Jatin Nathwani: North America's Energy Future Keynote


Published on

Dr. Jatin Nathwani's keynote presentation at the CEC Joint Public Advisory Public Forum on North America's Energy Future: Powering a Low-carbon Economy for 2030 and Beyond. Find out more at http://www.cec.org/energy2012

Dr. Nathwani is Ontario Research Chair in Public Policy for Sustainable Energy and Executive Director, Waterloo Institute for Sustainable Energy (WISE), University of Waterloo (Ontario). He speaks about the Equinox Blueprint.

Published in: Technology, Economy & Finance
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Be sure to get your copy of the Equinox Blueprint: Energy 2030 on our website at wgsi.org . You can also download free copies of videos like the one you saw at the start of this session, and watch some of the Equinox Summit sessions, broadcast on TVO. The Equinox Blueprint is part of a year-long implementation phase. WGSI will work with summit participants to publicise the recommendations of this blueprint, and make Exemplar Pathways better known, by engaging with the public, industry and policymakers on a global level.
  • Jatin Nathwani: North America's Energy Future Keynote

    1. 1. Equinox Energy 2030: A technological roadmap for a low carbon electrified futureProf. Jatin NathwaniOntario Research Chair in Public Policy for Sustainable EnergyExecutive Director, Waterloo Institute for Sustainable EnergyUniversity of Waterloo, Waterloo, ONKeynote Presentation at theJoint Public Advisory Committee (JPAC) Meeting“Powering a Low-carbon Economy for 2030 and Beyond,”Commission for Environmental Co-operation (CEC), NAFTA.Toronto, ONApril 18, 2012 1
    2. 2. Today‟s Goals Challenges  A View of Global Energy Transitions Innovation  Promise of scientific and technology innovation Bring coherence to a complex problem  Offer fresh thinking 2
    3. 3. World at Night3
    4. 4. Lack of Affordable Energy: What does it mean? Energy‟s link to human development Productivity National Income Health Education Social Development 4
    5. 5. Population Growth, Energy, IncomeGlobal population divided into income groups: Primary energy Developed (GDP>$12,000) Emerging (GDP<$12,000) Developing (GDP<$5,000) Poorest (GDP<$1,500) Population rise to 9 billion + by 2050, mainly in poorest and developing 10000 countries. 8000 Population, millions Shifting the development profile to a “low poverty” world means 6000 energy needs double by 2050 Source: WBCSD adaptation of IEA 2003 4000 Shifting the development profile further to a “developed” world 2000 means energy needs triple by 2050 Base case Low Prosperous 0 Poverty world Source: WBCSD 2007 2000 2050
    6. 6. Magnitude of change required for CO2 stabilization 30 CO2 emissions GtC / year 25 20 A1B/B2 Emissions range • A1B-AIM 15 • B2-AIM 1000 ppm 6-7 Gt reduction 10 5 550 ppm 0Source: WBCSD 2007 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100 6
    7. 7. Energy Transitions and the Global Challenge• Today‟s Global Energy Consumption: 16.5 TW - of which 2.5 TW is non-carbon (mainly hydro, nuclear..) If goal is to stabilize• By 2050: 30 TW global emissions - Likely higher (31- 40 TW) profile to 550 ppm GHG emissions, approx 50% of• By 2050: 15 TW of new non carbon Global Energy Demand must be - Equal to 6 x today‟s renewable global capacity non- carbon forms of energy All new growth to be met by non-carbon sources
    8. 8. The Equinox Process: Global Thinking Quorum scientific experts Policy and funding decisionsAdvisors Forum Implementation policy & future investment leaders Blueprint Transformative Recommendations technologies
    9. 9. Equinox Summit: Energy 2030Benchmarking Rebooting Public Dialogue Communiqué AFRICA wgsi.org
    10. 10. Young Future Leaders
    11. 11. Global Thinking • Solar/ WindGeneration • Geothermal • Nuclear Societal Needs • De-carbonization • Superconductors • EfficiencyDistribution • Smart Grids • Access • Security • Industrial • Affordability Storage • Consumer
    12. 12. Guiding the discussion: A model of the global electricity landscapeHow are transformative technologies integrated into this model?
    13. 13. Low-Carbon Electricity Ecosystem
    14. 14. Large scale storage for renewable energy
    15. 15. Energy Storage for the Future GridWind Power Future Grid  Reliable and stable output  Storage critical for increased compatibility of Physical ESS renewableCentral Power energy to the Plant grid. Electricity Customer Controller Load Electrochemical ESS PV Generation
    16. 16. because several of the High-power flywheels Large scale storage for technologies have broad Seconds power ratings and longe renewable energy discharge times than illustrated.2 High-power supercapacitors EQ U I N O X Flow batteries as an58 PAGE C H A PT ER 2 : 1 kW illustrative example of 10 kW 100 kW 1 MW System power ratings, module size 10 MW 100 MW LA RGE-G 1 electrochemical batteries in grid application FLOW BAT T ERIES A N D ELECT ROCH EM ICA L ST ORA GE SYST EM S SOURCE: MARIA SKYLLAS-KAZACOSSOURCE: MARIA SKYLLAS-KAZACOS Figure 2: A 1-10 kWhVRB installed by UNSW in a Figure 4: 200 kW/800 kWhVRB installation at the Solar Demonstration House inThailand in the mid- Kashima-Kita Electric Power station in J apan (installed in 1990s (top) and 5kWhVRB lab test battery (bottom). the mid-1990s). 2 S Dunn, B., H. Kamath, and J Tarascon. 2011. “Electrical Energy S ee . torage for the Grid: A Battery of Choices.” Science 334(928). Derived from Electric Power Research In 2010. Electrical energy storage technology options. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power R esearch Institute (EPR 3 Bartolozzi, M. 1989. “Development of R I). edox Flow Batteries. A h Bibliography.” J ournal of Power Sources 27: 219-234. Dunn, B., H. Kamath, and J Tarascon. 2011. “Electrical Energy S . torage for the Grid: A Battery of Choices.” Science 334
    17. 17. Large scale storage for renewable energyHow flow batteries work: one common electrolyte, simplicity ofelectrode reaction, and flexibility for stationary energy storage applications
    18. 18. Large scale storage for renewable energyCharacteristic times for energy storage and cost benefit data
    19. 19. Implementation: Large scale storage Regions with high intermittent renewable Private sector energy production Policymakers and electrical utilities to Utilities coordinate regulatory Policymakers framework Private sector to build 2020-2030 storage energy Establish a thriving market in energy storage through infrastructure deployment on a global scale
    20. 20. Low Emission Baseload Power GEOPOWER
    21. 21. Enhanced Geothermal Power Geothermal technologies Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Co-produced systems Advanced binary- cycle plants
    22. 22. Enhanced Geothermal Power Challenges for EGS Large upfront capital cost for drilling projects Lack of access to private sector capital to undertake high-risk capital intensive projects Lack of long-term investment incentives such as a price on carbon Lack of proof of resource for many geothermal prospects Lack of technically and commercially proven projects
    23. 23. Geothermal Power Potential Currently 10 GW, potential is 10% baseload by 2030 A number of working projects globally, advancing different technologies (HAS, EGS, Co-produced, Hydrothermal) Several large demo projects to deliver certainty and confidence Canada can take a leadership role in advancing geopower to the terawatt scale
    24. 24. Implementation: Enhanced Geothermal Technologies Convene International stakeholders  Information sharing;  assess opportunities;  de-risk industry “Ten Enhanced Geothermal Projects‟ is timely and relevant.  Initial funding and global working structure  Develop program strategy moving forward
    25. 25. Challenging your assumptions about nuclear 2020 2030 2040 2050 Nuclear waste is fuel  Avoids long-term storage Closing the fuel cycle  Inexhaustible supply Inherent safety Nuclear  Public acceptance waste Decarbonizes base load  Eliminates coal
    26. 26. Advanced Nuclear Power Why nuclear? Proven capacity to deliver on a large scale Build on existing technological base Closing the fuel cycle: eliminate waste, improved safety, near inexhaustible resource Transition from fossil fuels without Advanced Nuclear Technologies? Advanced nuclear fuel cycle concepts
    27. 27. Advanced Nuclear PowerComparing three nuclear fuel cycles
    28. 28. CANDU High Fuel Efficiency & Flexibility CANDU Fuel-Capability Uniqueness:• Lowest uranium consumption/unit of energy supplied• CANDU can utilize:  Natural uranium  Enriched uranium  Recovered uranium  Mixed oxides  Thorium  Actinide waste 9
    29. 29. Advanced Nuclear Power Next generation designs Integral Fast Reactors:  allow the nuclear fuel cycle to be closed  „burn‟ most the nuclear fuel waste  turn waste liability into an asset Thorium Accelerator-Driven System:  sub-critical fission through the constant introduction of fast neutrons into the reactor core
    30. 30. Advanced Nuclear Power Challenges for implementation Proliferation and safety Skepticism Difficulty to assess the trade-offs between benefits and risks Industry inertia Political stalemate: but China and India are plowing ahead
    31. 31. The path towards sustainability 2020 2030 2040 2050 400 – 800 GWe  Business as usual, open fuel cycle 1200 GWe by 2030 / 7000 GWe by 2050  Accelerated alternative scenario  Only made possible by closing fuel cycle Nuclear Commercial demos waste  IFR by 2020 & Th-ADS by 2030  Multilateral initiative scale of ITER
    32. 32. Electricity Access for All 2.5 billion energy-poor peoplePlastic Organic PV with Magnesium batteries
    33. 33. Off-Grid Electricity Access Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) as an illustrative example PV technologies in development form an ecosystem from silicon- based photovoltaics to thin films and emerging next-generation nanotechnology concepts They in turn are a part of a larger system with the potential to be integrated within smart micro-grids, along other local renewable resources The thin film family: amorphous silicon, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS), cadmium telluride (CdTe), organic thin films and dye-sensitised integrated photovoltaic
    34. 34. Off-Grid Electricity Access OPV OPV has the potential to become one of the lowest- cost thin-film alternatives to the currently dominant silicon photovoltaic technology, due to their potential for low-cost, high-speed processing
    35. 35. The context 500 c/kWh Price ($) 50 c/kWhSubsistence Power 10c / kWh Niche Urban Scale Q (kWh)
    36. 36. Low WTP : High kWh useHigh WTP : Low kWh use
    37. 37. High WTP, Low kWh 2.5 billion people without electricity (500 million households) @$200/system, $100B  Cost of systems being purchased now in Haiti
    38. 38. Low Cost Innovations: Critical Pathways for Human Development GoalsFlexible, Portable, Light-weight and Resilient. Attractive Price.
    39. 39. Solutions Plastic Solar- Solar- Biogas/ Wind + PV + Thermal Hydrogen Biomas Battery Battery sEn Lightingerg Communicatiy on Toolsi Refrigerationnte TVnsi Smallty Businesses Cooking Water- heating
    40. 40. Off-Grid Electricity AccessBeyond OPV: Micro-grids
    41. 41. 2030  500,000,000 households
    42. 42. Medium WTP, Medium kWhReplace Si based PV inapplications such as:• Water pumps• Refugee camps• Military forward bases ($ > 100+/gallon delivered diesel)• Distributed sensors (rugged for deployment)
    43. 43. Realistic Partnership Potential Business/ Civil Society Government International Industry OrganizationsBosch TERI Government of UNFCCC India (NAMAs)BASF En+Co Militaries UNHCRMitsubishi Acumen Fund CIDA, DFID,ENI (Italian USAid, GIZ Redoil) Oxfam Cross/Crescen Other developing tKonarka KIVA + country gov. others partners DevelopmentNano-C BanksDigicel
    44. 44. Timelines Si Organic Nano InnovationGeneration 2010 2014 2020 Diffusion 2015 Lead Mg Li+M.F.CellStorage H2 Innovation 2012 2020(batteries) 2024 Diffusion 2015 2030
    45. 45. Implementation: Off-Grid Electricity AccessNear-term Identify partners, align finances R&D, efficiency increases in Organic PhotovoltaicsWithin 5 Years Finances in place/business models developed Policy framework and incentives in place Societal acceptance and scale-up of productionWithin 20 years Expansion of market next-generation Organic Photovoltaics
    46. 46. Rapid Urban Population Growth = Increasing Mobility Needs 2005 3 Billion 2030 6 Billion Additional 3 Billion People! GHG Air Quality Emission Congestion
    47. 47. Jakarta, IndonesiaShanghai, China
    48. 48. Emerging Innovations Information Through Mobile Phone Destination House Personal Mass Transport One Subscription VehiclesElectric Bus, Trains Electric Cars & Bicycles „We Want Access, Not Ownership‟
    49. 49. Enabling TechnologyAdvanced Lithium Ion Cars, Bicycles Flow Battery Bus, Fleets Integrating ICT Information(smart-phones, GPS) Access
    50. 50. Buildings 6 Billion people in urban centres by 2025 Buildings emit 7.5 Gt CO2 or equivalent 1.5 billion cars
    51. 51. Smart Urbanization Need an intelligent infrastructure that can accommodate renewable energy solutions: • Matching load with renewable energy availability • Electrification of transportation Knowledge is literally power • Ability to influence future construction & design • Ability to influence behaviour now
    52. 52. Smart UrbanizationSmart Grids
    53. 53. Smart Urbanization The growth of the electrification of transportation and theexpansion of ICT will add stresses on the existing electricity distribution and supply infrastructure Set of challenges in electricity transmission and distribution
    54. 54. Smart UrbanizationSuperconductors offer opportunities todramatically increase the capacity and efficiencyof power transmission with a much lower physicalfootprint
    55. 55. Smart Urbanization: ConclusionsSmart Urbanization will require planning supportedby: - Smart Grid technologies integrated through ICT - Electrification of Transport - ICT to enable mobility in dense urban environments - Superconducting technologies for reliable transmission in dense urban cores
    56. 56. Equinox Energy 2030: Summary• An energy „ecosystem‟ view to approaching possible, low carbon technologies• Potential pathways identified to help research, development and implementation of long-term solutions• Technical details help convey the complexities, challenges and opportunities posed by a few transitional technological systems. 69
    57. 57. Waterloo Institute for Sustainable EnergyQualityPaths to aSustainable Life
    58. 58. How do we manage the big risks? Not to focus on regulations for helmets!71
    59. 59. The Waterloo Institute for Sustainable Energy (WISE)For follow up and contact information:Jatin Nathwani, PhD, P.Eng.Professor and Ontario Research Chair in Public Policy for Sustainable EnergyExecutive Director, Waterloo Institute for Sustainable EnergyFaculty of Engineering and Faculty of Environment200 University Avenue WestWaterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1519 888 4567 ext 38252nathwani@uwaterloo.cacell: 416 735 6262Waterloo Institute for Sustainable Energy519 888 4618www.wise.uwaterloo.ca