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A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013
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A global perspective on CWR- ASA/CSSA/SSSA Tampa 2013

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Presentation regarding gap analysis results for crop wild relatives of over 80 of the world's most important crops, for the annual international ASA/CSSA/SSSA conference, 3-6 November 2013, Tampa, …

Presentation regarding gap analysis results for crop wild relatives of over 80 of the world's most important crops, for the annual international ASA/CSSA/SSSA conference, 3-6 November 2013, Tampa, Florida

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  • Among plant genetic resources, we haveCWR. - Greater trait diversity if compared to other breeding materials- No domestication bottleneck, and genetic closeness to cultivated species, therefore, important resources for crop improvement
  • BIOTIC TRAITSGrassy stunt virus transmitted by the brown plant hopper (BPH)M.acuminata ssp. Burmannica (accessions calcutta 4)
  • ABIOTIC TRAITSTolerance to abiotic constraints gives CWR a potential to help adapting crops to harsher environmental conditions, as those expected due to climate change
  • CWR are also subject of pressures that can jeopardize their long-term survival
  • Predictions made for 2055Scenarios: limited, unlimited and no-migrationExtinction predicted for 16-22% species (depending on migration scenario)-Vigna: cowpea
  • * 81 crop gene pools, 1187 taxa analyzed (GP1, GP2 and GP3 when literature supports confirmed and potential uses)* Fine-tuning with experts (using surveys)
  • Uses germplasm passport and herbarium specimens to compare how well represented is a taxon in seedbanks3 dimensional analysismeasuring how well sampled is a taxon, what is the proportion of its geographical extent that is represented in seedbanks, what is the proportion of ecosystems where the taxon occurs that are represented in seedbanksIndependent measurementsAssign levels of prioritization for each taxaFour levels of prioritization
  • Experts potato: Alberto Salas (CIP) and David Spooner (USDA)78 species analyzedHPS: 35% (27 spp.) / MPS: 33% (26 spp.) / LPS: 23% (18 spp.) / NFCR: 9% (7spp.)
  • Experts potato: Alberto Salas (CIP) and David Spooner (USDA)78 species analyzedHPS: 35% (27 spp.) / MPS: 33% (26 spp.) / LPS: 23% (18 spp.) / NFCR: 9% (7spp.)
  • Total mapped species: 957 (80%)HPS mapped: 656 (77%) belonging to 74 gene pools3 crop gene pools with no HPS-CWR: chickpea, grasspea and lentil
  • 3 crop gene pools with no HPS-CWR: chickpea, grasspea and lentil
  • 78 species analyzedHPS: 35% (27 spp.) / MPS: 33% (26 spp.) / LPS: 23% (18 spp.) / NFCR: 9% (7spp.)Experts potato: Alberto Salas (CIP) and David Spooner (USDA)
  • Areas with high concentration of crop wild relatives needing urgent actions for ex-situ conservation
  • Interesting cases: Greece, Azerbaijan, Nepal, Bulgaria, Portugal -> High count, high densityIn terms of establishing
  • The project is creating partnerships with national collaborations and creating collecting guides for them
  • Sundaland = Malaysia + Indonesia
  • Get in contact to collaborate!
  • Transcript

    • 1. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) A global perspective on crop wild relatives: distributions and conservation ex situ Project: “Adapting agriculture to climate change: collecting, protecting and preparing crop wild relatives” Nora P. Castañeda-Álvarez, Colin K. Khoury, Chrystian C. Sosa, Harold A. Achicanoy, Vivian Bernau, Holly Vincent, Andy Jarvis, Paul C. Struik and Nigel Maxted ASA, CSSA and SSSA International Annual Meetings, November 6, 2013, Tampa (FL)
    • 2. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) General outline • Introduction – Definition of crop wild relatives – Uses of crop wild relatives – Pressures on crop wild relatives • Methods and materials • Results and discussion • Future steps 2
    • 3. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) What is a Crop Wild Relative?  Wild plant species closely related to crops, including wild ancestors  Wild “cousins” of cultivated plants Lactuca serriola. Image by: C. Khoury 3
    • 4. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Why Crop Wild Relatives “Crop Wild Relatives (CWR) may serve as source of novel traits, as most of them have not experienced strong selective pressures and they share a common ancestry with crops, easing the use of their genes in traditional breeding and biotechnology when required” (Dale 1992). 4 Dale, P.J., 1992. Spread of Engineered Genes to Wild Relatives. Plant physiology, 100, pp.13-15.
    • 5. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Uses of CWR Resistance to black Sigatoka and Fusarium wilt from Musa acuminata ssp. burmannica in banana (Escalant et al., 2002) Grassy stunt virus resistance from Oryza nivara in rice (Brar & Khush, 1997) Image by: IRRI 5 Image by: www.tropicos.org
    • 6. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Uses of CWR Aluminium tolerance from Oryza rufipogon in rice (Nguyen et al., 2003) Salinity tolerance from Solanum cheesmaniae in tomato (Chetelat, 1995) Image by: IRRI Image by: TGRC 6
    • 7. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Pressures on CWR “Two thirds of the world’s plant species are in danger of extinction with pressure from the growing human population, habitat modification and deforestation, overexploitation, spread of invasive alien species, pollution and the growing impacts of climate change”. (SCDB, 2009) 7 Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2009). The Convention on Biological Diversity Plant Conservation Report: A Review of Progress in implementing the Global Strategy of Plant Conservation (GSPS). 48 pages
    • 8. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Pressures on CWR: Climate change • • • ~2055 Extinction predicted for 16-22% (110 species) High habitat fragmentation No. of species with area loss 26 Scenario: unlimited migration 31 79 Jarvis, a, Lane, a & Hijmans, R., 2008. The effect of climate change on crop wild relatives. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 126(1-2), pp.13-23. Available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167880908000133 [Accessed March 16, 2011].
    • 9. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Materials and Methods • ~5.000.000 records database – http://www.cwrdiversity.org/data-sources/ • 81 crop gene pools, 1187 taxa analyzed – http://www.cwrdiversity.org/checklist/ (Vincent et al., 2013) • Environmental layers: Bioclim dataset (Hijmans et al., 2005) • Spatial resolution: 2.5min (~5km at equator) • Gap Analysis methodology (Ramírez-Villegas et al., 2010) • Results evaluation with experts 9
    • 10. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Materials and Methods Sampling representativeness Geographical extent Environmental coverage 10
    • 11. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Occurrence data 1187 taxa  370,777 georeferenced records List of crops analyzed: http://goo.gl/Y19Oum 11
    • 12. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Species distribution models (e.g.potato) 12 Map prepared by: Chrystian Sosa (CIAT, 2013)
    • 13. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Species richness (e.g.potato) No. of taxa 13 Map prepared by: Chrystian Sosa (CIAT, 2013)
    • 14. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Species richness (81 gene pools) Global distribution of the CWR of 81 crop gene pools 14 Map prepared by: Chrystian Sosa (CIAT, 2013)
    • 15. 900 800 71% 700 No. of CWR taxa Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Establishing priorities for field collections 600 500 400 300 200 100 13% 12% 5% 0 High priority taxa Mid priority taxa for Low priority taxa for for collection collection collection No further collection is required 15
    • 16. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Species collecting gaps (e.g. potato) 16
    • 17. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Genepool collecting gaps (e.g.potato) No. of taxa 17
    • 18. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Collecting hotspots Global collecting hotspots for High Priority Taxa, for 76 crop gene pools 18 Map prepared by: Chrystian Sosa (CIAT, 2013)
    • 19. 0.06 140 0.05 120 0.04 100 80 0.03 60 0.02 40 CWR concentration (No. taxa per 100 sq. km.) 160 No. of CWR taxa Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Top 20 countries with high count of High priority taxa for collection 0.01 20 0 0 No. CWR taxa CWR concentration 19
    • 20. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) A global initiative on crop wild relatives • Identify, collect, conserve, document use of key CWR for climate change adaptation (in developing countries) • 10 years funding pledged by Norwegian government, starting 2011 • Target crops: Avena sativa Oat Malus domestica Apple Secale cereale Rye Cajanus cajan Pigeonpea Medicago sativa Alfalfa/Lucerne Solanum melongena Eggplant/Aubergine Cicer arietinum Chickpea Musa acuminata Cavendish banana Solanum tuberosum Potato Daucus carota Wild carrot Musa balbisiana Guangdong plantain Sorghum bicolor Sorghum Eleusine coracana Finger millet Oryza glaberrima African rice Triticum aestivum Bread wheat Helianthus annuus Sunflower Oryza sativa Rice Vicia faba Faba bean Hordeum vulgare Barley Pennisetum glaucum Pearl millet Vicia sativa Common vetch Ipomoea batatas Sweet potato Phaseolus lunatus Lima bean Vigna subterranea Bambara groundnut Lathyrus sativus Grass pea/Common chickling Phaseolus vulgaris Garden bean Vigna unguiculata Cowpea Lens culinaris Lentil Pisum sativum Garden pea 20
    • 21. 21 Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT)
    • 22. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Take home message • Urgent conservation actions are needed for more than half of the CWR considered in the analysis • Opportunities to piggyback on other conservation initiatives (especially for biodiversity hotspots such as: Mediterranean basin, South-Central China, Polynesia/Micronesia and Indonesia + Malaysia) 22
    • 23. ¡Gracias! www.cwrdiversity.org n.p.castaneda@cgiar.org Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT)
    • 24. Arachis pintoi (wild relative of peanut). Picture by: Neil Palmer (CIAT) Additional references Escalant J, Sharrock S, Frison E (2002) The genetic improvement of Musa using conventional breeding, and modern tools of molecular and cell biology, International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain Farooq, S., Iqbal, N., Asghar, M. and Shah T.M. (1992). Intergeneric hybridization for wheat improvement. VI. Production of salt tolerant germplasm through crossing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with Aegilops cylindrica and its significance in practical agriculture. Journal of Genetics and Breeding, 46: 125–132. Farooq, S., Asghar, M., Iqbal. N., Asian, E., Arif, M. and Shah T.M. (1995). Production of salt tolerant wheat germplasm through crossing cultivated wheat with Aegilops cylindrica, IL Field evaluation of salt tolerant germplasm. Cereal Research Community, 23: 275–282. Hajjar, R. and T. Hodgkin. (2007) The use of wild relatives in crop improvement: A survey of developments over the last 20 years. Euphytica 156:1-13. DOI 10.1007/s10681-007-9363-0 Hijmans, R.J. et al., 2005. Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology, 25, pp.1965– 1978. King, I.F., Forster, B.P., Law, C.C., Cant, K.Allium, Orford, S., Gorham, J., Reader, S. and T,E. Miller, T.E., (1997a). Introgression of salt tolerance genes fr om Thinopyrum bessarabicum into wheat. New Phytologist, 137: 75–81. Lexer, C., Lai, Z. and Rieseberg, L.H. (2004). Candidate gene polymorphisms associated with salt tolerance in wild sunflower hybrids: implications for the origin of Helianthus paradoxus, a diploid hybrid species. New Phytologist, 161:225–233. Miller, J.F. and G.J. Seiler. Registration of Five Oilseed Maintainer (HA 429–HA 433) Sunflower Germplasm Lines Crop Sci. 2003 43: 2313–2314 DOI 10.2135/cropsci2003.2313 Munoz, L.C., Blair, M.W., Duque, M.C., Tohme, J. and Roca, W., (2004). Introgression in common bean x Tepary bean interspecific congruity‐back cross lines as measured by AFLP marker. Crop Science, 44: 637–645. Nguyen, B., Brar, D., Bui, B., Nguyen, T., Pham, L. and Nguyen, H. (2003). Identification and mapping of the QTL for aluminium tolerance introgressed from the new source, Oryza rufipogon Griff, into indica rice (Oryza sativa L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 106: 583–593. Rick C, Chetelat R (1995) Utilization of related wild species for tomato improvement, First International Symposium on Solanacea for Fresh Market. Acta Hortic 412:21–38 Suneson, C.Allium, (1967a). Registration of Rapida oats. Crop Science, 7: 168. Suneson, C.Allium, (1967b). Registration of Sierra oats. Crop Science, 7: 168. Vincent, H. et al., 2013. A prioritized crop wild relative inventory to help underpin global food security. Biological Conservation, 167, pp.265–275. Available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0006320713002851 [Accessed September 30, 2013]. 24

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