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Cloud and grid computing by Leen Blom, Centric
 

Cloud and grid computing by Leen Blom, Centric

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Summary of Leen Blom's lecture at Iasi Technical University on Cloud and Grid Computing.

Summary of Leen Blom's lecture at Iasi Technical University on Cloud and Grid Computing.

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    Cloud and grid computing by Leen Blom, Centric Cloud and grid computing by Leen Blom, Centric Presentation Transcript

    • Cloud and Grid Computing Leen Blom Centric Research & Development June 21st, 2013
    • Cloud and Grid Computing Part 1: Setting the scene • What is Cloud Computing and Grid Computing • Differences and similarities • Using grids and clouds Part 2: What happens today • Grid activities in The Netherlands, Europe and Romania • Privacy and Security in the Cloud • The big cloud service providers • Our vision on Cloud
    • What is Cloud and Grid? Power grid metaphor for both terms • Utility computing • John McCarthy (AI, Lisp) opined in the 1960s that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility."[link] • Grid definition used nowadays (2002) • “What is the Grid? A Three Point Checklist”,[link] Ian Foster lists these primary attributes: • Computing resources are not administered centrally. • Open standards are used. • Nontrivial quality of service is achieved. • Cloud definition based on NIST (2011) • NIST Definition of Cloud Computing • NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology • Part of the U.S. Department of Commerce • Origin unclear: cloud was used as a metaphor for the Internet and a standardized cloud-like shape was used to denote a network
    • Grid Computing Grid Computing is concerned with • “Coordinated resource sharing and problem solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations.” [Foster 2002] Focus on • The problem • Coordination of resources shared • Multi organizations involved Tasks are “bigger” than resources needed • One task to many resources • Task split-up in parallel sub-tasks Classes of Grid Computing • High Performance Computing (HPC) • Using message passing interfaces (MPI) • Expensive • Embarrassingly Parallel Computing (EPC) • Or High Throughput Computing (HTC) • Often Volunteer Computing like Boinc
    • Cloud Computing by NIST Service Models Public Private Community Hybrid Deployment Models source: http://www.nist.gov/itl/cloud/index.cfm
    • Cloud Service Models Source: https://www.e-education.psu.edu/cloudGIS/cloud_introduction Capex Opex
    • Why Cloud (and Grid)? On-demand self-service • A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities without requiring human interaction with each service provider. Broad network access • Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms Resource pooling • The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers • Customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources Rapid elasticity • Capabilities can be elastically provisioned and released, in some cases automatically, often appear to be unlimited and can be appropriated in any quantity at any time. Measured service • Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering See also: http://arxiv.org/pdf/0901.0131
    • Cloud and Grid: similar concepts On-demand self-service • A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities without requiring human interaction with each service provider. Broad network access • Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms Resource pooling • The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers • Customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources Rapid elasticity • Capabilities can be elastically provisioned and released, in some cases automatically, often appear to be unlimited and can be appropriated in any quantity at any time. Measured service • Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering Grid Cloud Grid Cloud Grid Cloud Grid Cloud Grid Cloud Public cloud only Batch oriented Capabilities must match Depends Commercial grids Public cloud only See also: http://arxiv.org/pdf/0901.0131
    • Cloud and Grid: different concepts Grid • Focus on the task at hand • Need resources to complete • Scientific research • Might use dedicated hardware components • Like GPU or storage • Virtualization of jobs, not of programs • Batch oriented Cloud • Focus on servicing multiple users (multi-tenant) • Information workers in many cases • Virtualization at several levels • Infrastructure, Platform and Software • Userinterfaces like Windows
    • Cloud fundamentals Virtualization Up- and downscaling From Capex to Opex • Prevents entry costs • Easier to downscale Increasing utilization • Research of IBM/VMware
    • Cloud And Grid Computing Cloud Computing is being integrated into Grids Big Data, BigTable, Hadoop needs Grid techniques • Shift from userinterface to “batchjobs” Rendering software in the Cloud • Offered as SaaS, • Autodesk 360 • vSwarm (rendering for free) • Underlying principles are Grid Weather services • Offered as SaaS to end users • Meteo organizations • Eurogrid.org Financial services
    • New exciting cloud service provider!
    • Cloud: Privacy and Security What is more secure: Private Cloud or Public Cloud? • Private • Pro: easier to isolate • Con: need to keep knowledge up-to-date • Public • Pro: may expect top security measures • Con: dependent on provider What would respect privacy more: Private Cloud or Public Cloud? • Private • Pro: no intrusion of people outside • Con: need to keep knowledge up-to-date • Public • Pro: easier to uniform policies • Con: conflicting laws and jurisdiction in some cases more than 77 million accounts affected, 12 million had unencrypted credit card numbers National security electronic surveillance program operated by the United States National Security Agency (NSA) since 2007
    • Part 2: Cloud and Grid today
    • Grid examples Old example: SETI@Home launched 1999 • Goal is to detect intelligent life outside Earth • Uses Boinc: Open-source software for volunteer computing and grid computing Life science Grid • Contains a limited number of bioinformatics applications • Free access for all BiG Grid / SurfSara (NL) • National e-Infrastructure for research, SurfSara • Huygens: the national supercomputer / Lisa: the national compute cluster / GPU cluster: a cluster equipped with GPUs / Grid: the Grid infrastructure / HPC Cloud: the cloud computing infrastructure / Hadoop: Big Data analytics framework / DIS: Data Ingest service / Collaboratorium: advanced visualization and presentation space / Visualization: high-end render cluster European Grid Infrastructure • For scientists and researchers
    • Grid examples Cartesius is the fastest supercomputer in the Netherlands and eventually will be able to perform more than one quadrillion computations per second (1 Petaflop/s).
    • Grid examples Rotterdam University of Applied Science (HR) • Donates their spare capacity of 6000 desktop to Erasmus Medical Center. Usage • DNA-sequence analysis • Simulating spread of infectious deseases • MRI-scan analysis (Alzheimer) • Technical • HTCondor™ middleware • Specialized workload management system for compute-intensive jobs • Open Source provides by University of Wisconsin Madison • HR research by their students (Bachelor) • Fractal movie and rendering • Security (desk cracker) • Calculating prime numbers
    • Cloud examples Numerous!
    • The Top Cloud Companies 1. Amazon.com • Inventor of IaaS 2. VMware • Used as cloud enabler • Provides: vCloud 3. Microsoft • Iaas, Paas: Azure • SaaS: enterprise products, Office 365 4. Salesforce.com • SaaS pur sang 5. Google • SaaS: Apps, also for the enterprise • PaaS: App Engine, Chrome OS, IaaS: Storage (Drive) 6. Rackspace • IaaS pur sang, with NASA inventers of OpenStack 7. IBM • All-in for OpenStack • Public: smart clouds , Private: enterprise customers 8. Citrix • CloudStack as competitor for OpenStack Source: http://www.businessinsider.com/10-most-important-in-cloud-computing-2013-4?op=1
    • Questions? Thank you very much for coming! Leen Blom Centric leen.blom@centric.eu