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Behavior Management System (BMS) - Special Education

A comprehensive overview of behavior management solutions reviewed, created and presented during my Master's in Special Education course at Bay Path College in Longmeadow, MA.

One of the key aspects of this presentation was to illustrate how BMS systems can provide routines and parameters that allow for increased learning time, fewer disruptions and a in essence a “well oiled machine” in the classroom. This can be applied at any level of education in a variety of settings.

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Behavior Management System (BMS) - Special Education

  1. 1. Behavior Management System Katherina Mard 01/21/12
  2. 2. Room Design <ul><li>The best room arrangement allows the teacher to get from any student to any other student in the fewest possible steps. (Jones, pg. 37) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Zones of Proximity <ul><li>Green : Students feel freedom to “goof off” </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow : Students think about “goofing off” </li></ul><ul><li>Red : Students are following classroom routine </li></ul>
  4. 4. “ Double E” Set-Up
  5. 5. Why “Double E”? <ul><li>The walk ways are generous allowing immediate proximity to any of the students. </li></ul><ul><li>The center of the &quot;E&quot; area could also allow for whole or small group work on the rug. </li></ul><ul><li>The desks face the smart board. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher's desk has been moved to the back of the room in order to create increased proximity to the students. This also eliminates a barrier and allows for a greater area for the red zone. </li></ul><ul><li>The horseshoe desk, the circular desk and the computer station allow areas for centers. </li></ul><ul><li>The large plus sign in the back left corner is the relaxation/take a break area where floor pillows and mats are available for quiet activities like reading. </li></ul><ul><li>There is room for generous aisles and room to put the teacher's desk in the back </li></ul><ul><li>*Zones taken from Jones, Pg. 31 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Corrective Feedback <ul><li>Praise, Prompt and Leave </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It’s quick </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It’s effective </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It’s lasting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Praise, Prompt and Leave! <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Great job identifying this equation!” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The next thing you need to do is perform the operation in the parentheses.” </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher walks away </li></ul>
  8. 8. Visual Instructional Plans <ul><li>A picture is worth a thousand words… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-and can save a class a LOT of time! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Three Sides Three Vertices Three Angles A Triangle
  10. 10. Lifecycle of a Butterfly
  11. 12. Three Phase Lesson Plans <ul><li>Beginning – Setting the Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Middle – Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>End – Consolidation </li></ul><ul><li>(Jones, pg. 89) </li></ul>
  12. 13. Identifying a Triangle <ul><li>Setting the Stage – Begin lesson in circle time with flip chart available for notes/diagrams. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: Geo-blocks, tile shapes, wiki stix </li></ul><ul><li>A triangle is a shape. What is a shape? Looking for comments related to form, outline, no openings. Write the class contributions on the flip chart. </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of the shapes we have already learned? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow time for contributions. Squares and rectangles were learned in previous shape lessons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review what we know about squares and rectangles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiles are available to hold up and use to demonstrate the shapes being discussed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flip chart can also be used to re-cap notes on shapes that were already learned. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Identifying a Triangle <ul><li>Setting the Stage cont . </li></ul><ul><li>What are some things in our classroom that are shaped like triangles? How do you know they are triangles? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have students discuss in pairs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask for three pairs to share their discoveries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The goal of this lesson is for each student to master identifying a triangle and be able to name the properties of a triangle: three sides, three angles, and three vertices. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Identifying a Triangle <ul><li>Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: Use your wiki sticks to make triangle shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling: Physically take a wiki stick and make a triangle shape to show the class. </li></ul><ul><li>Structured Practice: Now take a wiki stick and slowly make a triangle mentioning that each bend creates a vertices and an angle. Count the sides out loud. Do this three times. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Identifying a Triangle <ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Practice: Have each student take a wiki stick and bend it where you bend it. Have them practice along with you as you model the bending for the class. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Practice: Have each student complete ten triangles. </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization and Discussion: Ask each student to choose their best triangle. Have them place their best in the center of their desk and to place the others away from the center. Have the class take a museum walk around the class to view the triangles. </li></ul><ul><li>Have the students return to their partners that they had discussions with at the beginning of the class. Ask them to share with their partner what they liked about using the wiki stix to make triangles and what they learned about triangles. Ask for 3-5 groups to share their discoveries. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Procedures Manual <ul><li>Second Grade returning to Class from Recess </li></ul><ul><li>What it looks like </li></ul><ul><li>What it sounds like </li></ul><ul><li>Training Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery </li></ul>
  17. 18. What it Looks Like <ul><li>The bell rings and can be heard on the playground. Students proceed to the sidewalk nearest the second grade entrance and form three lines, one per class. The teachers and paraprofessionals each stand at the head of one of the lines. </li></ul><ul><li>The quietest line is told they may proceed to the door. If there is talking, each teacher and paraprofessional raise their right arm in the air. This is the signal to give 5 (eyes, ears, mouth, mind and whole body). The line or lines are delayed until they are showing they are ready to travel into a learning environment. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the teachers waits by the opened door. The door holder from each class takes their turn holding the door for their class. If students are talking as they pass the threshold, they are asked to step back and wait for everyone else to go in. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  18. 19. What it Sounds Like <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The lines are quiet. The only voices that are heard are teachers giving directions. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Training Procedures <ul><li>During the first week of school, the principal joins the kids at recess and while lining up. She and the second grade teachers model where to line up, how to line up and the signal for quiet and “give 5”. The lines proceed toward the entrance and are stopped if there is talking. They are asked to return to their original places and try again. This is repeated daily during recess for the first week. The principal then removes herself from the equation and makes occasional visits to the second grade recess throughout the year. </li></ul><ul><li>The students that are held back for talking are asked to practice lining up and entering the building quietly as a group. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Mastery <ul><li>This procedure is considered mastered when the class demonstrates the ability to line up and proceed into the building without talking. If the teachers or paraprofessionals need to raise their hand during the lining up portion, mastery is displayed by the students facing forward in silence. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Blame Game <ul><li>Who is responsible? </li></ul><ul><li>Are parents? </li></ul><ul><li>Are Teachers? </li></ul>
  22. 23. The Village <ul><li>There are two phrases that come to mind when considering where I stand in the “blame game” for students with behavioral disabilities. The first is: “It takes a village” and the second is: “The apple doesn’t fall far from the tree”. I resonate with both of these because some children are hard wired for behavioral challenges due to chemical imbalances and the “hand of cards” that were dealt. Folks, it takes a village to raise these kids (and to raise any child, actually). And the second phrase speaks to me because some parents are in fact creating a situation at home that lends itself to behavioral difficulties. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Finger Pointing <ul><li>I am leery of pointing a finger, or placing blame on parents. Being a parent myself I know it is an awful feeling when you are being judged or deemed as responsible for behavior that your child is exhibiting. What I am in favor of is modeling for parents how to get the job done, offering resources when asked “what do I do here?” and always remembering that many of these people are doing the best they can with what they have. Which circles me back around to the village perspective. If we (teachers, specialists, and assistants) are not doing our part in the equation, how can we expect the rest of the team to be following suit? </li></ul>
  24. 25. Our Responsibility <ul><li>If we as teachers and clinical professionals in the school system are seeing behaviors that are unacceptable, it is our duty to conference with the parents to try to figure out what is happening. I believe there is a solution that can get everyone “on the same page”. If this attempt is made and the parents refuse to participate, then it becomes difficult not to push a little more of the blame over there. That particular roadblock can be a tough one. Most of the parents I have interacted with have been open to trying various solutions including getting the school adjustment counselor as well as other members of the team involved. When a parent is resistive, it is usually because of overwhelm or lack of information. I still have a tough time blaming them, as I believe it shuts the door for potential future breakthroughs. </li></ul>
  25. 26. The Trees and Apples <ul><li>If consistency is the key to eliciting the behavior we want to see, then we must be the proponents and role models of this concept (WE are the tree, the students are the apples). By discussing this with parents and modeling it for them, we are doing our part to be part of the solution. I never once mentioned blaming students in the above position. Students are the product of many things. They are born with their personality and cognition. They are born with their chemistry. They are exposed to our opinions, thoughts, actions and beliefs. WE, collectively, are responsible. THEY are learning. It’s our job to teach them. Not to blame them. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Plan B <ul><li>Dr. Ross Greene describes “Plan B” as cooperative problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>How do we talk with our students, build relationships with them and solve problems? </li></ul>
  27. 28. Plan B Cont. <ul><li>CHILD : Johnny is always cutting me in line.  </li></ul><ul><li>ADULT : Ah, you don’t like it when Johnny steps in front of you in line. </li></ul><ul><li>CHILD : It’s not fair when he cuts. </li></ul><ul><li>ADULT (reassurance): I can understand why you’d feel bad if someone forced their way in front of you in line. It is important to let that person know that this upsets you, however there are other ways to do this besides pushing. One of our class rules is to use words to let friends know how you are feeling. If you are pushing Johnny, he might not understand why you are upset. If you use your words to tell him then he will know that you are feeling bad because he has stepped in front of you in line. </li></ul><ul><li>CHILD : How about you just tell him not to do that? </li></ul>
  28. 29. Plan B Cont. <ul><li>ADULT (Defining then Inviting): Well, I could do that, but I am not sure that this will help you and Johnny to use your words to work it out. There may be times that you are in line or taking turns and I am not there. Wouldn’t you like to be ready to be able to use your words at those times also? </li></ul><ul><li>CHILD : Yes. </li></ul><ul><li>ADULT : So what could you say to Johnny? Or any friend that steps in front of you in line? </li></ul><ul><li>CHILD : I could say that it bother me that you got in front of me. Maybe I could let them stay that one time, so I don’t make them feel bad. </li></ul><ul><li>ADULT : That sounds great, I think we could also go over our class rules as a group to remind how we need to be in line as well as how important it is to use our words with friends. </li></ul><ul><li>CHILD : Yes, I think that’s a plan! </li></ul>
  29. 30. ALSUP <ul><li>The ALSUP is the Assessment of Lagging Skills and Unsolved problems </li></ul><ul><li> ALSUP .pdf </li></ul>
  30. 31. Functional Behavioral Analysis <ul><li>The following link offers one example of a functional behavioral analysis: </li></ul><ul><li> form .pdf </li></ul>
  31. 32. Behavior Intervention Plan <ul><li>The following link is an example of a behavior intervention plan that offers strong behavioral support: </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Behavior Support Plan </li></ul>
  32. 33. To Restrain or not to Restrain <ul><li>Most educational institutions, The State of Massachusetts (and several other states), and the Federal Government all offer guidelines related to the restraint of students in a public school setting. </li></ul>
  33. 34. What I Think <ul><li>Restraints, in my opinion, and in the opinion of the State of Massachusetts and a recent bill presented at the Federal Government level, should be used as a final option after less restrictive alternatives have been tried and proven unsuccessful. Restraints are a FINAL option. They are also an option that cannot restrict breathing, safety or health of any individual. They are specifically meant to stop a behavior that would cause harm and allow an individual to regain control. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I do believe that restraining a child that is out of control and in danger is necessary. By danger I mean that they are hurting themselves or threatening to harm another. I would also like to mention that there is NO PLACE in the law that REQUIRES that restraint be applied. The decision is up to the individual and/or team involved. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Dr. Greene and Plan B <ul><li>Alternatives that can be used to try to diffuse a situation could be verbal redirection and verbal de-escalation. Plan B as described by Dr. Ross Green could also be used (emergency B, if needed). If these techniques do not lead to successful de-escalation, then the least amount of force should be applied. As soon as the person being restrained shows that they are no longer threat to themselves or anyone else, they should be released. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Massachusetts Law <ul><li>Restraint laws to be very clear in order to preserve the safety of everyone involved. There are documented cases of students being restrained for being disruptive and this is not a legal reason to apply restraint. The law must be carefully outlined and followed or the use of restraint could become inappropriate and a “convenient” way to quell disruptive behavior. It is not to be applied as a means of punishment, a response to property damage or failure to comply with school rules, or as a response to verbal threats that do not indicate a threat to imminent, serious, physical harm (D.E.S.E. 603 CMR 46.00). </li></ul>
  36. 37. Where the Feds Stand <ul><li>Massachusetts’ law also states that anyone administering restraint should use the safest method possible (training is important to this process). The law also states that all restraint must be reported/documented. The Federal Bill mirrors most of the State Law and also indicates that no restraint methods shall be written into the IEP (Individual Education Program) for any student. I like this addition, it is important for us to focus on what a child can do and reach for on the IEP and to add something as restrictive as restraint and make the assumption that this method would be needed is not about a child’s abilities and goals (in my opinion). </li></ul>
  37. 38. A Restraint-Free Future <ul><li>It is my hope to never to have to use restraint methods. Individuals like Fred Jones and Ross Greene that have studied and written about methods that are less restrictive, more proactive and more inviting for communication might one day make restraint almost obsolete! </li></ul>
  38. 39. Plan B for your Class - Empathy <ul><li>Teacher : I was surprised that our principal had to pay us a visit today to discuss what she saw happening at recess. She has asked that we gather as a group to problem solve? Can we please meet in circle time on the rug? </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher : We have been talking a lot about Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. this week. How many of you think that he would approve of the stories that our principal shared from recess time? (Hopefully nobody puts hand up) How many of you think he would not? (Hands will be flying up) </li></ul><ul><li>I am so sorry to see so many hands raised. If we are not treating others the way Dr. King asked us to treat others, do you think we are doing a good job?   </li></ul><ul><li>Class : No  </li></ul>
  39. 40. Empathy then Defining <ul><li>Teacher : I have our chart turned to a blank page today. I was hoping that we might write down some of the things we are doing at recess that we might like to change.   </li></ul><ul><li>Child : Well Robbie is always chasing me and he cuts in front of me and he really is always chasing me and he should change that. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher : Class I am going to ask if we refrain from naming names and try to keep our list to some of the things we do or that we see others do on the playground that we think we might like to change.  </li></ul><ul><li>Child : You mean like no pushing? </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher : Yes, I do mean things like that. Let me write that one down, but I will just write down pushing. Maybe we can try to keep the word no out of our list.  </li></ul><ul><li>Child : Ok, please write down pushing. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Defining Continued <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>More hands go up… </li></ul><ul><li>Child : Name-calling </li></ul><ul><li>Child : Puppy guarding (part of a game – that is considered not playing fair) </li></ul><ul><li>Child : Telling kids they cannot play </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher : Class, this is a fabulous list we are making, is there anything anyone wants to add? </li></ul><ul><li>Child : Yes can we add that we need to be kind like martin Luther King? </li></ul>
  41. 42. Inviting <ul><li>Teacher : I am so glad you asked that! We just talked about some of the things we don’t like about our recess time. Things we might like to change. Let me make a line here, and a make a new section for things we would like to at recess, the changes we can make. </li></ul><ul><li>Child : We could play our game by the school rule, then puppy guarding would not happen. </li></ul><ul><li>Child : We could let anyone play that wants to and then nobody is left out.  </li></ul><ul><li>Child : We could say kind things to friends instead of mean things. But I know that one might be hard. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher : You are right, making change can be hard, but our class is showing that they are willing and that makes it a little bit easier. We are out of time for this meeting however we can continue our list and discussion in tomorrow’s meeting. How many of you think we might benefit from a little more discussion? (Hands go up) Ok great, let’s leave our list here on the chart and we will get right back at it tomorrow. Maybe we will even have some stories to share about things that went a little bit better at today’s recess. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  42. 43. MOTIVATION! <ul><li>PAT </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred Activity Time </li></ul><ul><li>Who would like some? </li></ul>
  43. 44. How PAT Works <ul><li>PAT is a very simple system that allows students to “bank” time that they have accrued by doing all classroom routines without disruption or distraction. </li></ul><ul><li>PAT is visual – students can see their time bank and know exactly what they have earned. </li></ul><ul><li>PAT is for the whole class. It encourages students to be role models and upstanding citizens around their peers. </li></ul><ul><li>PAT can be used for individual programs as well or can be used to reward an individual with positive attention from the class. </li></ul><ul><li>Like any other classroom management strategy, students must know that you mean business and the plan must be followed consistently. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Functional IEP Goals <ul><li>These goals address behavioral disorders and are focused on what the student CAN do and what the team would like to see the student do. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to name the replacement behavior in an effort to extinguish undesirable behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>The goals are measured by frequency or across intervals. </li></ul>
  45. 46. Functional IEP Goal Examples <ul><li>Disruption during morning seatwork time :  </li></ul><ul><li>Student will complete raise hand to signal teacher for assistance 80 percent of the time (4 of 5 occasions) during ½ hour independent work intervals. </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption during teaching time, behavior emulates “class clown ”: </li></ul><ul><li>When raising hand or when called upon by teacher, student will make a relevant/on topic verbal contribution to the group 80 percent of the time (4 of 5 occasions) during 45-minute teacher lead lessons. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Consistency is Key
  47. 48. In Conclusion <ul><li>A Behavior Management System (BMS) can be a useful tool for any teacher at any grade level. </li></ul><ul><li>A BMS provides routines and parameters that allow for increased learning time, fewer disruptions and a in essence a “well oiled machine” in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>I hope you learned something from my BMS! </li></ul>
  48. 49. References <ul><li>Jones, Fredric H., Patrick Jones, and Jo Lynne Talbott Jones. Tools for teaching: discipline, instruction, motivation . 2nd ed. Santa Cruz, CA: F.H. Jones & Associates, 2007. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Greene, Ross W.. Lost at school: why our kids with behavioral challenges are falling through the cracks and how we can help them . New York: Scribner, 2008. Print. </li></ul>