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# Biomech noteskoodle

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### Biomech noteskoodle

1. 1. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Bio mechanics Biomechanics studies what makes a body move. It studies internal and external forces (remember a force is a push or a pull) that act on the body and other objects. It is possible to work out how your body should move in order to perform a task more efficiently. So for example we can use biomechanics to make you a better player!
2. 2. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Biomechanics Summary Balance and Stability Newton's Laws Force Summation Projectile Motion Levers
3. 3. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Balance and Stability This is defined as the ability to hold or maintain a position in space Stability generally depends on: The location of the centre of gravity (COG) with respect to the base of support. The direction of forces involved
4. 4. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Balance and Stability Centre of Gravity is the point in the body at which all body parts are in balance. In the anatomical position males generally have a higher COG than woman. The body rotates around the COG
5. 5. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Four Main Principles of Stability 1. The closer the line of gravity is to the centre of the base of support, the greater the probability of maintaining balance 2. The broader the base of support, the greater the probability of maintaining balance.
6. 6. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Four Main Principles of Stability 3. Our balance is improved when we lower our Centre of Gravity in relation to the base of support. eg: 4. The further one part of the body moves away from the line of gravity, the probability of maintaining balance decreases unless another body part moves to compensate for it. eg.
7. 7. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Balance and Stability We can further increase stability: Increase Friction eg________ Lean into an incoming Force eg______ Increase Rotation eg________ Increase Mass eg________
8. 8. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Newton’s Laws of Motion Newton’s First Law: Law of Inertia An object at rest tends to remain at rest unless it is acted on by an external force. An object in motion tends to remain in motion and to travel in a straight line with uniform velocity unless acted on by an external force.
9. 9. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Newton’s Laws of Motion Newton’s Second Law: Law of Acceleration When a force acts on a body, it’s resulting change in momentum is proportional to the force causing it and inversely proportional to the mass Force = Mass x Acceleration
10. 10. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Newton’s Laws of Motion Newton’s Third Law: Law of Action/Reaction For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
11. 11. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Force Summation To give an object momentum eg throwing, kicking, hitting, the amount of momentum given to the object is determined by the ‘sum of all forces generated by each body part’.
12. 12. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Force Summation Five Basic Guidelines to generate optimal force: Use of body segments Stretch out Sequencing of Body segments – larger first Timing of Body Segments Full Range of Motion See Handout
13. 13. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Force Summation Note importance of: Stabilisation Timing
14. 14. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Force Summation Consider force summation in relation to drawing and driving.
15. 15. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Projectile Motion Any object released into the air is a projectile. eg? Six Factors Affect a Projectile’s Path Gravity Air resistance Speed of Release Angle of Release Height of Release Spin
16. 16. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Projectile Motion Of the six, the most important factors are Gravity which acts to decrease the height a projectile will travel and Air Resistance which acts to decrease distance. Note a projectile will travel in a parabolic curve unless acted on by another influence
17. 17. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Gravity and Air Resistance Gravity Effects an object at a constant of 10N Gravity is a weak attractive force but we cannot escape it! Air Resistance Effects the path of a projectile depending on its mass, speed and/or surface area. Eg Graph the path of a petanque ball vs a shuttlecock
18. 18. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 The greater the speed of release, the greater the distance traveled. Two Parts: Initial Vertical Speed Initial Horizontal Speed The greater the vertical speed: the higher and longer (time) the projectile will fly. The greater the horizontal speed: the further it will fly. Speed of Release
19. 19. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Speed of Release Force = Mass x Acceleration To increase force can increase one or both. How? This may create problems such as … Remember Newton’s Second Law:
20. 20. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Angle of Release You need an optimum angle to maximise the benefits of vertical and horizontal velocity. If the angle is too high: If the angle is too low:
21. 21. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Angle of Release •Angling of the release of the bowl allows for what to occur?
22. 22. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Height of Release As the Height of Release increases, so does the distance that will be gained. Not really relevant in bowls but definitely in Petanque – How?
23. 23. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Spin In order to cause rotation a force has to be applied to one side of the COG. Topspin Causes: Backspin Causes:
24. 24. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Levers Levers consist of 3 parts 1. Resistance 2. Effort 3. Fulcrum or Pivot 1 2 3
25. 25. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Levers Two main functions: To increase the resistance that can be moved eg__________ To increase the velocity at which an object will move with a given force. eg _______ There are 3 types of levers. See handout.