Grid Computing Frameworks

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Grid Computing Frameworks

  1. 1. Seminar: Parallel Computing Grid Computing Frameworks Sabbir Ahmmed
  2. 2. Outline ➔ Introduction to Grid Computing ➔ Grid Construction ➔ Grid Frameworks ➔ Globus Toolkit ➔ Gridbus Toolkit ➔ UNICORE ➔ Legion30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 2
  3. 3. Outline ➔ Comparison ➔ Other emerging frameworks ➔ Conclusion30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 3
  4. 4. Introduction to Grid Computing (I)End of 1998 the concept of "Grid computing" was introduced in the monograph "TheGrid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure" by I. Foster and C. Kesselman. 30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 4
  5. 5. Introduction to Grid Computing (II) ➔ The notion of grid computing: ➔ The term grid is chosen as an analogy to a power grid ! ➔ Grid computing is a special type of parallel computing ➔ How it differs from supercomputing? ➔ Few essential concepts related to grid computing: ➔ Utility computing ➔ Volunteer computing ➔ CPU scavenging ➔ Loosely coupled system ➔ Virtual supercomputers30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 5
  6. 6. Introduction to Grid Computing (III) ➔ grids typically share at least some of the following characteristics: ➔ They are numerous. ➔ They are owned and managed by different, potentially mutually-distrustful organizations and individuals. ➔ They are potentially faulty. ➔ They have different security requirements and policies. ➔ They are heterogeneous, e.g., they have different CPU architectures, run different operating systems, and have different amounts of memory and disk. ➔ They are connected by heterogeneous, multi-level networks. ➔ They have different resource management policies. ➔ They are likely to be geographically-separated (on a campus, in an enterprise, on a continent).30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 6
  7. 7. Introduction to Grid Computing (IV) Compute Grids Data GridsAccess Grids Knowledge Grids Bio Grids Commodity Grids Campus Grid Tera Grids Science Grids Sensor Grids Cluster Grids 30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 7
  8. 8. Introduction to Grid Computing (V) ➔ Grid Computing Initiatives World-wide ( source: http://www.gridguide.org/ )30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 8
  9. 9. Grid Construction (I) ➔ General Principles (four main aspects characterize a grid) ➔ Multiple administrative domain and autonomy ➔ Heterogeneity ➔ Scalability ➔ Dynamicity or adaptability30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 9
  10. 10. Grid Construction (II) ➔ The steps necessary to realize a grid ➔ Integration of individual software and hardware components ➔ Deployment of ➔ Low level middleware ➔ User level middleware ➔ Development and optimization of distributed applications.30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 10
  11. 11. Grid Construction (III)➔ A Layered Grid Architecture30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 11
  12. 12. Grid Construction (IV)30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 12
  13. 13. Grid Frameworks (I) ➔ A software framework (or middleware) ➔ contains executables or tools ➔ provides inversion of control ➔ has a default behavior ➔ extensibility ➔ non-modifiable framework code30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 13
  14. 14. Grid Frameworks (II) ● Grid framework (or middleware), is a software stack that facilitates ● writing grid applications ● and manages the underlying grid infrastructure ➔ Grid frameworks can be categorized by the grid layers. ➔ Core middleware and toolkit: ➔ Globus, Gridbus (Alchemi, GridSim), UNICORE, Legion, GridGain, gLite ➔ User-level middleware and toolkit: ➔ SAGA, MetaMPI, Cactus, GrADS, Gridport, WebFlow, XtremeWeb30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 14
  15. 15. Globus Toolkit (I) ➔ Open source software toolkit for developing Grid applications ➔ The de facto standard for open source grid computing infrastructure ➔ Supported by industry leaders such as IBM, Intel, HP with others (The Globus Consortium) ➔ R&D project conducted by the “Globus Alliance” ➔ Work on the toolkit first began in 1996. Historically, the Globus Toolkit was used widely by three groups of people ➔ Grid builders ➔ Application developers ➔ Application framework developers30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 15
  16. 16. Globus Toolkit (II) ➔ Provides three main groups of services accessible through a security layer : 1. Resource Management 2. Data Management 3. Information Services30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 16
  17. 17. Globus Toolkit (III)Impact: Globus Toolkit have enabled many exciting new scientific and businessgrids. (Source: http://www.globus.org/alliance/impact/)30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 17
  18. 18. Gridbus Toolkit (I) ➔ Originated from Gridbus (GRIDcomputing andBUSiness) project. ➔ Toolkit for Service Oriented Grid and Utility Computing ➔ Supports development of grid infrastructure for eScience and eBusiness applications. ➔ Uses economic models (supply and demand) for efficient management of shared resources. ➔ Promotes commoditization of grid services at various levels: ➔ Raw resources level ➔ Application level ➔ Aggregated service level30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 18
  19. 19. Gridbus Toolkit (II)30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 19
  20. 20. Gridbus Toolkit (III)Impact: Gridbus Toolkit have enabled several exciting scientific and business grids.(Source: http://www.cloudbus.org/applications.html)● High Energy Physics and Grid Networks (BelleDataGrid): Melbourne School of Physics● NeuroGrid: Brain Activity Analysis on the Grid : Osaka University, Japan● KidneyGrid - Distributed Kidney Models Integration: Melbourne Medical School● Austronomy: Australian Virtual Observatory 30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 20
  21. 21. UNICORE (I) ➔ UNICORE (Uniform Interface to Computing Resources) ➔ is a ready-to-run Grid system including client and server software ➔ is part of the European Middleware Initiative. ➔ Project was initially funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) ➔ UNICORE was started before "Grid computing" ➔ developed by several European partners under the leadership of Jülich Supercomputing Centre. ➔ platform-independent, based on open standards and technologies such as Web Services ➔ mostly written in Java and is available as open source under BSD license and available at SourceForge. Current version is UNICORE 630 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 21
  22. 22. UNICORE (II) ➔ The architecture of UNICORE 6 is three-layered in ➔ client layer, ➔ service layer ➔ and system layer UNICORE 6 Architecture30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 22
  23. 23. UNICORE (III)Impact: UNICORE6 has been the middleware of choice in numerous grids in EU.(Source: http://www.unicore.eu/community/projects/) 30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 23
  24. 24. Legion (I) ➔ Legion is an object-based metasystem developed at the University of Virginia. ➔ The software developed under the Legion project has been commercialized by a spin-off company called Avaki Corporation ➔ The Legion system uses an object-oriented approach. In the Legion system the following apply ➔ Everything is an object. ➔ Classes manage their instances ➔ Users can define their own classes ➔ The Legion interfaces are described in an Interface Definition Language (IDL).30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 24
  25. 25. Legion (II) ➔ Legion core objects support the basic services needed by the metasystem. ➔ Legion objects are independent, active, and capable of communicating with each other via unordered non-blocking calls. ➔ Some core objects in Legion are: ➔ Host objects: represent processors in Legion. ➔ Vault objects: represent persistent storage. ➔ Context objects: Context objects map context names to Legion object IDs ➔ Binding agents: A binding agent maps object IDs to physical addresses ➔ Implementation object: hides the storage details of object implementations ➔ Class object : is used to define and manage its corresponding Legion object. Class objects are given system-level responsibility.30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 25
  26. 26. Legion (III)30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 26
  27. 27. Comparison (I)30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 27
  28. 28. Comparison (II)30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 28
  29. 29. Comparison (II)30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 29
  30. 30. Other Emerging Frameworks ➔ Alchemi: a .NET-based grid computing framework. For more information on Alchemi please visit http://www.alchemi.net/ ➔ Gridgain 2.0: Java Grid Computing Framework Released by GridGain Systems. ➔ Since its release in August 2007 GridGain became the fastest growing Java grid computing infrastructure with over 10,000 downloads ➔ more than 500 unique projects utilizing it ➔ and deployed in a dozen production systems. ➔ gLite: a framework for building applications tapping into distributed computing and storage resources across the Internet ➔ used in the CERN LHC experiments and in other scientific domains ➔ adopted by more than 250 computing centres and used by more than 15000 researchers in Europe and around the world.30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 30
  31. 31. Conclusion ➔ Opinion! ➔ Critical assessment !!30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 31
  32. 32. References ➔ [01]: Parvin Asadzadeh et. al. “Global Grids and Software Toolkits: A Study of Four Grid Middleware Technologies”. ➔ [02]: Mark Baker et. al. “Grids and Grid technologies for wide-area distributed computing”30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 32
  33. 33. Questions30 September 2012 Grid Computing Frameworks 33

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