Haemopilus,Staphylococous & Streptococcus
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Haemopilus,Staphylococous & Streptococcus






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Haemopilus,Staphylococous & Streptococcus Haemopilus,Staphylococous & Streptococcus Presentation Transcript

  • Scientific classification Domain:Bacteria Kingdom:Eubacteria Phylum:ProteobacteriaClass:GammaproteobacteriaOrder:PasteurellalesFamily:PasteurellaceaeGenus:HaemophilusSpecies:H. influenzae
  • Medical important species Haemophilus influenzae Haemophilus aegyptius Haemophilus ducreyi
  • Normal habitatH.influenzae (mostly non-capsulated strains), H. parainfluenzae and H.aegyptius is normal flora of the upper respiratory tractInfections causing:1. Pyogenic meningitis2. Acute epiglottitis3. Cellulitis, middle ear infection,etc
  • conjuctivitis
  • MicroscopySmall, non-motile, Gram negative rods or coccobaciliLong thread-like form in old csf culture
  • Microscopic observation
  • Culture of H.influenzaeH.influenzae grows better in aerobically compare to anaerobicallyThe optimum temperature for growth 35 – 37oCThe are X and V factorBoth represent in blood agar and permit the culture to growH.influenzae and H.aegyptius need X and V factor, H. parainfluenzae need V factor and H.ducreyi need X factor
  • Biochemical testsNot usually used to identify hemophilus6 biovars of H.influenzae are recognized based on the indole, urease and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) reactions of the diff strains
  • SerologyConsist of 1 – f serotypesMostly causing meningitis belong to serogroup bMost strains that cause chronic bronchial disease are non-capsulatedAntimicrobial sensitivityResistant towards chloramphenicol, ampicilin, tetracycline, erythromycin and cotrimoxazoleH. ducreyi is sensitive to sulphonamidesAmpicillin resistant are common
  • Staphylococcus aureusStaphylococcus epidermidisStaphylococcus saprophyticus
  • Scientific classification Kingdom:Bacteria Phylum:Firmicutes Class:Bacilli Order:Bacillales Family:Staphylococcaceae Genus:Staphylococcus
  • Introduction Are microbial flora of the skin, upper respiratory tract and intestinal tract S.aureus usually cause abscesses, boils, conjuctivitis, pneumonia, septicemia, food poisoning and scalded skin syndrome S. epidermidis causing bactericaemia S. saprophyticus causing cystitis and acute urethritis
  • Laboratory diagnosisMicroscopy Non-motile Non capsulate Gram positive cocci Arrangement single or in pair Size 1 µm diameter
  • Culture Grow well in aerobically and also in present of carbon dioxide Temperature between 10 – 420C, optimum temperature are between 35 - 370C
  • S.aureusProduce yellow to cream in blood and chocolate agar (heated agar)Occationally produce white 1-2 mm in diameter coloniesSome strain produce beta-hemolytic when grown aerobicallyColonies are slightly raised and easily emulsified on a slideNon- lactose fermenter in MacConkey agarMannitol salt agar is a useful differential and selective agar to identify S.aureus
  • On blood agar
  • S.epidermidisColonyis whiteNon hemolytic in blood agarS. saprophyticusMaybe white or yellowThere are non-hemolytic in BANot grow anaerobicallyNo growth in MacConkey agar
  • Biochemical reactionsS.aureusDNAse test will be positive for S.aureus but negative in other speciesCatalase test will be positive in all staphylococcus but negative in all streptococcusS. epidermidis and S. saprophyticusCoagulase negativeDNAse negativeCatalase positive
  • Antimicrobial sensitivityErythromycinClindamysinFucidinVancomycinMany strains of S.aureus are penicillin- resistantS.epidermidis are more resistant than S.aureus to antibioticsS. saprophyticus less resistant to antibiotics than S.aureus and S.epidermidis
  • Streptococcus pyogenesStreptococcus agalactiaeEnterococci
  • Lecture content Basic characteristics Classification Grouping of species Pathogenesis Lab diagnosis
  • Scientific classification Kingdom – Bacteria Phylum - Firmicutes Class – Bacili Order – Lactobacillales Family – Streptococcaceae Genus - Streptococcus Species – 22 sp.
  • Basic characteristics Gram-positive Lactic acid bacteria group Spherical Grow in chain (twisted) or pairs Mostly are facultative anaerobes
  • Habitat Available in food such as Emmentaler (Swiss) cheese Normal flora of the mouth, skin, intestine and upper respiratory tract of humans
  • Classification
  • Alpha hemolysisSurrounded by an area of partial haemolysisGreen-brown colour (reduced haemoglobin)Consist of pneumococci and viridans group( alpha hemolytic and no Lancerfield antigens
  • PathogenicityS.pyogenes (Group A) Acute sore throat Scarlet fever Ear infections Peurperal sepsis Septicemia and occasionally endocarditis Skin infection such as celulitis and impetigo
  • Post-streptococcal diseaseFrom the implication of pathogenesis, it will leads to a serious stage of diseases: Acute glomerulonephritis Rheumatic fever
  • Enzymes & toxin productionBy S. pyogenes Streptolysin O Streptolysin S Streptokinase (cause fibrinolysis) Hyarulonidase DNAses DPNAse Erythrogenic toxin
  • Other speciesS.Agalactiae (Group B) Neonatal septicaemia, pneumoniae, meningitis Septic abortion and peurperal sepsisEnterococci (Group D) Urinary tract infection Infections of ulcer and wounds Endocarditis and meningitisViridans Endocarditis Dental caries Brain abscess
  • Microscopy Gram positive (purple) Non-motile Long chains Sometimes in pair
  • Culture Aerobically and anaerobically Temperature between (22 – 42o C) And enterococci are between (15 – 45o C) On BA, colony usually less than 1 mm in diameter Grey – white or colourless Dry / shiny, irregular outline Most of the pathogenic streptococcus producing hemolysins
  • S. pyogenes Produce beta hemolysis Sensitive to bacitracin (can’t rely 100% to it, coz not only group A sensitive to it) but for viridans it is resistance towards bacitracin A selective BA containing crystal violet was suggested Does not grow in MacConkey agar
  • S.agalactiae Optochin resistant but S.pneumoniae is sensitive Beta hemolysis in BA In serum starch agar, it produces orange pigment
  • Biochemical testSpecies Catalase Bacitracin Optochin Litmus CAMP MilkS.pyogenes - + - - -S. agalactiae - - - - +Enterococci - - - + -Viridans - - - - -streptococciPneumococci - - + - -