Development refers to change or growth that occurs in children. Some children develop faster then other it all depends on learning styles and how much there parents pushed them. You never stop developing in brain functioning, you don’t stop learning.
Most learning involves changes in the neuron synapse. Learning involves building new synapses or just building on ones that already exist. Development changes in the brain enable increase thought. This develops by have learning experiences, and trying new things. Many parts of the brain work in harmony to enable complex thinking and behavior. The left and right parts of the brain have differently specialties. Left hemisphere takes responsibility for language and logical thinking. Right side is more about visual and spatial tasks. Brain remains adaptable throughout life.
Piaget is a cognitive theorist developed the 4 stages of development. The first stage is Sensory motor which deals with physical development. Ex: When babies start to grab things and touch. The second stage is pre-operational that develops language, symbols, and letters. Ex: when a baby says her first word and starts reading. The third stage is concrete operational which is when you develop logic and organization. Ex: When a kid starts developing adult understanding.
This slide shows a graph of when the child learns at each age.
Vygotsky extended Piaget’s work. In his research he focused on the language and social interactions of children.
Students first develop with assistance, they learn by watching. Then learn to do things on there own. Scaffolding is a way that children get guided assistances. Peer assistances is when a classmate or someone your age helps you with a task.
Helps guide behavior this is used when tasks are difficult after errors or when confused.
This is a graph that I thought was very interesting it is a view of the best interests of the child. The Child is on the top because they are the number one priority then family then friends and so on.
Development refers to change or growth
that occurs in children.
It starts with infancy and continues to
involves changes in
neurons and synapse
changes in the brain
Many parts of the
brain work in
harmony to enable
Theorized 4 stages of development
› Sensory motor (birth-age 2)
› Pre-operational (age 2 - 7)
Language, symbols and letters
› Concrete operational (age 7 – 11)
Logic and organization
› Formal operational ( age 11 – death)
Schema: Ways in which children make sense of the
Assimilation: Fitting new information into an existing
Accommodation: Changing a schema to fit new
Equilibration: Explanation of cognitive shift (qualitative) from
one stage of thought to the next
Disequilibrium: cognitive conflict motivation for change
Equilibrium: resolve conflict through assimilation and
accommodation, to reach a new balance of thought
Extends Piaget’s work
Based on language and
What a child can do
Helps guide behavior
› Used more when tasks are difficult,
after errors, or when confused
Gradually becomes more silent
› Children with learning and behavior
problems use longer
Stages of Moral Reasoning
pleasant or unpleasant consequences of actions
physical power of those who impose the rules.
› Conventional role Confirmity
Moral values reside in performing the right role, in
maintaining the conventional order and
expectancies of others as a value in its own right.
› Self accepted Moral Principles
conformity to shared standards,rights, or duties
apart from supporting authority.
action-decisions are based on an inner process of
thought and judgement concerning right and
Focus on infants and young
Developmental ages and
Helps explain cultural
diversity in cognition
Emphasizes importance of
Says little about biological
contributions to cognition
Vague in explanation of
pleasant or unpleasant
Create a classroom environment that
fosters desirable student behaviors
When a student consistently has trouble
working independently, praise her
inconspicuously every time she completes
and assignment without having to be
Conclude that learning has occurred only
when students exhibit a change in
Regularly assess students’ learning, and
look for ongoing progress in what they
know and can do.
Identify specific stimuli (including your
own actions as a teacher) that may be
influencing students’ behaviors.
If a student frequently engages in
disruptive classroom behavior, consider
whether you might be encouraging such
behavior by giving him attention every
time he misbehaves.
If you want students to associate two
events (stimuli, responses, or stimulus and
response), make sure those events occur
close together in time.
Include enjoyable yet educational
activities in each day’s schedule as a way
of helping students associate school
subject matter with pleasurable feelings.
Remember that research with nonhuman
species often has relevance for classroom
Reinforce hyperactive students for sitting
quietly for successively longer time
periods—a shaping process based on
early research studies with rats and