Developmental-Behavioral Approach

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Developmental-Behavioral Approach

  1. 1. Developmental-Behavioral Approach
  2. 2. The developmental-Behavioral Approach <ul><li>Behavior principles & practices </li></ul><ul><li>All children are teachable </li></ul><ul><li>*Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>*problem of a match </li></ul><ul><li>*Responsive learning environments </li></ul><ul><li>-learning from success </li></ul><ul><li>-environmental arrangements </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reinforcement procedures <ul><li>Interaction between antecedent, behavior and consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement (tangible or Primary & intangible or Secondary) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic and extrinsic reinforcement </li></ul>
  4. 4. Decreasing behaviors <ul><li>Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore (extinction) </li></ul><ul><li>Remove materials or equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Remove child </li></ul><ul><li>Withdraw or withhold reinforcers (response cost) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Punishment <ul><li>Side effects of punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline or Punishment/Other options </li></ul><ul><li>*reminders </li></ul><ul><li>*redirection </li></ul><ul><li>*verbal reprimands </li></ul><ul><li>*Sit & watch </li></ul><ul><li>*Time out </li></ul>
  6. 6. Rules <ul><li>Specific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is expected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive in general, but okay to be negative to emphasize the point eg. “No spitting” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As few rules as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not give ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit about relationship between rules and consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be prompt, fair & immediate in implementation </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Step by step learning/task analysis <ul><li>Observe and analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Level at which the child is performing </li></ul><ul><li>Teach the next level </li></ul><ul><li>Prompts & cues </li></ul><ul><li>Fade reinforcements as mastery occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Move to the next level once mastery has occurred </li></ul>
  8. 8. Amount & Timing of Reinforcement <ul><li>Varies according to the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous Vs varied </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive Praise </li></ul>
  9. 9. Steps in folding a towel <ul><li>listen for the buzzer on the dryer signaling that the clothes are dry </li></ul><ul><li>place the laundry basket on the floor next to the dryer door </li></ul><ul><li>open the dryer door </li></ul><ul><li>remove the towels to the laundry basket </li></ul><ul><li>carry the basket to the folding table </li></ul><ul><li>place the basket on the floor next to the folding table </li></ul><ul><li>remove one towel </li></ul><ul><li>lay the towel on the table, long side perpendicular to the body </li></ul><ul><li>smooth wrinkles from the towel </li></ul><ul><li>grip the left side of the towel with both hands and bring it to the right side, meeting edges 11.smooth wrinkles from the towel </li></ul><ul><li>grip upper sides of the half and bring them to the lower sides meeting the edges </li></ul><ul><li>smooth wrinkles from the towel </li></ul><ul><li>grip the folded towel with one hand on each side, holding all the layers tightly </li></ul><ul><li>lift the towel to stack it at the left side of the table </li></ul><ul><li>repeat steps 7 to 15 until the basket is empty </li></ul>
  10. 10. Learning by Imitation (School Population) <ul><li>Teach children to imitate </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation (only works when they know the skill) </li></ul><ul><li>Competition is inappropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling: one step at a time </li></ul><ul><li> use visuals when possible </li></ul><ul><li>exaggerate concept if needed </li></ul><ul><li>model in sequence </li></ul><ul><li>use video modeling to replay </li></ul><ul><li>perform in the same manner as </li></ul><ul><li> first presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an outline to take notes (formative & summative) </li></ul>

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