CVA A&P - Chapter 6a: Muscle Types and Tissue

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CVA A&P - Chapter 6a: Muscle Types and Tissue

  1. 1. PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PART A 6 The Muscular System
  2. 2. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Muscular System  Muscles are responsible for all types of body movement  Three basic muscle types are found in the body  Skeletal muscle  Cardiac muscle  Smooth muscle
  3. 3. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Characteristics of Muscles  Skeletal and smooth muscle cells are elongated (muscle cell = muscle fiber)  Contraction of muscles is due to the movement of microfilaments  All muscles share some terminology  Prefixes myo and mys refer to “muscle”  Prefix sarco refers to “flesh”
  4. 4. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Comparison of Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth Muscles Table 6.1 (1 of 2)
  5. 5. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Comparison of Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth Muscles Table 6.1 (2 of 2)
  6. 6. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Smooth Muscle Characteristics  Lacks striations  Spindle-shaped cells  Single nucleus  Involuntary—no conscious control  Found mainly in the walls of hollow organs
  7. 7. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Smooth Muscle Characteristics Figure 6.2a
  8. 8. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cardiac Muscle Characteristics  Striations  Usually has a single nucleus  Branching cells  Joined to another muscle cell at an intercalated disc  Involuntary  Found only in the heart
  9. 9. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cardiac Muscle Characteristics Figure 6.2b
  10. 10. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skeletal Muscle Functions  Produce movement  Maintain posture  Stabilize joints  Generate heat
  11. 11. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skeletal Muscle Characteristics  Most are attached by tendons to bones  Cells are multinucleate  Striated—have visible banding  Voluntary—subject to conscious control
  12. 12. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Connective Tissue Wrappings of Skeletal Muscle  Cells are surrounded and bundled by connective tissue  Endomysium—encloses a single muscle fiber  Perimysium—wraps around a fascicle (bundle) of muscle fibers  Epimysium—covers the entire skeletal muscle  Fascia—on the outside of the epimysium
  13. 13. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Connective Tissue Wrappings of Skeletal Muscle Figure 6.1
  14. 14. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skeletal Muscle Attachments  Epimysium blends into a connective tissue attachment  Tendons—cord-like structures  Mostly collagen fibers  Often cross a joint due to toughness and small size  Aponeuroses—sheet-like structures  Attach muscles indirectly to bones, cartilages, or connective tissue coverings
  15. 15. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skeletal Muscle Attachments  Sites of muscle attachment  Bones  Cartilages  Connective tissue coverings
  16. 16. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle  Sarcolemma—specialized plasma membrane  Myofibrils—long organelles inside muscle cell  Sarcoplasmic reticulum—specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  17. 17. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Figure 6.3a
  18. 18. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle  Myofibrils are aligned to give distinct bands  I band = light band  Contains only thin filaments  A band = dark band  Contains the entire length of the thick filaments
  19. 19. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Figure 6.3b
  20. 20. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle  Sarcomere—contractile unit of a muscle fiber  Organization of the sarcomere  Myofilaments  Thick filaments = myosin filaments  Thin filaments = actin filaments
  21. 21. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Figure 6.3c

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