records (consult with vendor and consortium as needed) ◦ Decisions on options and alternatives or always cataloger judgment ◦ Changes in existing records (e.g., form of access points, GMD vs. 336-338 fields) RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 138If your library or consortium is implementing RDA, there are various policy decisionsyou’ll need to make with staff members, with your vendor, with other consortiummembers. How to prepare yourself 1. Become familiar with FRBR and FRAD: entities, terminology, user tasks 2. Review available training materials and documentation 3. Explore RDA Toolkit if have access; if not, review last full draft (caveat: some aspects changed): view RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 139
  • 119. How to prepare yourself 4. View webcasts/webinars and attend briefings, workshops, etc. 5. Read books and articles about RDA 6. Talk with cataloging colleagues in your and other libraries 8. Take or audit a cataloging course 9. Create RDA practice records 10. Create more RDA practice records 140Just a reminder about #5: Be careful about articles written before June 2010 when theRDA Toolkit was released; there are changes in the RDA content from the full draft to theJune 2010 content.Nothing beats creating as many practice records as possible: finding out where theinformation is in RDA because the structure is different, finding out what RDA says to do,finding out what you don’t know. VTLS has an RDA Sandbox where everyone iswelcome to come and play. The cost is $60 and that gives access until January 31, 2013.Now that you are “ready,” you are “set” to “go” and talk to others in your library.
  • 120. How to prepare your colleagues Staff in all parts of your library Tell them what you’ve learned about FRBR, FRAD, RDA, MARC ◦ In appropriate levels of detail ◦ Telling someone else ensures you really do understand RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 141Involve staff or representatives of staff from all parts of your library -- library staff areusers, too.Give them what they need to know that’s different about RDA so that they can do theirjobs.
  • 121. Training and implementation If implementing RDA: ◦ Develop training materials ◦ Give demonstrations of the RDA Toolkit ◦ Review mappings ◦ Create templates, macros, workflows ◦ Practice, practice, practice !!! ◦ Discuss practice/real records ◦ Foster cataloger judgment (includes “stamping out tweaking” of others’ records) RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 142If you are implementing RDA, there are many steps to schedule. Take advantage of thefree training materials available on the Web. All materials on LC’s RDA Testdocumentation site are free for your use and modification. Files are posted on the JSC site.Contact presenters to ask if you can use individual slides with proper credit.Figure out what you can provide to people creating RDA records to simplify repetitivesteps.And do all you can to develop cataloger judgment.
  • 122. Prepare your library: If not implementing RDA Make policy decisions with colleagues from various areas: ◦ Add RDA records from others to your catalog for resources in your collection? ◦ If add RDA records, accept with no changes? If make some changes, what changes? RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 143Even if you’re not implementing RDA, you’ll need to make decisions about RDA recordsyou might receive for resources being added to your collection. Training and implementation If not implementing RDA: ◦ Explain changes from AACR2 so staff can understand records in Worldcat, etc. (and especially if RDA records added to your catalog) ◦ Explain changes in MARC 21 formats 144If you’re not implementing RDA, you’ll still need to give orientation sessions to explainwhat staff members will be seeing in RDA records your library receives.
  • 123. Legacy data 145When ever I read about legacy data I am reminded of the old Bill Cosby routine for Noah’sArk, although in this case we could direct it at the Joint Steering Committee.“You’re supposed to know all and see all Like I said before You let me go out there and doall this stuff here You never even looked in the bottom of that Ark Have you looked downthere? No!? Whos gonna clean up that mess down there? “When the implementation of Resource Description and Access (RDA) by the nationallibraries of the United States, Canada, Australia, and Great Britain occurs, libraries wouldbe faced with the integration of RDA records into their catalogues with legacy AACR1 andAACR2 records, and perhaps some "green and red book" ones.
  • 124. Many of us are accustomed to difference in legacy and current records, e.g., the number abbreviation in 250 (e.g. 2d vs. 2nd); "illus." vs. "ill." in 300. We could continue with differences between AACR2 description and RDA description with little degradation of service to our patrons. The differences between present standard abbreviations and those terms spelled out is considerable. At SLC we think that are too different to ignore. If to be addressed, the decision to be made is whether to change our database retrospectively, or to RDA records on export. In the case of most libraries, it would be a matter of making the changes on import. The work of manually editing AACR2 to RDA, or RDA to AACR2, is too much to consider. Only if that can be automated can they be undertaken. A possible exception to automating all changes, is that RDA allows 245 title capitalization to be transcribed as found on the item, or more disturbingly, in all capitals as captured from ONIX or other source. Personally, I find this unacceptable, and SLC will edit to standard sentence capitalization. This can only be partially automated. Programming can reduce all letters to lower case, but proper names and acronyms would have to be manually capitalized. Found capitalization in 505 contents, or 520 summaries, is acceptable, because they are not seen with other 505s and 520s in hit lists as are 245 titles. There are some other changes I suggest you make to incoming RDA records. SLC will change English phrases to ISBD abbreviations because of our multilingual customer base. You may not wish to do this. But all of us should, I think, replace a long "not identified" phrase in 260|c with an AACR2 style estimated date. Otherwise you might have that long not identified phrase followed directly by a |g manufacturing date, creating a contradictory display, date not identified followed by a date! The RDA change that a noun phrase *associated* with the author is included in |c, e.g., 245 10 |aBurr /|ca novel by Gore Vidal, but 245 10 |aBurr :|b a novel /|cGore Vidal, may be safely ignored in retrospective change. If you decide to change retrospectively, programming to make some retrospective changes to AACR2 records to make them more like RDA ones is not complex. LC, LAC, and OCLC will probably not address these issues. OCLC points out that as new libraries join, and contribute their databases, OCLC will continue to receive legacy records cataloguing according to earlier rules. MARCIVE is keeping current with the discussions and RDA testing inorder to be aware of the services libraries will need if RDA is implemented. Unless new system developments require it, MARCIVE does not plan to upgrade AACR2 records 146Here is a short list of some of the challenges that will be faced as a result of legacy dataThis is from a presentation by Mac Elrod, given for the Special Libraries CatalogingAssociation titled “Practical Measures to Cope with RDA Records” He has a lot of workaround suggestions for libraries not wishing to go to RDA
  • 125. Adapting legacy AACR2 records to accommodate use with RDA records I. Changes Needed to AACR2 Entries to Interfile with RDA. II.Ways of Coping with AACR2/MARC 245|h General Material Designations(GMDs) vs. RDA/MARC21s 336 Content, 337 Media type, and 338 Carrier. III. Retrospective Automated Global Changes to AACR2 • Descriptions to be More Compatible With RDA • Descriptive Practices, or Automated Changes to RDA Records IV. Possible Retrospective Changes in Choice of Entry. V.Retrospective Addition of 336-338 147In this presentation he discusses adapting legacy AACR2 records to accommodate use withRDA records in five parts I. Changes Needed to AACR2 Entries to Interfile with RDA. II. Ways of Coping with AACR2/MARC 245$h General Material Designations (GMDs) vs. RDA/MARC21s 336 Content, 337 Media type, and 338 Carrier.III. Retrospective Automated Global Changes to AACR2 • Descriptions to be More Compatible With RDA • Descriptive Practices, or Automated Changes to RDA RecordsIV. Possible Retrospective Changes in Choice of Entry. V. Retrospective Addition of 336-338He deems the first 2 the most important, i.e., and Ways of Coping with AACR2/MARC245|h General Material Designations(GMDs) vs. RDA/MARC21s 336 Content, 337Media type, and 338 Carrier.There are a lot of good practical suggestions for dealing with legacy data in thispresentation and I highly recommend it of you are looking for suggestions in your catalog.
  • 126. Inform your library’s users Explain changes in display and indexing If policy is not to change authorized access points to same form in all records, give guidance where forms are different RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 148And last, but not least, tell your users (both library staff and others) what has changed! Down the road ... Stay informed/investigate: ◦ Controlled vocabularies on the Web ◦ Linked data ◦ Encoding schema successor to MARC 21 Talk with colleagues in other information communities (e.g., archives, museums) Exciting challenges and opportunities! RDA Essentials (Kuhagen, Nov. 2010) 149Implementing RDA is not the end of the process. It is the first step in the transition to adifferent bibliographic universe.The road to that future may not always be straight and smooth. Change is not always easybut change can bring exciting challenges and opportunities!
  • 127. BibliographyChachra, Vinod. The Role of the Library as an Extension of the Mind. VALA, 2006 MP3., Karen, & Hillman, Diane. "Resource Description and Access (RDA): Cataloging Rules for the 20th Century." D-Lib Magazine, Jan/Feb, 2007, (accessed November 10, 2011).Denton, William. “Understanding FRBR: What It Is and How It Will Affect Our Retrieval Tools.” FRBR and the History of Cataloging, Edited by Arlene G. Taylor, 35-57. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2007.Dunsire, Gordon (2011). Linked data and the implications for library cataloging [PDF]. Retrieved from:, J. McRee “Mac” (2011). Practical Measures to Cope with RDA Records [PDF]. Retrieved from: (2009.) Statement of international cataloging principles. Retrieved November 8, 2011, from, Ed. (2008). FRAD: a Personal View. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from ALA website: http://presentations.ala.orgJones, Ed. (2011). Linked data: The Play’s the Thing. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from ALA website: http://presentations.ala.orgKuhagen, Judith A. (2010). RDA Essentials. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from JSC website:, Judith A. (2010). LC reference staff briefing. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from JSC website:, Lynne (2010). RDA is on the way! [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from JSC website:,, Robert (2011). AACR2 to RDA: Instructions on identifying Manifestations and items, a.k.a. description, RDA & Your Library [PowerPoint slides].McGrath, Kelley (2011). Will RDA Kill MARC? [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from University of Oregon website:, Chris (2011). What is RDA and why do I need to know [PDF]. Retrieved from JSC website:, Adam (2010). Changes from AACR2 to RDA: A comparison of Examples. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from JSC website: http://www.rda-, Arlene G. “Understanding FRBR: What It Is and How It Will Affect Our Retrieval Tools.” An Introduction to Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR), Edited by Arlene G. Taylor, 87-95. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2007.
  • 128. Tenant, Roy. “MARC must die." Library, Oct. 15, 2002, (accessed November 27, 2011).Tillet, Barbara (2011). Looking to the Future with RDA [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from JSC website:, Barbara. "Understanding FRBR: What It Is and How It Will Affect Our Retrieval Tools." FRBR and RDA: Resource Description and Access, Edited by Arlene G. Taylor, 87-95. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2007.Weinheimer, James. "Conversations with Catalogers in the 21st Century."Realities of Standards in the Twenty-First Century, Edited by Elaine Sanchez, 188-205. Westport, CT.: Libraries Unlimited, 2010. Retrieved from