GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGAMSMSA genetically modified organism (GMO) or genetically engineered organism (GEO)is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineeringtechniques. These techniques, generally known a"s recombinant DNA technology, useDNA molecules from different sources, which are combined into one molecule to create anew set of genes. This DNA is then transferred into an organism, giving it modified ornovel genes. Transgenic organisms, a subset of GMOs, are organisms which haveinserted DNA that originated in a different species. The GloFish was the first genetically modified animal to become available as a pet. It is a natural Zebrafish which has had genetic information from bioluminescent jellyfish added to its DNA. It was originally produced to provide a warning system for pollution but with the addition of further colors its viability for the pet market became clear. It was introduced to the US market in December2003 by Yorktown Technologies of Austin, Texas.Golden Rice Golden rice is a variety of Oryza sativa rice produced through genetic engineering to biosynthesize beta- carotene, a precursor of pro-vitamin A in the edible parts of rice. The scientific details of the rice were first published in Science in 2000.tt1 Golden rice was developed as a fortified food to be used in areas where there is a shortage of dietary vitamin A. In 2005 a new variety called Golden Rice 2 was armounced whichproduces up to 23 times more beta-carotene than the original variety of golden rice. Since 1998, genetically modified papayas have been cultivated in Hawaii, USA. They are resistant to a domestic viral disease. In the EU, genetically modffied papayas are not approved.Transgenic Maize Transgenic maize (corn) has been deliberately genetically modified (GM) to have agronomically desirable traits. Traits that have been engineered into corn include resistance to herbicides and resistance to insect pests, the latter being achieved by incorporation of a gene that codes for the Bacillus thuringiensts (80 toxin. Hybrids with both herbicide and pest resistance have also been produced. In 2009, transgenic mnze was grown commercially in 11 countries, including the United States (where 85% of the muze crop was genetically modified), Brazil (36% GM), Argentina (83% GM), South Africa(57% GM), Canada (84% GM), the Philippines (19% GM) and Spain Q0% cM).
Pest Resistant Eggplant The new genetically engineered eggplant produces a natural pesticide that was derived from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). This natural pesticide makes the eggplant more able to resist attracks from the destructive fruit and shoot borer. This pest is known to destroy about 40 percent ofeggplant harvests annually in South and Southeast Asia.Genitically Modified Tomatoes The engineered tomatoes contained anthocyanins throughout the entire fruit at levels comparable to blueberries and blackberries (2.83 mg of anthocyanins per gram of tomato). As a side effect, the tomatoes became purple upon ripening. The newly-inserted genes were passed on to future generations of tomatoes, lasting through five generations as of the time the paper was prepared. Do these engineered tomatoes work when theyre incorporated into the actual diet of living animals? Theyseem to help mice that lack a gene (p53) tlrat is damaged in about half of the cancers inhumans. Mice lacking p53 develop a variety of cancers at an early age and have anaverage life span of 142 days, and they live a maximum of 211 days. A diet consisting ofmodified purple tomatoes extended the life span of these mice to an average 182.2 days;some mice lived up to 260 days. Regular tomatoes had no affect on the average life span.Gold Seahorse (Vietnam Technology) We have seen beautiful handicrafts of gold. But can you imagine a real living creature with sparkling gold on the body? Bizane as it might sound but this is exactly what scientists at Vietnams National Universitys College of Science have done. They have produced genetically modified seahorses with golden sfipes on the body. The scientists combined light emitting genes ofjellyfish with gains of gold and inliected the combination into the seahorse egg cells. The outcome was seahorses with sparkling gold on the body.Fluorescent Kitties (Korea) Researchers in South Korea have cloned a cat and modified its genes so that it will glow red under ultraviolet light, the Korea Times reports. The Gyeongsang National University researchers, led by Prof. Kong Il-keun, modified the genes of Turkish Angora cats so that a red protein would glow in their skin when exposed to ultraviolet light, the paper rqrorts.
The scientists modified the skin cells of the mother cat by using a virus to make theprotein fluoresce, according to the Times. Four of the glowing kittens were bom inJanuary and February of this year, but only three survived. Researchers found that cellsthroughout the dead kiuy fluoresced red, the paper said.Genetically Modifred Fish (GIow in the Dark Fish) Scientists in Singapore originally created the fish to detect pollution, adding a color gene from a sea anemoneto zebra fish eggs. If there are pollutants in the water then the fish light up, in up to five different colors. The American company Yorktown Technologies quickly recognized the business potential of glowing fish and secured exclusive marketing rights in the US. "GloFish fluorescent fish are safe forthe environment and make wonderful pets for new hobbyists and experienced enthusiasts alike,u the companys Web site claims.Fern Spider The spider is a cross between a common Italian Wolf spider (Lycosa tarantula) and the ponga fern (Cyathea dealbata). The purpose of this bizane crossbreed was to study the survival rates of spiders with built in camouflage versus those without in a series of studies on Natural Selection at Massey University inNew Zeatand.Grapple The grapple is a relatively new fruit which is a genetic cross between an apple and a $ape. The fruit combines the size of the apple with the texture of an grape and the flavor of both parent fruits. The grapple was originally designed to provide a much higher vitamin-c dose per fruit for ttrird world aid. The majority of the firnding for the fruit came from UNICEF.Graisin The graisin [giant raisin] is a variety of raisin which has been modified to grow to enormous proportions. The graisin was produced by the National Institute of Genetics in Japan due to the Japanese love of large fruit and the recent popularity of western foods such as raisins. The texture and taste is identical to that of its genetically normal parent and it is served raw or thinly sliced in a stir fry.
Rubber Cork Tree Cork trees have long been used for producing cork-stoppers for wine though some wine producers have also begun using plastic corks. Wine enthusiasts have not taken to the rubber corks and so, in order to appease the traditionalists and the cost-cutting wine makers, SABIC innovative plastics have developed a tree which is a cross between a rubber tree and a cork tree. The corks taken from the bark of this new tree look like real cork and have the same porous qualities, but has the permanence and flavorlessness of rubber. Ghislain de Mongolfier, current manager and great grandson of the founder of champagne producer Bollinger, said: "This new cork is the greatest thing to happen to wine since the invention of bubbles".Umbuku Ltzard This creature is the only one on the list which was not designed for a practical reason, but merely to prove that it could be done. Genetic Engineers in Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia) managed to unlock a dormant "flying" strand in the DNA of the Umbuku lizard, a very small and rare lizardnative to Africa. It is believed that the lizard is a descendent of the Pterodactyl, which lost its ability to fly some millions of years ago. To date only 6 of these flying Umbuku have been produced and they are kept seperate from the natural Umbuku due the risk of cross breeding.Paper Tree The paper tree has been developed to reduce production costs and loss of tree life in the paper manufacturing industry. The recent explosion in popularity of recycled paper products lead a Swiss based company to develop a tree which grows square leaves that, when dried" are already usable as writing paper. In the image above we see a company employee holding a dried leaf beside the trunk of one of the many Paper Trees now grown by the company.Tin The Tiny Piney is a miniature pine tree which is a mere 2cmtall when fully grown. It was originally developed to provide a fast growing source for pine-tree smell to be used in the fragrance industry but in very little time its usefulness in other areas became obvious. This tiny pine tree is now hugely popular as an edible plant in Papua New Guinea where it is dipped in a batter made from coconut milk and shellac beetle shells and deep fried. TheTiny Piney (official trademark) has a very subtle pine flavor which is enhanced by thecoconut milk, The Tiny Piney is usually eaten as a dessert.
Dolion This is probably the most remarkable example of how far science is able to go with modern DNA and cross fertilizationtechniques; the dolion is a uoss between a lion and a dog. In order to produce this incredible rare animal (only 3 dolions exist in laboratories - the photo above is of Rex, the first ever produced), individual strands of DNA from each creature must be combined and re-inserted in to a host egg. This is similar to the liger (lion/tiger crossbreed) with the exception that the liger is able to be produced without prior manipulation of theDNA of either breed of animal. The liger is a hybrid cross between a male lion (Panthera leo) and a tigress (Panthera tigris). Thus, it has parents with the snme genus but of different species. It is distinct from the similar hybrid tiglon. It is the largest of all known cats and extant felines. Ligers enjoy swimming which is a characteristic of tigers and are very sociable like lions but are more likely to live past birth than tiglons. However ligersmay inherit health or behavioural issues due to conflicting inherited traits, but thisdepends on the genetic traits of the parents. Ligers exist only in captivity because thehabitat of the parental species do not overlap in the wild. Notably, ligers typically growlarger than either parent species.Tiglon A tiglon (pronounced /ntargler/) or tigon is a hybrid cross between a male ttger (Panthera tigris) and a lioness (Panthera /eo). Thus, it has parents with the same genus but of different species. The tiglon is not currently as common as the converse hybrid, the liger; however, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, tiglons were more cofirmon than ligers.Lemurat With the growing wealth of Chin4 many rich Chinese women are seeking alternative and exotic pets to show off their money. This has lead to a number of Chinese medical and scientific research companies to compete for this new income source by producing cross breed animals. The most successfii (financially) so far has been the Lemur Cat. It is (as the name suggests) a cross between a lemur and a cat. It retains the soft fur of the cat and the coloring, but has the striped tail and yelloweyes commonly found on a lemur. It is more ferocious than the average cat but it isgenerally no more dangerous than a Chihuahua dog. The scientific rurme for this newbreed is Prolos Fira.