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The conservation and use of crop genetic resources
for food security
Colin K. Khoury
Wageningen University
31 August 2015
Wageningen, The Netherlands
David Cavagnaro
Research questions:
• What is the status of diversity in our food systems,
and where are the greatest vulnerabilities?
• Where can genetic diversity be found that can be
useful in increasing productivity and mitigating these
vulnerabilities?
• Is this genetic diversity available in the present and in
the long term?, and
• What steps are needed to improve access to genetic
resources critical for crop improvement?
Research questions:
• What is the status of diversity in our food systems,
and where are the greatest vulnerabilities?
i.e., “How many crops feed the world?”
1961
How many crops feed the world?
Khoury et al. (2014) PNAS 111(11): 4001-4006
1985
How many crops feed the world?
Khoury et al. (2014) PNAS 111(11): 4001-4006
2009
How many crops feed the world?
Khoury et al. (2014) PNAS 111(11): 4001-4006
How many crops feed the world?
Khoury et al. (2014) PNAS 111(11): 4001-4006
Research questions:
• What is the status of diversity in our food systems,
and where are the greatest vulnerabilities?
Key implications regarding crop genetic diversity:
• As major staples become ever more dominant, production stability,
nutrition, and environmental impacts become ever more critical
• Thus their genetic diversity will need to be ever more utilized
• Marginalizing crops will need increased investment to make them
competitive and desirable
• This likewise requires conservation, research, and utilization of
genetic diversity
Research questions:
•
• Where can genetic diversity be found that can be
useful in increasing productivity and mitigating these
vulnerabilities?
Crop wild relatives
Brar DS. (2010). What are the main bottlenecks to the use of CWR in breeding? How can they be overcome? Presentation for ‘Adapting Agriculture to Climate
Change: The Need for Crop Wild Relatives’, Bellagio, 7-9 September 2010.
Crop wild relatives are valuable
Aluminium tolerance from
Oryza rufipogon
Salinity tolerance from
Solanum cheesmaniae
Western corn rootworm resistance
from Tripsacum dactyloides
Salinity tolerance from
Helianthus paradoxus
2055
Crop wild relatives are threatened
Research questions:
•
• Where can genetic diversity be found that can be
useful in increasing productivity and mitigating these
vulnerabilities?
• Is this genetic diversity available in the present and in
the long term?, and
• What steps are needed to improve access to genetic
resources critical for crop improvement?
Gather
occurrence data
A gap analysis methodology
Make collecting
recommendations
Model
distributions
Process data
Determine gaps
in genebanks
Taxonomic
Geographic
Ecological
Choose species
or area
Bean
Sweetpotato
Pigeonpea
Distributions of the CWR of pigeonpea
Khoury et al. 2015. Biological Conservation 184: 259-270.
Collecting priorities for the CWR of pigeonpea
Khoury et al. 2015. Biological Conservation 184: 259-270.
Potential adaptive traits in CWR of pigeonpea
Khoury et al. 2015. Biological Conservation 184: 259-270.
Targeted proposed collecting for adaptive traits for
the CWR of pigeonpea
Potential distributions of selected CWR in A) south Asia and B) Australia that are not currently represented in germplasm collections and which occur in regions with <500 mm annual precipitation.
Khoury et al. 2015. Biological Conservation 184: 259-270.
Research questions:
Key findings regarding crop wild relatives:
• There are (still) a lot of crop wild relatives, even in ‘genetic
resource poor’ countries
• Considerable potential to contribute traits of value to crops
• Often not well defined and poorly documented
• Highly under-represented in genebanks
• Biogeographic methods and expert inputs can be useful in
setting conservation priorities and targeting potential traits
Research questions:
•
•
•
• What steps are needed to improve access to genetic
resources critical for crop improvement?
Interdependence and implications for access to diversity
Khoury et al. (2015) ITPGRFA Research Study 8 (Rome: FAO).
Khoury et al. (2015) ITPGRFA Research Study 8 (Rome: FAO).
Khoury et al. (2015) ITPGRFA Research Study 8 (Rome: FAO).
Khoury et al. (2015) ITPGRFA Research Study 8 (Rome: FAO).
Khoury et al. (2015) ITPGRFA Research Study 8 (Rome: FAO).
Khoury et al. (2015) ITPGRFA Research Study 8 (Rome: FAO).
Khoury et al. (2015) ITPGRFA Research Study 8 (Rome: FAO).
Global interconnectedness
with regard to primary
regions of diversity of crops
important in food supplies
Khoury et al. (2015) ITPGRFA Research Study 8 (Rome: FAO).
Thank you! c.khoury@cgiar.org

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The Conservation and Use of Crop Genetic Resources for Food Security

  • 1. The conservation and use of crop genetic resources for food security Colin K. Khoury Wageningen University 31 August 2015 Wageningen, The Netherlands
  • 3. Research questions: • What is the status of diversity in our food systems, and where are the greatest vulnerabilities? • Where can genetic diversity be found that can be useful in increasing productivity and mitigating these vulnerabilities? • Is this genetic diversity available in the present and in the long term?, and • What steps are needed to improve access to genetic resources critical for crop improvement?
  • 4. Research questions: • What is the status of diversity in our food systems, and where are the greatest vulnerabilities? i.e., “How many crops feed the world?”
  • 5. 1961 How many crops feed the world? Khoury et al. (2014) PNAS 111(11): 4001-4006
  • 6. 1985 How many crops feed the world? Khoury et al. (2014) PNAS 111(11): 4001-4006
  • 7. 2009 How many crops feed the world? Khoury et al. (2014) PNAS 111(11): 4001-4006
  • 8. How many crops feed the world? Khoury et al. (2014) PNAS 111(11): 4001-4006
  • 9. Research questions: • What is the status of diversity in our food systems, and where are the greatest vulnerabilities? Key implications regarding crop genetic diversity: • As major staples become ever more dominant, production stability, nutrition, and environmental impacts become ever more critical • Thus their genetic diversity will need to be ever more utilized • Marginalizing crops will need increased investment to make them competitive and desirable • This likewise requires conservation, research, and utilization of genetic diversity
  • 10. Research questions: • • Where can genetic diversity be found that can be useful in increasing productivity and mitigating these vulnerabilities?
  • 11. Crop wild relatives Brar DS. (2010). What are the main bottlenecks to the use of CWR in breeding? How can they be overcome? Presentation for ‘Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: The Need for Crop Wild Relatives’, Bellagio, 7-9 September 2010.
  • 12. Crop wild relatives are valuable Aluminium tolerance from Oryza rufipogon Salinity tolerance from Solanum cheesmaniae Western corn rootworm resistance from Tripsacum dactyloides Salinity tolerance from Helianthus paradoxus
  • 13. 2055 Crop wild relatives are threatened
  • 14. Research questions: • • Where can genetic diversity be found that can be useful in increasing productivity and mitigating these vulnerabilities? • Is this genetic diversity available in the present and in the long term?, and • What steps are needed to improve access to genetic resources critical for crop improvement?
  • 15. Gather occurrence data A gap analysis methodology Make collecting recommendations Model distributions Process data Determine gaps in genebanks Taxonomic Geographic Ecological Choose species or area Bean Sweetpotato Pigeonpea
  • 16. Distributions of the CWR of pigeonpea Khoury et al. 2015. Biological Conservation 184: 259-270.
  • 17. Collecting priorities for the CWR of pigeonpea Khoury et al. 2015. Biological Conservation 184: 259-270.
  • 18. Potential adaptive traits in CWR of pigeonpea Khoury et al. 2015. Biological Conservation 184: 259-270.
  • 19. Targeted proposed collecting for adaptive traits for the CWR of pigeonpea Potential distributions of selected CWR in A) south Asia and B) Australia that are not currently represented in germplasm collections and which occur in regions with <500 mm annual precipitation. Khoury et al. 2015. Biological Conservation 184: 259-270.
  • 20. Research questions: Key findings regarding crop wild relatives: • There are (still) a lot of crop wild relatives, even in ‘genetic resource poor’ countries • Considerable potential to contribute traits of value to crops • Often not well defined and poorly documented • Highly under-represented in genebanks • Biogeographic methods and expert inputs can be useful in setting conservation priorities and targeting potential traits
  • 21. Research questions: • • • • What steps are needed to improve access to genetic resources critical for crop improvement?
  • 22. Interdependence and implications for access to diversity Khoury et al. (2015) ITPGRFA Research Study 8 (Rome: FAO).
  • 23. Khoury et al. (2015) ITPGRFA Research Study 8 (Rome: FAO).
  • 24. Khoury et al. (2015) ITPGRFA Research Study 8 (Rome: FAO).
  • 25. Khoury et al. (2015) ITPGRFA Research Study 8 (Rome: FAO).
  • 26. Khoury et al. (2015) ITPGRFA Research Study 8 (Rome: FAO).
  • 27. Khoury et al. (2015) ITPGRFA Research Study 8 (Rome: FAO).
  • 28. Khoury et al. (2015) ITPGRFA Research Study 8 (Rome: FAO).
  • 29. Global interconnectedness with regard to primary regions of diversity of crops important in food supplies Khoury et al. (2015) ITPGRFA Research Study 8 (Rome: FAO).

Editor's Notes

  1. And - Crop diversity is tremendously valuable But- Crop diversity is threatened Partly due to lack of information and understanding Therefore- thesis
  2. This thesis aimed to contribute to information to answer these questions
  3. As we put our eggs increasingly in one basket, we need to ensure that that basket has as much genetic diversity in it as possible.
  4. Here we focus on Crop wild relatives
  5. Timely both for biodiversity conservation and food security objectives.
  6. Conservation and availability are critical So is access, which is a political issue
  7. Crop genetic resources as a global public good
  8. Crop genetic resources as a global public good
  9. Crop genetic resources as a global public good
  10. Crop genetic resources as a global public good
  11. Crop genetic resources as a global public good
  12. Crop genetic resources as a global public good
  13. Crop genetic resources as a global public good