Dengue New


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Dengue New

  1. 2. MADE BY Mehtab shah B.S MT 3 RD YEAR
  2. 3. WHAT IS DENGUE FEVER? <ul><li>It is an infectious disease carried by mosquitoes and any of four related dengue viruses. </li></ul><ul><li>The disease is also called </li></ul><ul><li>“ BREAK-BONE” fever. </li></ul><ul><li>It some times causes severe joint and muscle pain that feels like bone are breaking. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Dengue hemorrhagic fever <ul><li>Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a severe, often fatal, complication of Dengue fever. </li></ul><ul><li>Serious life-threatening condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently children and others are affected whom previously infected with one serotype or strain of dengue virus and subsequently become reinfected with a different serotype or strain. </li></ul><ul><li>The secondary immune response leads to the formation of virus-antibody immune complexes which activate complement. </li></ul>
  5. 6. CONTD……….. <ul><li>These complements are causing vascular damage and dissaminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with spontaneous bleeding. </li></ul><ul><li>In some patients, DHF progresses to circulatory collapse, referred as dengue shock syndrome (DSS). </li></ul>
  6. 7. EPIDIOMOLOGY <ul><li>Dengue fever is found mostly during and shortly after the rainy season in tropical and sub tropical areas of </li></ul><ul><li>Africa </li></ul><ul><li>South East Asia and China </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Caribbean and Central and South America </li></ul><ul><li>Australia and the South and Central Pacific </li></ul>
  7. 8. VIRUS CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>GROUP : IV </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY :Flaviviridea </li></ul><ul><li>Genus :Flavivirus </li></ul><ul><li>Specie :Dengue Virus </li></ul>
  8. 9. PATHOGENESITY <ul><li>Dengue is a four types. </li></ul><ul><li>DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, cause dengue (DEN) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). </li></ul><ul><li>These viruses are transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Replication and transmission <ul><li>Virus transmitted to human by mosquito bite. </li></ul><ul><li>Virus replicate in target organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Virus infects white blood cells and lymphatic tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Virus released and circulates in blood. </li></ul>
  10. 11. CONTD>>>>>>>> <ul><li>Two main species of mosquito. Aedes aegypti Aedes albopictus </li></ul><ul><li>Dengue is not contagious from person to person. </li></ul><ul><li>Aedes mosquitoes usually bites during day time. </li></ul>
  11. 12. SYMPTOMS <ul><li>Dengue usually start with fever within 4-7 days after been bitten by an infected mosquitoes. </li></ul>
  12. 13. CONTD>>>>>>> <ul><li>High fever </li></ul><ul><li>Severe headache </li></ul><ul><li>Pain in eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Severe joint and muscle pain </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Enlarged lymph glands </li></ul>
  13. 14. CONTD>>>>>>>> <ul><li>Some times; </li></ul><ul><li>> Abdominal pain </li></ul><ul><li>> Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally; </li></ul><ul><li>> Hemorrhagic symptoms </li></ul>
  14. 15. CONTD>>>>>>>>>> <ul><li>Virus enter into the blood circulation by multiplication of virus in the reticuloendothelial system. </li></ul><ul><li>Leucopenia is the most infectious cause. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Diagnosis <ul><li>The diagnosis of dengue is usually made clinically. </li></ul><ul><li>The classis picture is high fever with no localizing source of infection. </li></ul><ul><li>A petechial rash with thrombocytopenia and relative leucopenia. </li></ul><ul><li>Low platelet and white blood cell count </li></ul><ul><li>Blood test showing blood containing antibodies to the virus. </li></ul>
  16. 17. DENGUE TEST <ul><li>Dengue test performed by the immunochromatographic method using the BIAS-3 (bi-directional immuno assay system) dengue IgG/IgM kit. </li></ul><ul><li>BIAS-3; two step assay for the differential detection of IgG or IgM antibodies to dengue virus in serum or whole blood. </li></ul>
  17. 18. TEST PRINCIPLE <ul><li>This test is the membrane based screening test to differentially detect the presence of antibodies to dengue virus. </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral flow immunochromatographic type assay. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the sample is added to the sample pad along with diluents the mixture passes bi-directionally through two antibody binding complexes which then binds the immunoglobulin in the sample. </li></ul>
  18. 19. CONTD>>>>>>> The complex passes over the immobilized antigens on the membrane, if any antibodies to dengue (IgG or IgM) are present the antigens capture them in turn. This produces a pink/purple band in the test-zone of the device. The remaining complex continues to migrate to a control area on the test device and produces a pink/purple band each control area. This control bands indicate that the test has been performed properly.
  19. 20. Interpretation <ul><li>Negative Only one pink/purple band appears in the Control areas of the BIAS test device </li></ul>
  20. 21. CONTD>>>>>>>> <ul><li>Positive One or Two pink/purple bands appear in the Test area of the BIAS test device and one line each in the Control area of the test device </li></ul>
  21. 22. CONTD>>>>>>>>>>> <ul><li>SECONDARY DENGUE INFECTION </li></ul><ul><li>IgG Positive </li></ul><ul><li>IgG and IgM Positive PRIMARY DENGUE INFECTION </li></ul><ul><li>IgM positive </li></ul>
  22. 23. Treatment <ul><li>There is no specific treatment for classic dengue fever, and most people recover within two weeks </li></ul><ul><li>To help with recovery health care experts recommend </li></ul><ul><li>Getting plenty of bed rest </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking lots of fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Give medicine to reduce fever </li></ul>
  23. 24. Prevention