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Biomechanics of the Heavy Throws

Biomechanics of the Heavy Throws

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  • 1. LCDP – Mark Chapman
  • 2. Distance = sum of 1) horizontal distance that shot is in front of board at release, and 2) horizontal distance it travels in the air
  • 3. 1) 2) (17cm men; 11cm women – 1987 world’s) governed by body position at release Governed by the speed, angle and height at which shot is released
  • 4. Most important? Speed of release Angle of release Height of release
  • 5. Speed of release – determined by magnitude and forces applied to shot and distances over which these forces act Angle of release – fixed by magnitude, direction and distance of forces. Optimum angle is always less than 45◦. Height of release – governed by athlete’s body position.
  • 6. Distance Distance prior to Release Distance after Release Height of Release Position Speed of Release Forces Exerted Angle of Release Distance Air Resistance
  • 7. Techniques used are all about trying to increase the speed of release O’Brian (1950’s) – linear or glide technique Rotational technique Initial position very different, final position very similar
  • 8. Speed of left foot touchdown very important Time between right foot landing in middle of circle and left foot touchdown is 0.10-0.15secs for elite
  • 9. Reverse – why do it? Length of applied force Difference between two techniques – rotational in a better delivery position
  • 10. Distance determined by speed, height and angle of release + Aerodynamic factors that influence flight Speed and angle of release determined by magnitude and direction of forces exerted on implement, and distance over which these forces are applied
  • 11. Height of release governed by athlete’s body position Height of release of minor importance compared to speed and angle of release Discus in flight subjected to forces exerted by air Can have significant effect on distance
  • 12. Magnitude of forces exerted by air governed by Speed of release Angle of release Best between 35-40◦ for 45-60m thrower Angle of attack could be a possible problem especially with young athletes
  • 13. Distance Height of Release Aerodynamic factors Position Attitude angle Speed of release Forces Exerted Angle of Release Distance Wind velocity Angular velocity of implement
  • 14. Distance governed by Speed, height and angle of release Speed of release is determined by throwers ability to repeatedly get “ahead” of the hammer into positions where they can exert forces to increase speed of hammer.
  • 15. You can only apply force to the Hammer, with both feet on the ground. Appreciable force and acceleration can only be applied when the Hammer head is travelling downhill. i.e. high to low point. In the turns, the Hammer and arms are held out straight in front of the chest, they do not deviate from there, to maintain maximum radius. In the turns, the feet are always pointing in the same direction.