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Al murra logistic hub Al murra logistic hub Presentation Transcript

  • II III
  • IV V Contents *Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Introduction 2 1.2 city concept 2 1.3 history of development in Egypt 3 1.3 Our vision 4 1.4 Logistics, what? Why? 6 1.5 Hong Kong, Jabal Ali and Jubail 10 *chapter 2: the city site choose 2.1 The site 14 2.2 Theimportant considerations of site 14 2.3 National treasure 14 2.4Why Sinai? 15 2.5 site 1 17 2.6 site 2 24 2.6.1 site comparison 31 2.7 supposed site 36 city palning 2.8 land uses 38 2.9 land uses ratio 39 2.10 design phases 40 2.11 Roads network 43 2.12 visual image 44 2.13 swot analysis 45 2.14 The main concept 46 2.15 Vision: 48 2.16 Mission: 48 2.17 Objectives: 48 2.18 SUSTAINABILITY in the CBD 49 2.19 Kevin lynch visual elements 59 2.20 Future Extension Vision: 64 2.21 concept galley of the city 65 *Chapter 3: Design standards Adminstrative Districts 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION: 70 3.1.2 USERS : 72 3.1.3 SITE SELECTION: 72 3.1.4 DESIGN GUIDELINES: 73 3.1.5 ZOONING DIGRAM: 80 3.1.6 PROJECT ANALYSIS: 81 Banks THE HISTORY OF THE BANKS 99 THE TYPES OF BANKS : 100 Bank design standard: 103 Bank Guidelines: 105 Blanks BankS: 107 Important notes when designing: 107 PROJECT ANALYSIS: 108 Commercial Introduction 113 Brief History of the commercial centers 113 Users 114 Design standard 115 Projects analysis 136 Zonning 153 Industerial INTRODUCTION 154 USERS 155 SITE SELECTION 156 Structure planning and subdivision 157 Elements of industrial development 157 Layout of the Industrial Area 157 DESIGN GUIDELINES: 158 PROJECT ANALYSIS 164 Embassies INTRODUCTION: 175 USERS : 176 SITE SELECTION: 176 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS: 177 DESIGN GUIDELINES: 177 PROJECT ANALYSIS: 186 Meuseums Introduction 194 Users 195 Design standard 195 Projects analysis 210 Zoning 221 Health care centers HELTH CARE CENTRES HISTORY 222 USERS : 223 most important factors 226 Demaraction 227 Types 227 Bed requirements 227 Designe rules 228 Similar projects 266 project sammery 284 Acadimic laps History of Scientific Research 285 USERS 286 Research Laboratory 287 Similar projects 299 Universites Introduction 309 Users 310 Design standard 311 Projects analysis 326 Sports centers Brief History 339 Users 340 Design standers 340 Analysis similar projects 360 Aqua sports Introduction 364 users 365 Design standards 365 Similar projects Analysis 379 Case Studies 388 Resorts and residential history 391 Users 392 Design standards 393 Project analysis 405 Zonning 417 *Chapter 4: Similar projects Jebal Ali intro 420 Developments of Jebel Ali 422 Jebel Ali port 428 Jebel Ali Industrial Area 430 Jebel Ali Freezone Authority (JAFZA) 433 Dubai World Central (DWC) 437 Palm Jebel Ali 443 Dubai Waterfront 445 Jebel Ali Golf Resort & Spa 448 Busan logistic city intro 449 urban character of Busan 450 Gimhae International Airport 454 Busan New Port 456 Busan-Jinhae Free Economic Zone 458 industrial and logistics complex 460 Building the East Busan Tourist Complex 462 Munhyeon Financial Complex 464 Jazan city intro 465 Jazan city 465 New King Abdullah Airport 473 Jazan Port 476 INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS 477 The Education Area 477 The Health services Area 478 Residential Areas and Seafront District 478 Al-Sahan city intro 480 Table of contents
  • VI VII Dedication we are glad to didicate this work to our stuff at the architecture and urban planing department, faculty of enginnering, suez canal univeristy as a sign of Thanks for them headed by. Professor Dr / Essam El-Din Badran Assistant Professor of Urban Planning Department of Architecture and Environmental Planning, and Vice-Dean for graduate studies, University of the Suez Canal. Professor Dr / Muhammad Hassan Atwa Assistant Professor of Urban Planning Department of Architecture and Environmental Planning. Professor Dr / Mahmoud Fouad Mahmoud Assistant Professor of Urban Planning Department of Architecture and Environmental Planning, and head of Architecture and urban planing department, Faculty of engineering , University of the Suez Canal. Also we must thank a three persons meant us a lot the Present absents Dr/Usama Nassar, Dr/Moham- med Refaat and Dr/Ahmed Saleh. professor assistants at Department of Architecture and Urban Planning ,Faculty of Engineering, University of the Suez Canal, thank you for being not only our teachers but also our guidence. another special thanks to Arch/ Ahmed Helal & Arch/ Shimaa Ali. Teacher Assistant, Department of Ar- chitecture and Urban Planning ,Faculty of Engineering, University of the Suez Canal on although they know now words can give them thank they deserve. And last but not least we would like to thank our dear parents ,who have borne the burden physical and moral , and encourage them uninterrupted us, and without which this work was to be . Land Use and Structure 481 Developments of Al Sahan City 481 Landmarks of Qatar 482 Al sahan city Concept 483 Road Network of the site 484 landuse 485 Hamad International Airport 486 Grand Hayatt Doha resort & spa 487 *References 488
  • 2 3 1.1 Introduction For long time we had a dream a shared dream between all Egyptians that one day egypt will be back to it’s good days when egypt was the greatest country in world, will as it’s said dreams where made to be achived we decided that we will take the dream much further and start making studies for our vision of the starting point to the new egypt that we dream it will be better than ever. This book introduces our dream and our vision to AL-murra logistic hub that is a logistic hub in sinai as developed as dubai and Hong Kong, that one day will make the development dream come true at least partially in egypt. Intro. Development, power and international prestige. that was the day dream of all Egyptians only 32 year ago at last days of President Anwar El Sadat. Now Egyptians have one dream just to survive. It was a real hard 32 year science Mubarak ruled Egypt with simply no vision of development may be vision for destruc- tion and Wallow strategies for development that made Egypt go back to the dark ages just like ages before the revolution of 1952. Then it was January the 25th 2011 something had to stop and another had to begin. That was the last days of Mubarak his time is off a new hope should begin it was the resurrection of hope inside Egyptians. Now there is a dream for development. 1.2 city concept Al-Murra city eye on the future from the famous pharons eye sympole. the Eye is an anthropological symbol of restoration and popular wellness for pharons. from this concept we decided to use that sympole wishing to restore the good days of the egypt. the city was born from the soul of egyptian revolution so using the egyption flag colors with the grafiti art is the best way to express our dream. intro intro brief history of development in egypt fig.i.2.egyptian revolution 2011fig.i.1.president gamal abd el nasser after 1952 revolution fig.i.1.cocept for the logo 1.3 Brief history of development in Egypt 1.3.1The golden era That was the era after the revolution of 1952 when president Gamal Abd el-Naser well the democracy was bad no freedom but on the other hand Egypt was great. Egypt was strong enough to beat France, England and Israel in 1956, the high dam was built, Suez canal was nationalized, a lot of factories was built , good agricultural abilities and the most important that as a place to live in Egypt was great. 1.3.2 The setback That was the end of the golden era Israel won the war Egyptian army was beaten had to retreat and let Israel control whole Sinai that time all of the Egyptian budget turned to the war machine and there was no budget for anything even for feeding people . 1.3.3 The vision of El-Sadat Abd El-Naser died and now a new farsighted president took control it’s Anwar El-Sadat, in few years Israel is out and now it’s time again for devel- opment to take place in Egypt El-Sadat made a lot of development projects in Egypt even a full cites was created industrial and agriculture development till he was Assassinated. 1.3.4 The wallow time Mubarak came with promises to rule for only 10 years and a lot of development within those 10 years. But the fact is that he ruled 30 years not only he did not make that development he promised but also he ruined the projects of El-Sadat. One of those projects was Al-Salhya project was one of the best agriculture projects in Egypt. And off course there were tons of unfinished projects such as Shaequ Al Tafreaa, Sharqu AL awynat, Wady AL Technology and off course Terat Al Salam. And the finished ones were sold and Egyptians didn’t benefit anything from it such as Toshka Project. And that wallow strategies coasted Egypt about 79 billion Egyptian bound which made Egypt and Egyptians in a deep trouble and a continuous threat of Bankruptcy. intro fig.i.5.salheya project before and after mubarak fig.i.6.toshka project fig.i.4.The High dam
  • 4 5 1.3.5 The hope After the 25th January revolution a new hope was found by having a real democratic system real parties real elections even the first democratic experiment was not that successful at the parliament but having such a democratic system gives people a hope to live better life in a developed country. 1.3 Our vision Our vision is a logistic hub as powerful as Rotterdam, Hamburg, Jabal Ali and even Hong Kong lays over Suez Canal in Sinai. That logistic hub is based on both industrial and agricultural hubs in Sinai, also provid- ing ship maintenance and other logistic services. intro fig.i.7.development by president fig.i.8.elections after revolution fig.i.9.the day mubark stepped down intro
  • 6 7 1.4.1 Definition A Logistics Centre is the hub of a specific area where all the activities relating to transport,logistics and goods distribution – both for national and in- ternational transit – are carried out, on a commer- cial basis, by various operators. The operators may be either owners or tenants of the buildings or facilities (warehouses, distribu- tion centres, storage areas, offices, truck services, etc.) built there. In order to comply with free mar- ket rules, a Logistics Centre must be accessible to all companies involved in the activities set out above. A Logistics Centre must also be equipped with all the public facilities necessary to carrying out the above-mentioned operations. If possible, it should also include public services for the staff as well as users’ equipment. In order to encourage intermo- dal transport for goods handling, a Logistics Centre should preferably be served by a variety of trans- 1.4 Logistics, what? Why? Logistics can be classified as an enterprise plan- ning framework for material management, informa- tion, service and capital flows. Logistics when seen in the context of the modern day prevalent work environment also includes information that is com- plex in nature besides giving importance to all the communication and control system that are essen- tial for efficient working of the organization. Now a time logistics can be defined as having the right type of product or service at the right place, at the right time, for a right price and in the right condition. The birth of Logistics can be traced back to an- cient war times of Greek and Roman empires when military officers titled as ‘Logistikas’ were assigned the duties of providing services related to supply and distribution of resources. This was done to en- able the soldiers to move from their base position to a new forward position efficiently. logistics The real start of logistics in the modern history was at the ww2 when the united states of America’s fleet was defeated after pearl harbor the us army started to construct a new fleet based on a massive ships working as a floating logistic centers to provide the whole fleet with supplies far away from home at the pacific ocean. logistics logistics intro hong kong, jubail and jabal ali fig.i.11.logistic war ships fig.i.10.the logistikas helmet port methods (roads, rail, sea, inland waterways, air). It is vital that a Logistics Centre be managed as a single and neutral legal body (preferably by a Public-Private-Partnership) if synergy and commer- cial cooperation are to be ensured. 1.4.2 The most important elements The Logistics Centre concept is based on three important elements: 1. Territorial planning alongside infrastructure rationalization. Going back to the Logistics Centre definition at the top of the page is useful to a better understand- ing of this point. The Logistics Centre is a specific area where all the activities relating to transport, logistics and goods distribution, […], are carried out by various operators. 2. Transport quality. • decrease in the total transport costs • decrease in the total industrial costs • decrease in personnel costs • An increase in the transport operators total turnover. 3. Intermodality development • Offering very convenient transport and syner- gic solutions (rail/road/short-sea-shipping), • Using block shuttle trains on long-range jour- neys. 4. Location • Location is a key factor for all the transport operators whose main activity is moving freight • from one place to one another using different modes of transport. • Optimization – or rather reduction – of the delivery time to the final destination or to the • following passage of the logistics/transport chain is one of the elements that could make that important difference when a transport operator is being chosen. logistics fig.i.12.logistic transportation
  • 8 9 5. Activities It should be remembered that the activities re- ferred to in this point are exclusively specific to the company managing the Logistics Centre. 1.4.3 Defining infrastructure necessities • Road connections • Rail connections • Connections with ports 1.4.4 Defining the Logistics Centre layout • Customs infrastructures • Postal/bank/insurance services • Offices • Intermodal terminals • Warehouses • Other general services 1.4.5 Creating the general infrastructures, the warehouses and the integrated services The Logistics Centre management company is responsible for the construction of all the infra- structures, once layout planning and the business plan have been completed. 1.4.6 Land leasing to transport operators / Ware- house and office leasing / Sale of warehouses and offices The Logistics Centre management company is responsible for all the procedures regarding the leasing or selling activities. It sees to both the com- mercial/marketing and legal procedures. logistics fig.i.13.logistic cites places fig.i.14.logistic warehouse logistics fig.i.15.logistics flow chart fig.i.16.logistics jops salaries
  • 10 11 1.5 Hong Kong, Jabal Ali and Jubail These three cites has something in common the three cites are very developed, astonishing infra- structure, nice architecture, an environment to live in and of course tons of jobs and chances. Also an important thing is that nearly the three are not on that developed country except of Dubai (Jabal Ali). 1.5.1 China China was recorded that nearly 50% of popula- tion are beneath the Poverty line, living side to side with rice paddies with no services, bad infrastruc- ture even with bad educational facilities if existed. On the other hand Hong Kong and Shanghai have great infrastructure, good looking skyline, tons of jobs and very developed services that nearly no one is under the poverty line. 1.5.2 Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia has bad infrastructure in most of its cities such as Eastern, Al Qassim and Najran that most of population don’t send their daughters to school and women nearly have no rights and edu- cational facilities is bad. In Jubail, Riyadh, Makkah and Al Madinah there is great services and infrastructure, good facilities and good environment. 1.5.3 Dubai (Jabal Ali) United Arab Emirates is a developed country but some counties are not developed as Dubai and Abu Dhabi even most of people don’t know what is the 7 counties they just know Dubai and Abu Dhabi they are the known places as they are the logistic centers of Emirates . HongKong,JabalAliand Jubail logistics10 fig.i.17.schools comparison Ajman& Dubai fig.i.20.Ajman& Dubai logistics fig.i.19.poor cites in chinafig.i.18.Hong Kong fig.i.21.Al-Ahsaa fig.i.22.Reyad
  • 1212 13
  • 1414 15 2.1 The site A city with such potential should have a special site where it can deliver a service for thousands of ships every year also as it’s connected to an industrial and agricultural hubs then the transportation and acces- sibility are very important. When it comes to logistics a lot of considerations are related to the site as accessibility and Varity of transportation also the acceptance of people living in the site and realizing the importance of the city. site studies 2.2 The most important considerations relating to site • Accessibility: have a lot of access roads and nearby terminals and cites • Strategic placing: the site should be unique and provide a service can’t be reached easily nearby • Varity: the site should provide various amount of abilities such as providing good sports facilities and tourism beside providing good abilities for logistics. 2.3Why Suez Canal territory? Suez Canal territory is the third territory in Egypt and considered as the resources territory as all kinds of resources are available such as mining, large waterfront, industrial zones, agriculture zones, large amount of unused land and of Corse the most important factor is strategic and historic place that makes it the most important trade passage in the world. The relation between the territory and the international trade movement makes it very impor- tant place when comes to logistics which can make Egypt in a very fast way one of the most developed countries in the world as happened in japan, Sin- gapore and Hong Kong as the territory has enough resources and good location for export/import abili- ties that makes it one of the best manufacturing location by importing resources and manufacturing it and exporting it. 2.3 National treasure The Suez Canal is considered as a national trea- sure for Egypt as it controls now 7% of the world trade which is a large number for a canal surround- ed by deserts with no services. One of the most important factors in Suez Canal is that the amount of trade and ships passing by it is expanding every year, in 2010 the total number of ships passed by Canal was 13987 ship and 4700 container mostly filled by oil and raw materials. the site important elemnts why sinai supposed sites site studies intro fig.s.1.sinai peninsula fig.s.2.suez canal 2.4Why Sinai? Sinai Peninsula has an area of 61,000 km2 apx. ,in another words 6% of Egypt total Area. It’s population exceeded 600,000 in 2010.The site of Sinai among the world is more like a linking ring between Asia and Africa extends as a triangle of Farah at base, Port said in North and Ras Muham- mad as head, this unique location made it the main entrance of Egypt in East. It extends between the two gulfs of the red sea ,Suez gulf and Aqaba gulf. But Sinai has limited renewable water resources, what makes it slow for development rates.Flood water is considered an important source although it happens irregular. In Sinai Peninsula there is a road network con- nects between its cities to make it easy to transfer among them and other cities all over Egypt. site studies intro fig.s.4 fig.s.3.government plans for suez canal territory
  • 1616 17 Also, there is a network of international roads which cross the Suez canal via Ahmed Hamdy tunnel near by Suez city or Elsalam Bridge near by Qantara. These roads end at commercial ports and touristic cities. Among the most important ports in Sinai, Nwebaa port in south and Arish port in North. These ports participate in transferring between Asia and Africa .the most important touristic cities are Sedr, Eltor, Sant catrin, Charmelsheikh, Dahab, Nwebaa, Taba, ElArish, and finally Rafah which is considered Egypt gate to the East. site studies intro fig.s.5.sinai airports fig.s.6.main roads in sinai fig.s.8.site 1 supposed sites 2.5 site 1 2.5.1 Overview The site was selected in Suez is an attempt to cover all the cities of the province, where the site is located at the beginning of the course of the navi- gation channel extended to the Gulf of Suez, where the site is located on the eastern side of the chan- nel corresponding to the western city of Suez Canal . The location has been selected to be the nu- cleus of large logistic abilites in suez canal territory depending on the touristic infrastructure already available , that will attract more tourists and gives the development a strong touristic accent. also the site has a large industerial abilites in suez and the port of suez that will be a big support for the logistic services. but the main trouble is that site is away from the agriculture powers of the territory which is con- sidered a large ability of the territory. overview site parameters site 1 land use accesibility advantages and disadvan- tages site 1 fig.s.7.bird eye for site fig.s.9.near by communites
  • 1818 19 2.5.2 Site parameters & borders Area = 8.5 km2(2100 Acres) perimeter = 10.9 Km Elevation difference = 10 m Slope = N/A site 1 fig.s.12.site ground sec. fig.s.10.site parms. fig.s.11.site diffrent views 2.5.3 Land use & Visual character the location has a strong character for it’s fasci- nating nature and touristic urbanism. Advantage of the site that is located on the Suez Canal and Gulf of Suez and also it gives a greater opportunity to exploit the coast without exposure to the waterway canal . The advantage of location and the nature of the land of desert, but overlooking the coast, which is given directly by air and mild nature of the witch, both configurations of the scenic mountain or the charming nature of the waters of the Gulf . site 1 fig.s.14.site nearby views fig.s.13.site landuse
  • 2020 21 2.5.4 Accessibility The site is located east of the canal for the city of Suez, where the access roads to the site is through the Ras Sidr - Shahid Ahmed Hamdy Tun- nel, Ras Sidr - Bitter Lakes and the site is accessed through this road after crossing the Channel by ferry (Ferry Namira 6 - Ferry Sarabium). or hanging bridges (ElSalam bridge- bridge Fardan) or expenditure (Shaheed Ahmed Hamdi Tunnel) , Or direct access through the airport of Ras Sidr, which away from the site distance of 38 km. site 1 fig.s.17.site acces roads fig.s.16.site nearby airportsfig.s.15.site roads 2.5.4 Accessibility Ports ElSuez port: 1.30 km from the site AlAdiabya port: 10.50 km from the site ElSokhna port: 37.00 km from the site ElTor port: 212.00 km from the site site 1 fig.s.18.nearby ports fig.s.19.nearby ports
  • 2222 23 2.5.5 Advantages and disadvantages The disAdvantages 1-The climate of the location is not relevant to some sports and the facilities need some technics to over come 2-the development in the north western coast may be obestacled by the presence of Suez port 3-The site soil and Geology may not be perfect, some parts need filling and motivation to be ready for super structures in the city. 4-far from the territorie’s agricultural centers. The Advantages 1-The site is located parallel to the line for the city of Suez, one of the charming cities within the territory ,so it’s merited with existing infrastruture 2-The location is advantageous as the nucleus of a new urban development of the city of Suez on the east . 3-the location is close to Ahmad Hamdy tun- nel which is considered an international passage to Sinai (only 11 km) 3-The location has advantageous nature of the charming surroundings of the North mountain scenery and proximity to tourist areas, such as our eyes of Moses and in the south coastal distinctive nature . 4-The site has two water facades, Allowing more potentials for tourism and water sports. site 1 fig.s.20.site 1 2.5.6 Surrounding Communities Suez a seaport town (population ca. 497,000) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez, near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate. It has two harbors, Port Ibrahim and Port Tawfiq, and extensive port facilities. Together they form a metropolitan area. Railway lines and highways connect the city with Cairo, Port Said and Ismailia. Suez has a petrochemi petro- chemical plant, and its oil refineries have pipelines carrying the finished product to Cairo. Suez is a way station for Muslim pilgrims travelling to and from Mecca. near by resources suez city and near by cities is known for it’s industerial and mining abilites, also the suez gulf filled with oil and natural gas stations that will sup- port the city and save money for spechial infra- structure. site 1 fig.s.25.natural gas station in the gulf fig.s.23.suez factories fig.s.21.steel manifuctring in suez fig.s.24.suez city shore fig.s.22.suez city
  • 2424 25 2.6 site 2 2.6.1 Overview The site is located on the eastern coast of the Suez Canal overlooking the great Bitter Lakes within the territory of the Suez Canal, where the aver- age location of the channel on the province, 40 km from the center of Ismailia, 36 km from the center of Suez and 128 from the center of Cairo Governor- ate . The location has real touristic potentials and good international accessibility via Elshaheed tun- nel or Elsalam bridge.it represents a chance to start an urban development nucleus in Sinai. The site is located in median place between suez canal territoy diffrent resources as it’s near to suez city and it’s industerial abilites alo near to the territory agriculture abilites and the mining abilites of mid sinai. the main trouble in the site is the soil as it’s not prepared to mega structures but it’s considered a good point for burrowing the marinas for the ports and tourism abilites. supposed sites overview site parameters site 2 land use accesibility advantages and disadvan- tages site 2 fig.s.27.bird eye for the site7= fig.s.28.nearby cites fig.s.26.bitter lakes 2.6.2 Site parameters & borders Area = 19 km2 (4694 Acres) premeter = 19.8 km Elevation difference = 10 m Slope = N/A site 2 fig.s.30.site ground sec fig.s.29.site parms.
  • 2626 27 2.6.3 Land use & Visual character The location has a strong character for it’s fasci- nating nature and touristic urbanism. Overlooks the site giving wider in the water far from the coast line of the navigation of vessels. the big advantage is that the site is near to the technologt vally project and the village of meet abo el koom that can support site’s infrastructure. The advantage of location may be clear ,over- looking the coast, which is given directly by air and mild nature of the witch, both configurations of the scenic mountain or the charming nature of the waters of the Gulf. site 2 fig.s.32.nearby vies fig.s.31.surrounding landuse 2.6.4 Accessibility The site is located east of the canal and is sur- rounded by one road Ras Sudr - Kantara East. that accessing the site through the various crossings of the channel and long the channel and bar, includ- ing ferries, such as infectious and contagious Sarabium yarns 6 and bridges such as bridge and bridge Mubarak Al Fardan and spending such as Shaheed Ahmed Hamdi Tunnel . Site directly related to Ras Sidr Airport, located in the eastern Gabn of the channel and Fayed Airport and Kibrit airport west of the canal . site 2 fig.s.35.acces roads fig.s.34.nearby airportsfig.s.33.site accesing road
  • 2828 29 2.6.4 Accessibility nearby ports damyetta port (130 km) portsaid port (94 km) suez port (52 km) Al adiabya port (60 km) site 2 fig.s.37.nearby ports fig.s.36.nearby ports 2.6.5 Advantages and disadvantages disadvantages 1-Lack of infrastructure, isolation from urban areas. 2-located in the east may make it difficult to each the site 3-Some parts are below water level, soil is not ready for mega structure projects advantages 1-The site is located mid-region to the territory, where the multiplicity of ways in passages leading to it . 2-The site is located directly on the bitter lakes, which offers the possibility to use water elements to the project without resorting to artificial lakes 3-The possibility of future extension along the strip parallel to the coast . 4-The location is advantageous nature of the witch of the surrounding mountainous areas and coastal waters surrounding. 5-the site is in median place berween all resorc- es of the territory. 6-the site has both costal and desert front to extend and also has a green buffer around it to prevent slums. site 2 fig.s.39.nearby citesfig.s.38.site advantages
  • 3030 31 2.6.6 Surrounding communities Fayed: A coastal city tracks Ismailia ,Arab Republic of Egypt , one of the most important touristic cities in Egypt, as it is the nearest resort from Cairo , lies about 120 km far only, making it the most popular one day resorts in Egypt . The area of the city Fayed 5322 square kilometers and includes a center and three villages, with a population of 81 thousand souls, and includes the local unit of the Centre and the city of Fayed, established in 1965, City Fayed mother and villages Sarabium and Abu Sultan and Varpo Kseverit and Alhawess. Fanara: fnara is the second of fayed villages in popu- lation, and contains some important touristic projects,including 18 beaches,2 hotels and 3 tourstic resorts. fig.s.41.surrounding communites fig.s.40.fanara city overview image Location 1 -Located in East North of Suez gulf, facing the gulf and Suez canal entrance .close to Suez city but not under it’s urban extent. -the nearest city is Suez in west, Ras sedr in south east. -A desert land ,with triangular shape degrading little up the sea level. the land is not at one level but needs slight processes of fill and dig. -Has a direct access to water from two facades Location 2 -Located in the east side of Suez canal, Sinai. Facing the greate bitter lakes. -The nearest city is Suez ,the nearest high way is Ras sedr Elqantara. -A desert land with muddy soil. partially iso- lated from developed areas. -Has direct access to water. -has median place in the suez canal territory. sites comparison overview site parameters land use accesibility unique advantages sites comparison
  • 3232 33 Site parameters & borders image Location 1 Area = 8.5 km2(2100 Acres) perimeter = 10.9 Km Elevation difference = 10 m Slope = N/A Location 2 Area = 19 km2 (4694 Acres) premeter = 19.8 km Elevation difference = 10 m Slope = N/A sites comparison accesibility image Location 1 ferdan brige 86 km nimra 6 ferry 76.5 km sarabeum ferry 63.7 km shahid ahmed hamdy tunnel 11.7 km Location 2 ferdan brige 47 km nimra 6 ferry 22 km sarabeum ferry 11 km shahid ahmed hamdy tunnel 58 km land use image Location 1 -the site has strong visual identity and rich visi- tor experience. -From east sand deserts, from west suez canal and suez city on the other side, from north and south there are desert extensions for the site Location 2 -The surrounding areas are farms and the lakes shore. No residential areas located near by the site. -also Farms can be seen on the opposite side of the canal, near Fnara. sites comparison
  • 3434 35 Unique Advatages image Location 1 -the nearest to Suez, a city with promising po- tentials and existing sports facilities -Closer to many touristic and historic sites like Uyon moses. and Siant Catren -Faces water via two sides,can extends along both the Suez gulf or Suez canal Location 2 -Charming direct facing on the greate bitter lakes -Open area along the coast line -A promising location as a development nucle- us in Sinai -The routes to the site are more like a great trip a long Sinai(Touristic merit) sites comparison comparisson site 1 site 2 Area 8 9.5 Accessibility 8.5 9 Visual character 8 7.5 Infrastructure 8.5 7.5 Land use 6 8 Extension potentials 9 7 Topography 6 7 Climate 7 8 Communities potentials 9 7.5 Soil qualifications 7.5 7.5 Natural shape & borders 8 8 Urban development 8 8.5 Building restrictions 7.5 7 International profile 7.5 7 Nearby resources 6 8 total score 7.6 7.8 full comparison result (supposed site)sites results sites comparison results fig.s.43.site 2fig.s.42.site 1
  • 3636 37 2.7 supposed site the site is located at the eastern side of suez canal at beautiful place at the greate bitter lackes. the site is in median place between aboth suez and ismailia city that makes it near to all resources in the suez canal territory as it’s near to minig places in sinai, oil and natural gas at suez and suez gulf, and near to the agriculture lands in ismailia and sharquea. sites comparison results fig.s.44.farms fig.s.45.sinai mines fig.s.46.site advantages fig.s.48.sinai minesfig.s.47.suez factoriesfig.s.46.natural gas at gulf
  • 3838 39 Alterntive 1 land use land use ratio design phses road network visual image swot analysis 2.8 land uses 2.9 land uses ratio
  • 4040 41 2.10 design phases phase 1 phase 2
  • 4242 43 phase 3 2.11 Roads network
  • 4444 45 2.12 visual image 2.13 swot analysis
  • 46 47 suggested development centers in sinai suggested point to start Alterntive 1 land use land use ratio design phses road network visual image swot analysis 2.14 The main concept of the Master planning The main concept of this master plan was originally based on the 3 suggested points of development through Egypt which are: • South Egypt • Suez canal region and north-Sinai zone • El-kharga oases and the suez cana region and north-sinai zone have many qualifications and potentials of development which are like mining, tourism, agriculture , strategic location of transportation means , etc etc etc And the main concept came from 2 certain suggested points of development due to Egypt master plan of 2050 and its development points and the 2 points are (Great bitter lakes and north Sinai zone) and each point of them have a radius of effect and each radius of those 2 points are having intersections with development abilites in suez canal territorydevelopment visions in egypt each other and from this intersection our CBD was created and surrounded by other functions and from here came out the main concept .
  • 48 49 Vision: Our vision is to create a Sustainable powerful logistic hub as Rotterdam, JabalAli and even Hong Kong lays over Suez Canal in Sinai, to make the maximum benefits of the Suez Canal, to be a center of economic development in Egypt. Mission: The strategy will be mainly based on the logistic services for the ships and also on ship maintenance. The economy will be increased by three means: 1st the industrial zone, 2nd the agricultural zone, 3rd the CBD and it will based mainly on tourism. Objectives: *creating a large transportation center which will contain different means of transports like land trans- port for logistic issues, and sea transport “terminal port”. *creating a large maintenance zone for ships. *There will be large industrial and agriculture extensions, based on the natural resources of Sinai. *The CBD will be a main tourist attraction in Egypt. city vision SUSTAINABILITY in the CBD The word “SUSTAINABILITY” has become popu- lar catch phrase in nineties. The emergence of the environmental movement has brought this concept to the forefront of environmental policy in this decade. According to this standpoint the concept of sustainability has been introduced to the project in several methods: • At the urban scale: 1- PV cells are installed at the lightning units and shades inthe streets . 2-Windmills are used to generate energy. 3- Turbines and reservoirs will be used to gener- ate energy from the lake ,and it will be used at the link between the suez canal and El murra lakes. 4-Geothermal energy will be also used to gener- ate energy and in heating issues at the residential areas. 5-The city design will provide natural shadings for all the streets. • At the buildings scale: 1- The buildings are designed and located to provide natural cooling systems . 2- The buildings are designed and located ac- cording to the sun to provide natural shadings for the interiors. 3- PV cells are installed at the roof of the build- ings to provide energy for the buildings. 4- Geothermal energy is used in heating the buildings at the winter. • The transportation: The city will contain pioneering public transpor- tation systems. The fossil fuels based vehicles will be reduced in the city. Compact networks of streets will encourage walking. sustinability ar urban scale wind power plant
  • 50 51 geothermal heating for houses Automated control system for vehicular guid- ance. • The recycling system:* The city will strive towards a zero waste objec- tive by using pioneer recycling strategies. • The research and development centers: There are several institutes concerned with sus- tainability and renewable energy issues. • The city will tend to be zero carbon and zero waste city ,and will be fully powered by renewable energy. Master Plan Development 1-First stage : It was just a simple application of the main concept idea which the 2 suggested points of development which located in Sinai and Bitter great lakes constituse the form of the city main spine which serving the whole city but it had some troubles like distribution of main elements of the city so we had to develop our look to the master plan 2-Second stage It’s a developed master plan the the first one and fixed lots of problems but made other prob- lems like the city is near a high way and levels of the streets are not correct although it made the spine of the city more clear to visitor and distrib- uted the elements of the city in an organized shape 3- third stage A whole revolutionary master plan which devel- oped our concept of the city and fixed lots of prob- lem but its problem was its too complicated to be understood easily and lots of exits and entrances 4- final stage It’s a development of the third stage to make the master plan suit our needs wiz out harming the distribution of the elements of the city and make it clear to visitor and fixed the complication which was obvious to us • Zoning study Our city consists of several main zones each zone consists of several elements and now we will clarify each zone and its elements: 1-Educational Zone and consists of (university- libraries complex ) 2-Sports Zone and consists of (stadiums-sports clubs – training stadiums) 3-Cultural Zone and consists of (Expo city – Op- era – media city ) 4- Residential Zone and consists of (residential districts for all levels of living standards) 5-Green area Zone and consists of (hi tech park – open landscape area) 6- Logestic city Adminstration and consists of ( information center – city management) 7- marine port zone and consists of (yacht port – public port – ships maintainance and services) 8- administration-commercial zone and consists of ( malls- admin buildings- banks complex-multi purpose towers )
  • 52 53
  • 54 55 9- tourist-residential zone and consists of (tourist villages- chalets-hotels ) 10- Recreational zone and consists of ( Aqua city- Amusement park ) 11-Research centres zone and consists of ( Space research centre- geological research centre-water research centre ) 12- Health care Zone and consists of ( General hospital - Neuropsychiatric Disorders hospital) • Main Entrances and Exits : In our master plan there are 2 main entrance and 2 main exits which are founded in the beginning and the end of the city distributed equally and there are some secondary entrances and exits which used for both functions • Zones Ratio to the whole city : The area of the city is 23299448.39 m2 is almost 5547.5 acres divided to 12 zones Residential zone 17.47% equal to 969.15 acres Admin-commercial Zone is 12.16 % equal to 674.576 acres Tourist-residential Zone is 6.85% equal to 381.85 acres Health care zone is 3.93% equal to 219.1 acres Sports zone is 4.87% equal to 271.48 acres Educational zone 5.77% equal to 321.65 acres Research centers zone is 4.79 % equal to 267.15 acres Recreational zone is 6.17 % equal to 343.95 acres Cultural zone is 10.33% equal to 575.85 acres Logestic city management zone is 1.58% equal to 88.08 acres Green area zone is 4.1% equal to 228.56 acres Marine ports zone is 8.81 % equal to 471.11 acres
  • 56 57
  • 58 59 Kevin lynch visual elements Kevin lynch elements are one of the most important thing that define the character of any city in the world and it consists of (Nodes-Paths-Districts-Edges-landmarks) and here is every point in detail • Landmark study: The project contains a main land mark which located in the main zone of the CBD ,and there’s also two land marks at the entrances and exits of the CBD ,which are expo-city and high -tech park
  • 60 61 • Paths study: This projects contains 4 levels of roads seprated to 1st level 100 m width road 2nd level 50 m width road 3rd level 40 m width road 4th level 30 m width road And those roads are meant to be in this shape to apply rules of road levels and contain heavy traffic at rush hours easily and direct the flow of the traffic smoothly • Nodes study: There are many nodes in this project which we can see at intersections of the streets and every nodes of them not like the other one and they differs from each other in the size and importance
  • 62 63 • District Study: This projects is based on 3 main districts distributed on linear shapes due to importance of the func- tions that each district contains • Edges Study: This projects is surrounded by 2 main edges natural edges which is the coast line of Bitter great lakes and artificial one which is High way which connects Elqantra shark and Ras sedr
  • 64 65 Future Extension Vision: Our vision to the future extension of this project is based on 2 main axes which are Coast axis and mid Sinai axis Coast axis is for main functions and vital ones that cant be put away from the CBD of the city but mid- sinai axis is for industrial future extension and agricultural future extension concept galley of the city
  • 66 67
  • 68 69
  • 70 71 Adminstration INTRODUCTION . Users. SITE SELECTION. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS. DESIGN GUIDELINES . PROJECT ANALYSIS. 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION: In 1878 the Kentucky legislature severed the official connection between the Agricultural and Me- chanical College of Kentucky (later the University of Kentucky) and Kentucky University, a private sectarian school of which the A&M College had been a department. The resultant loss of the College’s first home on the Ashland-Woodlands campus necessitated the acquisition of a new tract of land on which to site the A&M buildings. The fifty-two-acre city park and old fairgrounds on Limestone Street, just south of the downtown portion of the city, were donated by the municipality of Lexington for this purpose. On this loca- tion were erected between 1880 and 1882 the independent College’s first structures -- a men’s dormitory (later named White Hall), the President’s house, the campus heating plant, and the Administration Build- ing. Designed by Architect H.P. McDonald, the build- ing was built of brick fashioned from campus clays and stone, at a cost of $81,000. It opened in 1882. A year previous, when funding for construction failed, President James Kennedy Patterson pledged his entire personal fortune as collateral against the money borrowed to complete the project. Solemn dedicatory ceremonies on February 15, 1882, which included White Hall and the President’s house, were attended by, among other notables, the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Commonwealth, and featured the Honorable Henry Watterson as Orator of the Day. In the early days of State College, the Main, or College Building, as it was then called, encom- passed the administrative operation and academic instruction of the institution in its entirety. Original- ly housed in the building were all campus offices, classrooms, and related facilities including: the Col- lege armory and the classrooms used by the Com- mandant of Cadets; a shop; the President’s Office (equipped with fireplaces and a classroom); a natu- ral history museum; two laboratories; the Normal, French, German, English, Mathematics, Classical, and Preparatory departments; an assembly room containing an organ; a smaller chapel (which was able to seat the entire student body, faculty, and staff); the headquarters of the Union Literary and Philosophian societies; and the Kentucky Geological Survey. Gracing the roof of the building was a tower crowned by a cupola, 157 feet in height. The cupola featured a clock (supposedly built by a professor) and a “captain’s walk”, and housed the local Weather Observatory. This structure was progres- sively dismantled and shortened or altered and after 1919 the roof of the edifice manifested the “flattened”, gabled appearance which characterized it until the recent fire. During the administration of President Henry Stites Barker (1911-17) a project to reconstruct the frontal faade of the three-story, Victorian-style building with the addition of stone pillars, was initi- ated and later abandoned. A post office and book- store were created in the basement in 1918 (both removed in 1925). A cafeteria was opened in 1919, which served the campus for ten years. In the spring of 1948, with the removal of the Ancient Languages and Political Science depart- ments to new quarters, the Administration Building for the first time housed only University administra- tive departments. These included the offices of the President, Vice President, Dean, Comptroller, Reg- Fig.A.H.1 :Administration Building circa 1905 istrar, Dean of Men, Dean of Women, the Informa- tion and Personnel offices, and the Public Relations Department. Interior renovations of the structure, varying in extent and scope, were carried out in 1929, 1939-40, and 1964. Fig.A.H.3 :Administration Building 1967 A fire on May 15, 2001, presumably ignited by a welding torch as repairs and renovations of the building’s guttering were in progress, destroyed its roof, gutted its second and third floors, and left the first floor and basement flooded and water-dam- aged. The University’s Board of Trustees on June 20 of that year approved a proposal to restore and reconstruct the building, and interior and exterior design planning began immediately Fig.A.H.2 :Administration Building circa 1920 Adminstration Adminstration
  • 72 73 3.1.2 USERS : 3.1.3 SITE SELECTION: The location of the urban administration cen- ter has the major impacts on the urban economic development, the layout structure, the road system plan and the organization of architectural esthet- ics space. So the location selected should be more forward-looking, and the center should be tiringly distributed in the city’s future prioritized region to come in line with the city’s master plan. This is because, in the citizens’ opinion, the government is the confidence guarantee, a commercial build- ing possibly goes bankrupt, but the administration building relatively is much safer. Only under the government’s construction, the infrastructure (wa- ter, electricity, road, gas etc.) and servicing facilities (hospital, school, posts and telecommunications, public security etc.) can form the high level in a short period in the newly developed area, this is what the developer would be unable to achieve. Site’s natural conditions: The administrative center is a important archi- tectural complex and urban space, so it should be built on a land with more superior physical geography condition. For example, the location should consider the geology topographical condition to avoid the disaster risk, and should not be on the land with excessively low topography to avoid the flood disaster. The suitable location should has sufficient space to use, and its slope and elevation difference is gentle, the bearing capacity of soil foundation is strong and its draining system is quite good in the region. The traditional Feng-Shui theory named the site selection for the public activity center as “The Acupoint Selection”, the administrative center is the Central Acupoint (is also called “Hall Acupoint”), and should be prioritize located in the south of mountain and the north of water with high to- pography. In this traditional Feng-Shui pattern of backing-mountain and facing-water, it is highly advantageous to form a good ecological and partial microclimate. Traffic conditions: A cardinal principle of the site selection is to establish the centre in a well communicational area. As an urban administration center, on the one hand, it should provide the service very con- veniently for the residents, on the other hand, it must avoid forming the traffic bottleneck in the local area. The centre is a place to be visited by the public, therefore it should be located beside the main city roads (or not far from the main roads), but should avoid the cross-boundary roads. It also should be close to the life main road and the mixing main road, but should not very close to the trans- portation main road.model of valuableland with a good Feng-Shui (Gao Shiming, 2006). Planning Considerations The application of the following considerations will assist the space plan- ner to attain functional effectiveness in the final layout : 1 . Employees performing close work should be in the best-lighted areas . Glaring surfaces which affect vision should be identified and corrected . 2 . Clothes lockers in an office layout are out of date and wasteful . Large rooms or open areas should be provided with hanging space for coats and shelves for hats, packages, and other material . Space not suitable for work stations should be used whenever possible . 3 . Heavy equipment generally should be placed against walls or columns in order to avoid floor overloading . 4 . Be safety conscious . Do not obstruct exits, corridors, or stairways . Comply with fire safety codes governing aisles, exits, etc . 5 . Where frequent interviews with the general public are required, as in personnel offices, the use of interview cubicles should be considered . Such cubicles need only be large enough for the in- terviewer, the applicant, and a small desk or table . 6 . In operations which require employees to work away from their office, with only infrequent visits there to file reports, ate ., consideration should be given to assigning two or more employees to each desk . Other considerations include the provision of 45-in . desks and the use of common work tables, with the assignment of file cabinet drawers to each employee in which to keep papers, etc . 3.1.4 DESIGN GUIDELINES: Private Offices The private office is the most controversial problem facing the space planner . The assignment of private offices and the type of partitioning to be used are issues to be settled by top management acting on the advice and recommendations of the space planner . Private offices should be assigned primarily for functional reasons, nature of work, visitor traffic, or for security reasons . When pri- vate offices are provided, they should be only large enough for the occupant to conduct his normal business with a reasonable degree of dignity The following are some of the factors requiring consideration prior to making the assignment : • Classification Grade The necessity for a private office cannot be directly related to the classification grade of the employee . Fig.A.S.4 : Recommended layouts for Private Offices Adminstration Adminstration
  • 74 75 • Supervisors in Open Specs Supervisors who are working with their employees, rather than planning for them, should generally be in the same room or open space with them . The supervisor may be separated from the balance of his section by a distance of several feet which permits a degree of privacy . Fig.A.S.4 : Recommended layouts for Private Offices • Prestige A frequent justification for a private office is to impress visiting representatives of industry, and the general public, with the importance or dignity of the official being contacted . Recent studies of of- fice planning in private industry tend to refute such a position . They show many highly paid employees housed in attractive open space . Moderately sized private offices are provided only for upper-echelon officials . The offices of many top executives of large, nationally known companies are less than 250 sq ft each . The provision of a private office, or too large a private office, for a Government official may give the taxpayers an adverse impression . • Security Requirements The space planner hears many reasons why people in Government need places where confiden- tial discussions can be held and a variety of sugges- tions as to how this should be accomplished . The private office is the most popular, if not always the most practical, solution . The Federal establishment undoubtedly has a greater problem in this respect than many branches of business . In addition to the security requirements, the Government is faced with privacy situations involv- ing investigative agencies and other activities which have occasion to inquire into the most confidential aspects of individuals’ personal lives and the opera- tions of business concerns. There is no question as to these persons’ entitlement to reasonable privacy regardless of whether they are summoned to the office, appear voluntarily to render assistance, or avail themselves of services offered by the agency . There are alter- natives, however, in determining the methods to be used to satisfy the various requirements Sizes of Private Offices It is desirable that private offices be a minimum of 100 sq ft and a maximum of 300 sq ft each in size, depending upon the requirements of the occupant . See sketches of most widely used private offices . Only in cases where it is necessary for the occupant to meet with delegations of 10 or more people at least once a day should the size approach 300 sq ft . For the average Government function, the private office should not exceed 200 sq ft Fig.A.S.5 : Recommended layouts for Private Offices Fig.A.S.4 : Recommended layouts for Private Offices • Semiprivate Offices: The semiprivate office is a room, ranging in size from 150 to 400 sq ft, occupied by two or more in- dividuals . These offices can be enclosed by ceiling- high, three-quarter-high, or bank-type partitions . Examples of semiprivate offices are shown. Because of the loss of flexibility introduced by the use of the partitions required to enclose these offices, the same rigid review given private offices should be employed . Generally, the need to house members of a work team or other groups of employees as- signed to a common teak is an acceptable justifica- tion for semiprivate Fig.A.S.5 : Recommended layouts for Private Offices Fig.A.S.9: Recommended layouts for Semiprivate Offices Adminstration Adminstration
  • 76 77 • General or Open Space: The following paragraphs describe some of the factors affecting good office layout in general or open space General: “General office space” refers to an open area occupied by a number of employees, supervisors, furnishings, equipment, and circulation area . Large open areas permit flexibility end effec- tive utilization, aid office communications, provide better light and ventilation, reduce space require- ments, make possible better flow of work, simplify supervision, and eliminate partition costs . In many cases, however, open-space housing for more than 50 persons should be subdivided either by use of file cabinets, shelving, railing, or low bank-type partitions . • Open-Area Work Stations The space allocated to these work stations is based on the furniture and equipment necessary to perform the work assigned as well as on circula- tion area . The space assigned to any specific work station may be increased due to special furniture and equipment requirements associated with the particular positioned • Circulation: This is the area required to conveniently permit ingress and egress to work stations . The size of an aisle should be governed by the amount of traffic it bears . The following standards with regard to internal circulation will be applied in space planning surveys : 1 . Aisles leading to main exits from areas which carry substantial traffic (main aisles) should be 60 in . wide . 2 . Aisles which carry a moderate amount of traf- fic (intermediate aisles) should be 48 in . wide . 3 . Aisles between rows of desks (secondary aisles) should be approximately 36 in . wide . • Conference Requirements: Conferences, meetings, and assemblies are an important part of Government operations . Since there is no established standard suggest- ing the number of conference rooms based on the number of people, the needs will vary widely among agencies or agency components, depending largely on the nature of their work . Whenever possible, the establishment of con- ference rooms should be based on need established from past records and experience, rather than on anticipated needs . Unnecessary conference space is often allowed because planning is not based on such records of demonstrated need . The space planner should always evaluate the utilization of existing conference rooms before recommending others • Conference Space in Private Offices VS . the Conference Room Conferences are best conducted in space designed for that purpose . Conference space should not be provided in private offices . In lieu of large offices, it is desirable to provide a conference room adjoining the office of a top official who holds a large number of conferences and nearby conference rooms for officials with more limited requirements . Separate conference rooms permit maximum utilization through scheduling at an appropriate level of man- agement . Where feasible, training and conference requirements should be pooled and conference space used as auxiliary office area for visitors . • Location of Conference Rooms The conference room should be centrally lo- cated to the users . Interior space, which is not the most desirable for office purposes, is well suited for conference use . This location eliminates out- side distraction and the need for window coverings during visual presentations . Access to conference rooms should be through corridors or through re- ception areas . • Sizes of Conference Rooms Conference rooms should be designed to ac- commodate average but not maximum attendance . Extra chairs can be used to achieve additional seat- ing . See illustrations of preferred layout of conference rooms of various sizes . Fig.A.S.10 : Recommended layouts for conference rooms. Adminstration Adminstration
  • 78 79 • Reception Areas and Visitor Control: Visitors receive their first impression of an orga- nization from the decor and layout of the reception area . It should be attractive, nest, businesslike, and above all, adequate to accommodate normal visitor traffic . An allowance of 10 sq ft for each visitor to be served may be used for space allocation . For example, if space is required for a total of five visi- tors at any given time, a total of 50 aq ft should be used in planning the space . Size, decor, and equip- ment will depend largely on the type and volume of visitor traffic • Storage Space Office space should not be used for bulk stor- age. Only working inventories of office supplies and other materials should be maintained in offices, preferably in standard supply cabinets . Secondary space, such as basement areas, should be used to locate supply operations . • Special Rooms Allowance: Depending on the type of business, offices will require rooms of a size matched to their use These will include : 1 . Reception room 2 . Waiting room 3 . Interviewing room 4 . Examination room 5 . Conference room 6 . Exhibit room 7 . Medical room 8 . Lunchroom Fig.A.S.11 : Recommended layouts for furniture . 9 . Employee lounge 10 . Rest room 11 . Mail room The more common rooms will have the following typical space allotments, based on their use by 15 . people Square feet Reception room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 400 Waiting or interviewing room . . . . . . . . . . . .. 200 Conference room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 Fig.A.S.12 : Corridor width based on requirements of human Fig.A.S.14 : Typical open office plan. . Fig.A.S.13 : Typical modular private office plan with secretarial area Adminstration Adminstration
  • 80 81 3.1.5 ZOONING DIGRAM: 3.1.6 PROJECT ANALYSIS: Example 1:SIA Multi-Use Office Complex / FGMF Arquitectos: Architects: FGMF (Forte, Gimenes & Marcondes Ferras) Arquitectos Location: Brasília, Brazil Team: Fernando Forte, Lourenço Gimenes e Rodrigo Marcondes Ferraz Coordinator: Ana Paula Barbosa Architects: Carolina Matsumoto, Marina Almei- da e Fábio Pitta Trainees: Mayara Benegas Type of Construction: Multi-use Building Site Area: 37,000.00 m² Built Area: 85,000.00 m² Year: 2011 • Overview : The multi-use office complex proposed by FGMF (Forte, Gimenes & Marcondes Ferras) Arquitectos for this 32.000m² lot aims at creating not only a new architectural reference for the region, but also a new destination for the city. Adding three dif- ferent uses – retail, office buildings and modular offices – the new complex creates a landmark in the landscape, values the surroundings, and establishes a new shopping destination. More images and ar- chitects’ description after the break. Fig.A.S.17 : exterior shot Fig.A.S.16 : ZOONING DIGRAM Adminstration Adminstration
  • 82 83 Fig.A.S.17 : exterior shot Fig.A.S.18 : interior shot Fig.A.S.18 : interior shot Adminstration Adminstration
  • 84 85 Fig.A.S.21 : basement floor Fig.A.S.22: ground floor Exterior shot Fig.A.S.24: section (a-a) Adminstration Adminstration
  • 86 87 Fig.A.S.23: 2nd floor exterior shot Example 2: Green Incubator / Plus Three Architecture Project Area: 3,085 sqm Structural Engineer: Capita Symonds Services Engineer: RPS Gregory Ecologist: E3 Ecology • Overview : One Trinity Green is a new, high-tech business centre for SMEs in the renewables sector. Forming Phase 1 of the Trinity South development in South Shields, the scheme redevelops and re- generates a brownfield site formerly occupied by an electron- ics factory which was one of the major employers in the town. The building is conceived as 3 contemporary, flexible, ‘Victo- rian’ warehouses each with a distinctive character but bound together by a singular ribbon of elevation and a range of shared social spaces. An elevated roof garden provides further amenity and further differentiates One Trinity Green from other similar ‘incubator’ developments. Each ‘warehouse’ benefits from exposed structure (for passive cooling), opening windows and a central winter garden (to aid cross ventilation) and a robust palette of materials (to mini- mise damage during tenant churn). The design concept seeks to address the social issues of multi- occupancy buildings by creating a clustered arrangement of studios and hybrid units and through the celebration of circula- tion space as a social amenity and interaction space. Completed in May 2012, One Trinity Green is one of the first in the region to achieve a BREEAM ‘Outstanding’ rating through a combination of simple, passive environmental techniques al- lied to a large array of roof-mounted, photovoltaic panels. The pre-construction BREEAM score was measured at 87.7% Fig.A.S.25: exterior shot Adminstration Adminstration
  • 88 89 Fig.A.S.25: exterior shot Fig.A.S.25: exterior shot Fig.A.S.29: model shot Fig.A.S.25: exterior shot Adminstration Adminstration
  • 90 91 Fig.A.S.38: detail handrail Fig.A.S.30: vertical zooning diagram Fig.A.S.30: vertical zooning diagram Fig.A.S.33: first floor plan Fig.A.S.35: roof floor plan Fig.A.S.32: ground floor plan Fig.A.S.34: second floor plan Adminstration Adminstration
  • 92 93 interior shot Fig.A.S.36: east elevationFig.A.S.37: atrium section interior shotinterior shot Example 3: CDB Tower & Minsheng Finan- cial Tower Competition Proposal / Saraiva + Asso- ciados The project required the design of 2 office buildings – CBD Tower with 150 meters and Minsheng Finan- cial Tower with 100 meters. The concept proposes the creation of a landmark that gathers and communi- cates the power of Principles and Social Responsibilities. Fig.A.S.45: exterior shot Adminstration Adminstration
  • 94 95 Fig.A.S.46: exterior shot Fig.A.S.45: exterior shotFig.A.S.45: exterior shot Fig.A.S.46: exterior shot Fig.A.S.52: elevations Adminstration Adminstration
  • 96 97 Fig.A.S.51: sections Fig.A.S.49: mass development Fig.A.S.48: mass details adminsss (57).jpg Adminstration Adminstration
  • 98 99 Fig.A.S.50: mass plans Fig.A.S.49: mass development THE HISTORY OF THE BANKS The History of Banking begins with the first prototype banks of merchants of the ancient world, which made grain loans to farmers and traders who carried goods between cities. This began around 2000 BC in Assyria and Babylonia. Later, in ancient Greece and during the Roman Empire, lenders based in temples made loans and added two important innovations: they accepted deposits and changed money. Archaeology from this period in ancient China and India, also shows evidence of money lending activity . Banking, in the modern sense of the word, can be traced to medieval and early Renaissance Italy, to the rich cities in the north such as Florence, Venice and Genoa. The Bardi and Peruzzi families Banks THE HISTORY OF THE BANKS. BANKS Users. THE TYPES OF BANKS . Bank design standard. Similar projects. dominated banking in 14th century Florence, estab- lishing branches in many other parts of Europe. Per- haps the most famous Italian bank was the Medici bank, established by Giovanni Medici in 1397. The development of banking spread from northern Italy through Europe and a number of important innovations took place in Amsterdam during the Dutch Republic in the 16th century, and in London in the 17th century. During the 20th century, developments in telecommunications and computing caused major changes to banks opera- tions and let banks dramatically increase in size and geographic spread. The Late-2000s financial crisis caused many bank failures, including of some of the world’s largest banks, and much debate about egulation . bank Al-Ahly bank Al-Ahly Fig.B.H.1 : HISTORY OF THE BANKS Adminstration Banks
  • 100 101 THE TYPES OF BANKS : • Retail Banks • Commercial banks • Cooperative banks • Investment Banks • Specialized banks • Central banks Retail Banks: Retail banks provide basic banking services to individual consumers. Examples include savings banks, savings and loan associations, and recurring and fixed deposits. Products and services include safe deposit boxes, checking and savings account- ing, certificates of deposit (CDs), mortgages, per- sonal, consumer and car loans such as : • Barclays Bank • Blom Bank Egypt • CIB Bank • HSBC Bank Commercial Banks: Banking means accepting deposits of money from the public for the purpose of lending or invest- ment. Commercial Banks provide financial services to businesses, including credit and debit cards, bank accounts, deposits and loans, and secured and unsecured loans. Due to deregulation, commercial banks are also competing more with investment banks in money market operations, bond underwrit- ing, and financial advisory work. Commercial banks in modern capitalist societies act as financial inter- mediaries, raising funds from depositors and lend- ing the same funds to borrowers. The depositors’ claims against the bank, their deposits, are liquid, meaning banks are expected to redeem deposits on demand, instantly Banks’ claims against their borrowers are much less liquid, giving borrowers a much longer span of time to repay money owed banks. Because a bank cannot immediately reclaim money lent to borrow- ers, it may face bankruptcy if all its depositors show up on a given day to withdraw all their money Fig.B.S.5 : HSBC BankFig.B.S.4 : CIB Bank Fig.B.S.3 : Bloom Bank EgyptFig.B.S.2 : Barclays Bank • BEIJING -- China’s central bank decided on Tuesday to raise the deposit reserve requirement ratio of commercial banks to a record high of 15.5 percent, the second such move this year • Commercial Bank in Sri Lanka Offers SFIDA, Foreign Investment Deposit Accounts for Foreign and Sri Lankan Investors • Public Sector Banks: Public sectors banks are those in which the gov- ernment has a major stake and they usually need to emphasize on social objectives than on profitability • Private sector banks: Private sector banks are owned, managed and controlled by private promoters and they are free to operate as per market forces. Cooperative Banks: Cooperative Banks are governed by the provi- sions of State Cooperative Societies Act and meant essentially for providing cheap credit to their mem- bers. It is an important source of rural credit i.e., agricultural financing in India. Fig.B.S.7 : BEIJING - China’s central bank Fig.B.S.8 : Sri Lanka Fig.B.S.9 : Cooperative Bank Washington, NC Fig.B.S.6 : Case Study Bill Payments for Retail Banking Cus- Banks Banks
  • 102 103 Investment Banks: An investment bank is a financial institution that assists individuals, corporations and governments in raising capital by underwriting and/or acting as the client’s agent in the issuance of securities. An in- vestment bank may also assist companies involved in mergers and acquisitions, and provide ancillary services such as market making, trading of deriva- tives, fixed income instruments, foreign exchange, commodities, and equity securities. Investment banks aid companies in acquiring funds and they provide advice for a wide range of transactions. These banks also offer financial consulting services to companies and give advice on mergers and acquisitions and management of public assets Specialized Banks: Specialized banks are foreign exchange banks, industrial banks, development banks, export- import banks catering to specific needs of these Fig.B.S.10: Investment Banks unique activities. These banks provide financial aid to industries, heavy turnkey projects and foreign trade. Central Banks: Central banks are bankers’ banks, and these banks trace their history from the Bank of England. They guarantee stable monetary and financial policy from country to country and play an impor- tant role in the economy of the country. Typical functions include implementing monetary policy, managing foreign exchange and gold reserves, mak- ing decisions regarding official interest rates, acting as banker to the government and other banks, and regulating and supervising the banking industry. These banks buy government debt, have a mo- nopoly on the issuance of paper money, and often act as a lender of last resort to commercial banks. The term bank nowadays refers to these commer- cial banks. The Central bank of any country super- vises controls and regulates the activities of all the commercial banks of that country. It also acts as a government banker. It controls and coordinates currency and credit policies of any country. The Reserve Bank of India is the central bank of India. • The Bank of England (The Bank of England is the central bank for the whole of the United King- dom. It was established in 1694, as a private com- pany, to act as the English government’s banker. In 1734, the bank moved to new quarters in Thread- needle Street, where it still is Fig.B.S.10: Investment Banks Bank design standard: Fig.B.S.17:The Relationships of rooms in large banks Fig.B.S.18:The Relationships of rooms in large banks Fig.B.S.14: entrance diagramFig.B.S.13: customer circulation in large bank Banks Banks
  • 104 105 Fig.B.S.16:general zoning Fig.B.S.15:entrance diagram Bank Guidelines: • Open-plan layout Maximize potential for selling financial by re- locating counters and non-sales functions , wall, and floor space is released for displaying product literature and advertising material . Create personal contact space for dealing with financial products : allow for specialized, some- times, purpose- built , self-contained desks at which trained staff can deal face-to-face with customers Achieve an open , inviting and customer- friendly environment that brings the customer in easily makes each service easy to find and enables the customer to circulate throughout the bank com- fortably Are now a universal feature of modern high street banks and building societies . • Open-plan principles The idea of this is to bring staff and customers much closer together and build up customer loyalty Maximize space given over to customer : move ser- vice counters as close to perimeter walls as possible , reduce space for support staff and equipment Minimize space for processes and secure areas ( back office functions are increasingly being moved from branches and centralized ) • Safes and strong rooms: In terms of the components of the bank and its functions, we find that it is divided into (2 zones) first, a special customer services and the second special staff and services, and all entrances. • Elements of the Bank and the basic Frigate: 1- The main hall of the customers 2- The main offices of the Bank’s management and Accessories of meeting rooms, a library and reception halls 3- Staff offices 4- Cabinets save money and documents 5- Public services include dock for unloading and shipping money to and from the bank and under the supervision of guard rooms and lounges for workers with the necessary toilets then galleries mechanical devices, electrical private condition- ing Hawn E and water boilers and backup module to generate electricity in addition to the offices of receipt and delivery correspondence automatically Fig.B.S.19:General zoning Banks Banks
  • 106 107 offices and printing press with the necessary stores and workshops. Fig.B.S.21: Safes and strong rooms bnook20.pngFig.B.S.20: Safes and strong rooms Blanks BankS: 1- Entrance to the public: We must possess the security vacuum in terms of shape 2- Entrance hall 3- Elevators 4- Offices: The main element in the building, and allocated to the bank manager and senior staff to represent the center and compromise between different departments. 5- Conference Hall ( 150 m2) 6- Lecture Hall ( 150 m2) 7- Meeting Rooms ( 100 m2) 8- Library ( 50 m2) 9- Main hall meetings held official functions ( 150 m2) 10- Exhibition 11- Entrance workers 12- Machinery room 13- Entrance to the parking service 14- Cafeteria and Restaurant (200 m2) Important notes when designing: 1-Must be vertical Contact Group items and services in a vacuum transitional one. 2-Organic separation between public galleries deal and the main contact for movement building such separate cabinets clients from bank vaults in a way that the necessary security. 3- The vertical spatial extension of a deal with the public and overlapping with mezzanine office spaces Champions and public administration re- quired for this gym 4- Separation between different approaches to achieve functional efficiency and provide security for the building with the distribution of emergency escape exits and by separating the movement of ar- mored cars and banknotes and securities between dealers movement Examples banks worldwide Fig.B.S.22: ABSA Bank, South Africa Fig.B.S.22: ABSA Bank, South Africa Fig.B.S.22: ABSA Bank, South Africa Fig.B.S.28: Arab Banking Corporation Banks Banks
  • 108 109 PROJECT ANALYSIS: Example 1: Saxo Bank 3XN Architect: 3XN Engineer: Rambøll Address: Philip Heymans Allé, 2900 Hellerup, Denmark Client: Carlsberg Properties / Saxo Bank Award: 1st prize in invited international compe- tition 2004 Size: 16,000 m2 + 6,700 m2 basement Completion: 2006-2008 Budget: DKK212m / €28,4m • Overview : Project is a building for an online bank. This building was finished 4 years after winning an inter- national competition back in 2004. Fig.B.A.29: Exterior Shot I like how the central stair adds dynamism to the interior, enhancing vertical relations. Saxo Bank is a young dynamic internet bank with focus on online-trade with currencies, shares and futures on the bank’s self-developed platform, Saxo Trader. Saxo Bank was founded in 1992 in Denmark and counts around 850 staff members of 35 nationalities who serve customers from 115 dif- ferent countries. Saxo Bank’s new headquarter in Copenhagen is designed by 3XN. Although the customers primar- ily encounter the bank in cyberspace, the physical premises of the head office is of great importance to the management of the bank who participate actively and are highly dedicated to the develop- ment of the building. The building is of great iconographic significance, and there is a strong conviction that architecture and design affect each staff member’s performance and awareness of the company. The architectural design is based on Saxo’s cutting-edge profile and branding. The lines of the building design define a sharp balance between reliability and dynamic expressivity in dialogue with the local plan. The building is shaped like two blocks with the end walls pointing towards the canal, joined together by facades that are withdrawn from the end walls. The facades are shaped like double curved glass that wave like a piece of textile. The interior of the building is open and transparent with a large sense of community. The open plans centre round a softly shaped atrium with a glass roof. In the atrium, the main stair case winds up to the top. However, the main room and largest attraction of the building is the so-called Trading Floor where share prices are monitored intensely and resemble scenes from American movies about stock exchanges. Furthermore, the building encompasses a large number of rooms for technical support, kitchenettes and recreational areas. Fig.B.A.29: Exterior Shot Banks Banks
  • 110 111 Fig.B.A.29: Exterior Shot Fig.B.A.30: Interior shotsFig.B.A.30: Interior shots Fig.B.A.32: First floor analysis Fig.B.A.31: Ground floor analysis Banks Banks
  • 112 Fig.B.A.30: Interior shots Fig.B.A.33:sec analysis Banks
  • 113 Introduction The idea of creating a distinct zones are held together multi-cultural activities, recreational and social and business ........ And commercial centers are in themselves a clear expression of these areas as well as it gives a distinct cultural image of the city. Brief History of the commercial centers: Man knew of trade and commercial transac- tions since the foot and the result that different types of markets in different eras began yards open, and then pay the Greek and formic ROMANIAN that wraps around the temples under the Bishop of protection from the sun In the Middle Ages has become associated with the market place the field of church and associated commercial activity in the Islamic eras ((Khan Agency Qaysarip markets)) and commercial streets, which was one of the most important elements of planning associated with the population of the Islamic city. Since the emergence of architecture in the his- tory and sparked the emergence of the former to meet the need, consistent with the development of history and time, and stages of development and sequence of the malls that have emerged from the first systems of human life and are going according commercial. Introduction Users Design standard Project analysis Zonning to regulations and laws which determine his tracks. There have been huge commercial markets in the West in the nineteenth century and took the following forms: A. (Commercial street covered market shop General store with partitions): - invented in Paris, and characterized the new direction in the use of glass ceilings with iron. B. Market, “yard” of trade: - could be covered roofs of glass and iron. C. General Store: - it contains all kinds of prod- ucts offered. D. Shops with partitions: - a development that was highly successful in the nineteenth century. For the markets in the nineteenth century when it appeared in Middle Egypt the idea of creating markets combined. The commercial markets in the twentieth cen- tury was divided into: - A. Stores with partitions: - where there were many of these stores. Fig.C.S.1.Dubai mall commercial
  • 114 115 Design standard Malls • Design trends: Because there are multi-functional project there are several trends in its design, including: 1. As the project architect and one block is avail- able with several entrances to major or subsidiary can be accessed from the lobby to the internal key is comprised of a set of stairs and fork to the group of roads that link the elements of the project. 2. Divided into parts according to the functions in connection with the vacuum and the provision of green spaces as areas of open, taking into account the relationship component of the project and formed with the middle of the ocean. 3. Distribution of elements of the project on the wings branching from a major distribution center. 4. Distribution of elements of the project freely in a vacuum and under one big roof on a regular basis. 5. Departure from the usual rule in architectural design which is committed to the functional and structural determinants. 6. Development of shops to attract the public in a position to guarantee activating the movement of the public and therefore must know the negative sites to areas attract children. 7. Taking into account the design and dimen- sions of spaces and commercial center of the public so as to facilitate movement to and from the center and the movement of vehicles do not conflict with pedestrian traffic. 8. Classification of specialty shops with each other and not to confuse the shops as if mixed with meat shops or other industrial shops. 9. Rise in the building : • - ground floor 4.5 - 5 meters. • - the first floor and repeated 3.75 - 4.5 meters. • - floor 3.00 - 4.00 meters. 10. Must take into account the fact that visitors to the mall using their cars, so there is the ratio between the number of customers and the number of parking spaces, for example, in some countries is calculated for each car park for 300400 people for the renewal of 3 times daily or Bonsab proportion of the glass facade. Fig.C.S.2.2. Dubai mall. • The formation of interfaces: The project is closely linked to the human ele- ment through the activities offered by the vari- ous humanitarian and therefore must respect the human scale interfaces in addition to the dimen- sions that have explicitly express the elements that they contain. Must also take into account link the various elements of the project so that it has the effect beautiful and endearing to the self through B. Supermarket: - It is a store where works by self-service-based technology. Developed commer- cial centers after World War II was a development in stages: A. In the fifties: - on the first shopping center completely covered with a center ((swot dell)) at Mina Botts. B. In the sixties: - was to follow the model of the covered shopping mall with the multiplicity of the roles of the centers and the change in the form of trade corridor (( Center york deli)). C. In the seventies: - moved to reduce the length of the lanes using two passages Ptqatat in the main square has been to rely on natural lighting through the ceilings. D. In the eighties: - designers resorted to the integration of celebrations and events for the Trade Center as attractions such as the Centre ((WEST Omnon)), which combines the entertainment and marketing together. Users Fig.C.S.2.1.Dubai mall. commercial commercial
  • 116 117 • Hall main entrance gather then routes traffic to the shopping center was located by the activities of the musical perfor- mances or use parts of them open or as Exhibit car, taking into account the lighting and bear flooring to the amount of loads of living, located them and learned from main squares to break the boredom overload resulting from the corridors of shopping long. Fig.C.S.5.Dubai mall entrance.jpg Fig.C.S.7.City Mall Amman hallFig.C.S.6.City Star hall • Elements of existing public spaces such as the internal gardens and provide the means of various guidelines to facilitate access to various shops, according to the types of different areas to sit and children’s games and video games. As well as the water is of the attractions of the very shopping malls, so the presence of Alnforat is one of the favorite things, this is light music of favorite items in the shopping malls closed because of their good effect on the psyche of shoppers and provide seating areas and use the system to the appeal year, in addition to providing units of the phone. • Horizontal components of the Movement The passages are the element that determines the form of shopping and is made up of major ways for shoppers is surrounded by shops on both sides in addition to the corridor Kulaih and can lead to a point or more points of convergence (blanks) and is the main entrances to all the small shops on the corridor’s main business or on the bypass and that it was undesirable General requirements for the design of trade corridors: 1- Must be a design trade corridors so as to pro- vide the flow of shoppers to the fullest degree. Fig.C.S.8.Out door landscape for mall Fig.C.S.11. Horizontal components of the Movement the study of interfaces carefully, must also be attractive working to attract shoppers to the mall and be Chtaibadtha of materials with high quality and easy maintenance and bear the weather different and the effects of solar radiation. • The aesthetics: Is one of the most important attractions as the aesthetic form factor to attract the vicinity of the project to be respectful of the surrounding tissue, Active is a good and distinct views of either greenery or the beauty of the roads leading to it or linked to landscaped gardens Fig.C.S.3. Noor AlAin Mall in United Arab Emirates. • lighting and environmental The project contains multiple items and differ- ent requirements in terms of environmental Kalid- haep, ventilation and guidance, each according to his job and the successof the architect in providing the appropriate conditions for each element given the strength of the project. • Architectural elements • Entries Entries commercial center should be clear and firm are required to suggest the grandeur and lux- ury as they transition zone from the outside to the inside, and recommended the use of high quality materials to add to that the elements of landscap- ing and plantings Heading reinforce the importance of the commercial center is also height and width of entrances must be commen- surate interfaces with external and internal that if these approaches were low and well lit, they constitute an impediment to attract shoppers to the Centre for marketing, so the entries should be marked by severe external. Fig.C.S.4.Indonesia comerical building in Jakarta entrance. commercial commercial
  • 118 119 • Area shops Be of varying size are related to each other by channels and traffic hubs, good and clear and relate to the shops on each floor level by the escalators to give vitality and speed of movement of the market as well as to reduce the points of disability is also escalators points of attraction for users Design con- siderations for shops: 1)clothing stores: - Usually there are clothing stores in the upper floors into shops collected which is a women’s clothing shops, men and children may be grouped in one place great loves in this case that there is a separate part of the shop selling children’s clothing. - Must contain the store rooms of the measure containing the mirrors. - It is recommended that the natural light avail- able to distinguish between colors and always be artificial lighting inside the stores that are 20% of the total area of the shop. - Have high shelves S 2.2 m high and the best is the most appropriate modified between 50 and 150 cm. - The high tables display (counter) 85- 95 cm, and in the case of a customer sitting 55-75 cm, and the width is 70 - 85 cm. 2) stores that sell jewelry: Selling jewelry from high-price business and therefore require special offer and places are behind the jewelry repair shop and exposed to the client. And all the exhibits collected and stored in cabinets when you close the shop to protect the ex- hibits from theft and also the lighting is very impor- tant to display and use mirrors to control. 3) gift shop: Of the difficulties faced by the organization of the large number of gift shops are types of exhibits and usually are not the procurement process with- out seeing the thing or take the idea from its use must be maintained exhibits unbreakable. 4) stores that sell furniture: Furniture Department has closets full venues and parts of the rooms and furniture should be coordinated so that attracts the public and the method of sale furniture department different from other sections where the buyer to take delivery after the payment of purchase price. Fig.C.S.16.Northshore-mall shops.Fig.C.S.15.Galeria Krakowska mall in Krakow. Retail outlets • Shops Shelf units in shops ………from which customers pick their own goods should be no higher than 1.8 m and no lower than 0.3 m above floor level. Attention must be paid to circulation routes in larger shops. . They should begin at the trolley/basket pick-up and end at the check-outs. 2- to be in the planning year, Basta and easily recognizable. 3-You must be a trade corridors in nature leads to enjoy the delightful walk by this addition to pro- viding some places for rest and relaxation, and on this basis are small shrubs and flowers and foun- tains and statues of the fundamental aspects of the important passages taking care not to block vision stores. 4- You must playa trade corridor to the ends of the elements of attraction the status of marketing. Dimensions of trade corridors : Offers trade corridors: Offers are selected trade corridors so that it is appropriate to wait for the shoppers and their movement. Forms of trade corridors: Trade corridors take many forms may be linear, as in the center of Paris Velezi broken or written in the form of an “L” or on the T-shaped or circular surrounding the lobby of procedure of the Mall. • Vertical components of the Movement First: Escalator: and she gives a scene aestheti- cally and benefits they attract the attention ofshop- pers always at the top, but its flaws, it occupies a large portion of the area as its costs are high and are necessary for the performance of 200 people per hour, and placed in the center of the building and is visible from the entrance Askew and 30, so that is characterized by height, speed, security, and the depth of the stairs 0.40 meters and width is 0.60 meters or 0.80 cm and usually speed 0.5 m t s, while for the high altitude 5.20 m I sec. Second: The belt conveyors italics: and is a key feature of the conveyor belts Escalators it be by which the carriage of goods purchased by custom- ers such as chairs, strollers easily and from the disadvantages of conveyor belts that could be too long a much greater extent than the escalator and to avoid regression or strong preference. Third: elevators: I always recommend their use because they occupy less space than occupied by the conveyor belts or escalators and are less in the cost of operation of the escalator and move most of the needs of shoppers from strollers to wheelchairs as the advantage of being faster than the escalator. And we find in some commercial centers and an elevator inside the towers, glass show moves is important to have a lift so that linking the garage (garage) cars and tracks the movement of shoppers and have sizes suitable for the number of shoppers expected, preferably an elevator large for the exis- tence of elevators smaller. Divided in terms of the use of elevators to the four main types: 1- Lifts public and commercial purposes. 2- Elevator residential buildings. 3- Elevator official bodies and government de- partments. Fig.C.S.14. Vertical components of the Movement Fig.C.S.13. Vertical components of the Movement commercial commercial
  • 120 121 Fig.C.S.18.2. Shelf units in shops.Fig.C.S.18.1. Shelf units in shops. Fig.C.S.22. Windos.Fig.C.S.21. Check out position. Fig.C.S.20. Good view of the whole shop from check- outs is essential for customer convenience and security Fig.C.S.19.circulation routes in larger shops. Fig.C.S.18. Shelf units in shops.Fig.C.S.17.2.Shelf units in shops. Fig.C.S.17.1. Shelf units in shops.Fig.C.S.17. Shelf units in shops. All shops require some provision for the handling of goods. These needs may vary from off-pavement deliveries for small units to the complex operations carried out by large retail businesses. The walls, floors, counter tops and work surfaces in fishmongers, game and poultry shops and butchers must be washable. commercial commercial
  • 122 123 In addition, adequate ventilation is required for the removal of smells. Fruit and vegetables need to be kept cool but not refrigerated. Potatoes should be kept in dark rooms. Sales are mostly from delivery containers (baskets, crates, boxes etc.) and dirt traps and refuse collectors should provided below storage racks. In general, the planning and design of greengro- cers’ shops should consider the requirements for delivery and unpacking of goods, washing, pre- paring, weighing, wrapping, waste collection and disposal. Flower shops can be combined with fruit and vegetable shops. Fig.C.S.28.Counter with stands for boxes and baskets , drip pan and dirt trap. Fig.C.S.27. Butcher counter. • FOOD COURTS Food courts are large halls that house groups of small outlets selling a wide variety of specialist food products. Customers can either sit and eat on the prem- ises or take the food away. With attractive displays and a market-style environment, food courts offer a pleasant shopping environment and can be added to supermarkets beyond the check-outs . The produce is predominantly fresh or cooked on the premises so storage space for one day’s trade is adequate.Deliveries are usually made early in the morning. Suitable materials therefore include marble ceramic tiles glass plastics Fish perishes quickly and so must be kept chilled. It also smells strongly so fishmongers’ shops should be surrounded by air-locks or air-cur- tains. Note that smoked fish, unlike fresh fish, must be stored in dry conditions and provision must be made for this. The possibility of large bulk deliveries should be taken into consideration. There may also be a need for an aquarium to attract the eye. Game and poultry shops are sometimes part of fish shops and often stock only one day’s sup- ply of goods. They require a separate work room with facilities for plucking and scraping. As poultry absorbs smells, it must be stored separately both in the cold room and shop. Large refrigerated com- partments and display cases are needed. Butchers’ shops should preferably be on one level and have trucks on rails or castors to allow car- casses (which can weigh up to 200 kg) to be moved easily. Work rooms and cold rooms should be one and a half to two times the size of the shop. Fig.C.S.24.Fish monger position and counter. Fig.C.S.23.Section through counter in a self- service shop Fig.C.S.25.Poultry and game shop position and counter.Fig.C.S.26. Butcher counter with chopping block. All fittings in cold stores must be adequately protected against corrosion, due to the high humid- ity level in these spaces. The conflict in fishmongers’ and butchers’ shops between balancing the requirements of tempera- ture for staff comfort (around 16°C) and the display of provisions (-2°C to O°C), can be dealt with by using directional fan heaters, which blow warm air towards staff and away from food, radiant heaters placed high on the walls or under-floor heating. commercial commercial
  • 124 125 Shelf arrangements are developed from consid- erations of how best to lead customers past all the different ranges of goods. The department store is essentially a very large shop, generally on several floors, selling a wide vari- ety of goods, including 1-clothes, 2-household goods 3-food. Their design should provide maximum flexibility to permit frequent adjustments required for the seasonal sales patterns. The food department is the only one purpose designed. A main structural grid between 5.4 and 6 m is commonly used, with 5.4 m being considered opti- mum. The largest hypermarkets are about 250000 rn-’. Shoppers generally purchase a greater quantity of goods in hypermarkets than in supermarkets and therefore larger size trolleys are used. This needs to be considered in the design. The ‘superstore’ is a further development of the hyper- market. Fig.C.S.32. Discount market , 300-500 m2 sales area. Fig.C.S.31.Supermarket. A typical food court might include • a bakery, • a butcher, • cafes and bars, • a delicatessen snack bar, • an ice-cream parlour • shops • counters selling  sea food,  fruit,  vegetables,  flowers,  beers and wines,  pizza,  wholefood,  local specialities etc. • DEPARTMENT STORES AND SUPERMARKETS Basic dimensional guidelines give the minimum heights of spaces in shops and storage facilities as: 1-up to 400 m2 retail floor space 3.00 m 2-over 400 m2 retail floor space 3.30 m 3-over 1500 m2 retail floor space 3.50 m Ventilation ducts or other structures should not reduce the required clear room heights. If possible rooms up to 25 metres wide should be free of columns. The load-bearing capacity of floors should be designed to take additional loads such as light fittings, suspended ceilings, decora- tion, ducts, sprinkler systems etc. (approximately 20 kp/m-), In the shopping areas and store-rooms it shou Id be 750-1000 kp/rn-’, and 2000 kp/m? for ramps. The floors connecting sales areas, stores, and delivery ramps should be at the same level. Note that delivery ramps or platforms are 1.10-1.20m above ground level. Fig.C.S.29 . Spaces beyond the check-outs. Fig.C.S.30.Dimensions of counters and shelf units ( grid 10 10m ). commercial commercial
  • 126 127 • HYPERMARKETS Fig.C.S.37.Hypermarket. • RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES: To be able to eat comfortably, one person re- quires a table area of around 60cm wide by 40cm deep. This provides sufficient clearance between adjacent diners. Although an additional 20cm of space in the centre for dishes and tureens is some- times desirable, an overall width of 80-85cm is suit- able for a dining table. Round tables, or tables with six or eight sides, with a diameter of 90-120cm are ideal for four people and can also take one or two more diners • ARRANGEMENTS: Any function or conference rooms should have movable furniture to allow flexibility of use. A food bar may be installed for customers who are in a hurry. Large dining rooms can be divided into zones. The kitchen, storerooms, delivery points, toilets and other service areas should be grouped around the dining room, although toilets can be on another floor. Structural columns in a dining room are best in the middle of a group of tables or at the corner of a table ~ (ID. The ceiling height of a dining room should relate to the floor area: s 50m2, 2.50m; >50m2, 2.75m; >100m2, 2::3.00m; above or below galierieS,2::2.50 Fig.C.S.38.Sicilian Restaurant,. • SUPERMARKETS Fig.C.S.35.Shopping trolley.Fig.C.S.33 Sliding doors air lock. Fig.C.S.33.Supermarket. Fig.C.S.36.Wall shelving. Fig.C.S.34.Supermarket check- out desk- variation on. commercial commercial
  • 128 129 Fig.C.S.47. Cafe table arrangement.Fig.C.S.46.Minimal table space. Fig.C.S.45.Diagonal tables arrangement.Fig.C.S.44.Parallel tables arrangement. • Walkway widths • Toilet facilities Fig.C.S.43. Tables different arrangement. Fig.C.S.42.EATING PLACES standards. Fig.C.S.41. EATING PLACES standards. Fig.C.S.40. EATING PLACES standards. Fig.C.S.39.EATING PLACES standards. commercial commercial
  • 130 131 • RESTAURANT TYPES: Traditional restaurants: should ideally have space for a display table and flambé work. The tables should be arranged with generous spac- ing and seating. In specialty restaurants the space requirements vary widely. Display cooking, a grill, a dance floor and special decorative effects may be required. Restaurant seating: A separate bar might also need to be included within the restaurant Ethnic restaurants are generally considered to specialize in non-European food, particularly Asian and Oriental. Depending on the market, traditional foods and methods of preparation may be modified to suit Western tastes. Character is often expressed in the design of the premises and rituals of food presenta- tion and service. Drive-in restaurant:supply food and drinks direct to customers in their cars, allowing visitors to eat without leaving their vehicles if they so choose. One waiter can serve six cars. For access and ser- vice provide canopies and covered ways. There should also be a separate dining hall, with parking space close to the drive-in service. Every public house has a different pattern of trade depending on location, catering facilities and time of year. Drink- ing is often concentrated at certain times, which are usually after 20.00 and particularly on Fridays and at weekends. Depending on its origin, a pub may emphasise its historical rustic character or the Victorian-Edwardian sophistication of later town houses. Pub designs often follow themes to recre- ate foreign characteristics. Snack-bar layouts: can be suitable for up to 60 seats in eating houses with fast turn-around times (five or six seating changes at lunchtime; two in the evenings). In between meal times, coffee, cakes and sandwiches can be served. The kitchen mainly makes use of ready-made items, and daily deliver- ies mean that stores do not need to be particularly large. The minimum width of escape routes is 1.0m per 150 people. General walkways should be at least 1.10m .with clearance heights 2::2.10m.The window area should be 2::1/10 of the room area of the restau- rant. • Floor area requirement Total space requirements for dining rooms: 1.4-1.6 m2/place • Aisle widt Fig.C.S.51.Snack –bar. Fig.C.S.50. Drive in restaurant , california. commercial commercial
  • 132 133 CINEMAS: Film projection: Fire separation materials are no longer required for the projection room with safety film. Projectionists operate several projectors; the projection room is no longer a continuously used workplace for staff. 1m of space behind the pro- jector and at the operating side,2.80 m high, ven- tilation, noise insulation to the auditorium side. Projection rooms may be combined for several auditoriums Film widths of 16mm, 35mm and 70mm. The centre of the projected beam should not deviate more than 5° horizontally or vertically from the centre of the screen, or it should be deflected via a deflection mirror. Conventional systems use two projectors in a superimposing operation. Nowadays, automatic operation with only one projector using horizontal film plates provides no-break film presentations with 4000 m spools. This system is sometimes used with several projection rooms and remote control from projec- tion and control points. The film automatically gives control signals for all the functions of the projector, lens changes, auditorium lighting, stage lighting, curtain and picture cover. Picture sizes depend on the distance of the pro- jector from the screen; height/side ratio is 1:2.34 (Cinemascope) or 1:1.66 (wide screen) for smaller room widths. The angle from the middle of the last row of seats to the outer edge of the picture should be at most 38° for Cinemascope. The ratio of the spacing of the last row of seats to the projection screen should be 3:2 Projection screen: Minimum distance of projec- tion screen from wall in the case of THX is 120cm, according to theatre size and system reducible to 50cm with respect to the sound system configura- tion. The projection screen is perforated (sound- permeable). Fig.C.S.56.Screen format.Fig.C.S.55. Optimum auditorium. Fig.C.S.53. Restaurant with buffet and vending machines.Fig.C.S.52.Café restaurant. Fig.C.S.54. Self–serbvice restaurant. A café restaurant: with a tea room is usually a town Centre business located in a busy area. A café does not serve alcoholic drinks except for premium bottled beers, liqueurs etc., and specializes in hot and cold patisserie and snacks. Tea rooms serve alcohol-free drinks, patisserie and sandwiches, and have capacity for about 150 seats. They normally open from 11.00 to 17.30 p.m. They serve mainly pre-made meals, and therefore need little storage space. A restaurant with a buffet and vending ma- chines: provides a fast luncheon service for working people in restaurants, canteens, department stores and motorway service stations. Their ca- pacity is about 500 people per hour. The kitchen only completes ready-prepared meals, except for salads and ice cream Self-service restaurants: are su itable for department stores or in office blocks. Nothing is made on the premises. All supplies are ready- made and deep frozen cinemas commercial commercial
  • 134 135 Ticket booths: one booth for 300 vehicles, two for 600, three for800, and four for 1000 vehicles. The screen size varies according to the number of vehicles, 14.50m 11.30m for 650 cars; 17.0m x13.0m for 950 cars. The screen is best facing east or north since this permits earlier performances and in areas with harsh climates the screen should be housed in a structur with solid walls. The projection building is usually centrally located at 100 m from the screen. The projection room contains film projector(s), generator and sound amplification system. Sound reproduction is bestwith loudspeakers inside the cars. These speakers (for two vehicles) are located on posts set 5.0 m apart and are taken into the car by the ci ema visitors. Heating may be supplied on the loudspeaker posts with pos- siblconnections for internal car heatin Fig.C.S.60. Ramp arrangement and dimensions. elevation can be different according to screen picture height Fig.C.S.59. Fan –shaped drive-in cinema with inclined ramps and low projection which only up two rows Movable blinds or curtains limit the projec- tion screen to the side for the same picture height. Large projection screens are curved with a radius centred on the last row of seats. The lower edge of the projection screen should be at least 1.20 m above the floor ~ CD. The auditorium should have no outside light other than emergency lighting. Walls and ceiling are made from nonreflective materials and in not too bright colours. Spectators should sit within the outside edge of the screen. The viewing angle from the first row of seats to the centre of the picture should not exceed 30 The floor gradient is achieved by an inclination of up to 10% or by the use of steps with a maximum step height of 16cm and with aisle widths of 1.20 m • Acoustics Neighbouring auditoriums should be separated with partitioning walls of approximately 85dB 18-20000 Hz. Acoustic deflecting surfaces on the ceiling with low acoustic delay difference time. The reverberation time can increase with increasing room volume and decreases from 0.8-0.2 seconds from low to high frequencies --t p. 486 @. The rear wall behind the last row of seats should be sound absorbent to prevent echo. The loudspeakers Fig.C.S.57.Spacing and seating rows. should be distributed around the auditorium so that the volume difference between the first and last row of seats does not exceed 4dB • DRIVE-IN CINEMAS: Drive-in cinema spectators do not leave their cars; they watch the film from their cars. The size is limited by ramps and the number of cars (max. 1000-1300) which still permits a good view. Normal size is 450-500 car The location should be near to a motorway, petrol station or service area, and screened off so that light and noise from passing vehicles does not interfere. An entrance with a waiting area will avoid traffic congestion on the road. A drive-past ticket office allows tickets to be obtained from the car Ramps are inclined in curves so that the front of each vehicle is raised providing even the rearseat passengers with a good view of the screen over the roofs of the front row of car The design of the whole ground area should be dust-free and not slippery when wet. Fig.C.S.58.Cinema. all-round film surface (360) showing a connected film-projected by 11 synchronously running projec- tor -e.g. expo Brussels. commercial commercial
  • 136 137 Fig.C.A.8. Ave Plaza. Fig.C.A.2.Ground floor. Projects analysis Example 1 :Ave Plaza Architects: Drozdov&Partners Location: Kharkiv, Kharkiv Oblast, Ukraine Design Team: Oleg Drozdov, Vyacheslav Zhemir, Irina Goydenko Area: 23,400 sqm Year: 2012 • Overview : The new building fills a gap in the historic tissue along the red lines, providing transition between two existing scales. The volume of the building is pierced by an ellipsoid atrium with a peninsular tower, housing restau- rants. The atrium occupies one fourth of the building area, and in essence, is a prototype of the quarter inner space. Fig.C.A.1. Ave Plaza. commercial commercial
  • 138 139 Fig.C.A.6.Second floor. Fig.C.A.17.Ave Plaza. Fig.C.A.5.First floor. Fig.C.A.3. Ground floor. commercial commercial
  • 140 141 Fig.C.A.9.Forth floor. Fig.C.A.13.Section 2-2. Fig.C.A.7. Thired floor. Fig.C.A.12. Section 1-1. commercial commercial
  • 142 143 Fig.C.A.16. Elevation 3. Fig.C.A.15. Elevation 2. Fig.C.A.14.Elevation 1. Fig.C.A.11.Ave Plaza.Fig.C.A.10. Ave Plaza. commercial commercial
  • 144 145 Fig.C.A.22.Ground Plan. Fig.C.A.21. Site Plan. Example 2 :Asmacati Shopping Center Architects: Tabanlioglu Architects Location: Izmir, Turkey Project Year: 2009 Project Area: 22,760 sqm • Overview : Asmacati Shopping and Meeting Point is located in the city of Izmir. The center appreciates and joins the lifestyle of Izmir where people prefer to spend time outdoors with respect to warm climate. The semi-open shopping facility naturally cre- ates leisure zones between shops. Open air patios offer a relaxing feeling under the shadow and glit- ters of the bower made up of contemporary mate- rial, the design imitates grape leaves of the local landscape. Fig.C.A.26.Asmacati Shopping Center. Fig.C.A.25. Asmacati Shopping Center. Fig.C.A.18.Asmacati Shopping Center. commercial commercial
  • 146 147 Fig.C.A.27.Asmacati Shopping Center.Fig.C.A.24.Asmacati Shopping Center. Fig.C.A.23. First Plan.Fig.C.A.28. Sections. Fig.C.A.20. Schematic Site Plan. commercial commercial
  • 148 149 Example 3 :Hashimoto Konoha Mall / Jerde Architects: Jerde Location: Konoha, Japan Area: 84,000 sqm • Overview : The new Konoha Mall represents a first of its kind lifestyle ‘eco-leisure’ destination that intro- duces sustainability and eco-design principles into retail to create a compelling sense of place and experience. The project concept is rooted in natural elements and offers a distinct experience for shop- ping, dining, exploring, reflecting and wandering. The eco-retailing center, designed by The Jerde Partnership, is the firm’s twelfth project to be developed within the last 15 years in Japan, and is designed as a new community gathering place for the Hashimoto district. Inspired by its natural surroundings and cultural influences of Hashimoto, Konoha Mall is an innovative retail solution that embraces nature and sustainability, along with fundamental retail strategies, into all elements. Made up of 84,000 square meters (approx 900,000 square feet) of retail leisure functions including 120 specialty shops and restaurants, a large community market anchor, and premier food court, the new Jerde Place is expected to draw six million visitors each year with annual sales of approximately 13 bil- lion yen ($150 million USD). Konoha Mall reinforces the desire to create a holistic transformative design which benefits and supports the local community. Each characteristic of the project carefully addresses the surround- ing context with a focus on introducing nature and sustainable value into the buildings and pedestrian spaces. Like many of Jerde’s landmark places, the inspi- ration for design and creating memorable experi- ences comes from the organic and transformative power of nature. With Konoha Mall, the character- istics of the project merge to fulfill its role as the premier community gathering destination. The con- Fig.C.A.30.Hashimoto Konoha Mall. Fig.C.A.29. Detail. Fig.C.A.19.Asmacati Shopping Center. commercial commercial
  • 150 151 is rooted in natural elements and offers a distinct experience for shopping, dining, exploring and wan- dering. Within the interior, the project is organized around three major courts that represent elements of the various seasons, with the large Summer-in- spired CenterCourt as the main public plaza where community events and attractions are held, and the Cherry (Spring) and Maple (Autumn) courts serving as anchors on opposite ends of the center. Each court is distinct yet complements the over- all composition and refined natural experience of the place. The largest indoor Center Court serves as the community events plaza during cooler months, and is designed as a festive area with a large sky- light to brighten the space, complemented with a pattern of green, teak and soft white on each level that spirals up towards the sky. Fig.C.A.35.Second floor.Fig.C.A.34.First floor. Fig.C.A.31.Ground floor. cept of the garden walk is the fundamental spine of the overall design – bringing nature and sustainable value into the buildings and pedestrian spaces. This is accomplished through careful study and understanding of the contextual surroundings of the property. The nearby river park provided a strategic inspiration for the circulation into and through the project. The river and motion of water is referenced through the contouring elevation of the front façade, while its undulating design creates alandmark that can be seen from the elevated city ring road of Fukuoka. The open-air garden walk, the center’s main community square, contains lush landscaping that creates an organic outdoor environment with spaces for exploring, resting and enjoying entertainment. The garden walk evokes the co-existence of people and nature with an organic natural setting filled with water, trees, flowers, and plants com- bined with shopping and dining to create a one- of-a-kind pedestrian street similar to those found in the world’s most historic and memorable cities. Additionally, while this key concept originates at the garden walk – one of the primary entries to the project – the careful blending of nature and mod- ern design carries through the center with a varietal of retail offerings and comfortable, intimate spaces highlighted by soft tones and materials Inspired by a nearby shrine containing beautiful trees with leaves floating up all around, the leaf be- came a major symbol for the project as prominently portrayed in the iconic leaf-shaped trellises lining the upper levels. Konoha Mall encourages commu- nal interaction, while establishing a new type of re- tail center where ecology and sustainability are the driving forces behind the experience. Multi-level walkways and bridges across levels allow spectators to view activity below, including events and perfor- mances within the grand public spaces. The upper levels, including a rooftop garden space, are set un- derneath the iconic leaf trellis structures to provide additional shade and a tranquil atmosphere. From the colors, textures and spatial quality of the exteriors and interiors, the entire project Fig.C.A.33.Hashimoto Konoha Mall. commercial commercial
  • 152 153 Zonning Fig.C.Z.2.Zonning for mall. Fig.C.Z.1. Functional layout for a small restaurant. Fig.C.A.36. Thired floor. Fig.C.A.38. Hashimoto Konoha Mall. Fig.C.A.37.Hashimoto Konoha Mall. Fig.C.A.32. Hashimoto Konoha Mall. commercial commercial
  • 154 155 Development Standards A local government may adopt additional provisions that restrict the type or extent of current or future industrial uses within the area, but only if the local government mitigates at the same time the effect of the new provision by: • Clearly maintaining or increasing the industrial employment potential of the area; and • Clearly maintaining the important site characteristics and functions that led to the designation of the site as a regionally significant industrial area USERS : Fig.I.H.2 1900 - 1930 When built, the Sutherland Dock was the largest graving dock in the world. Fig.I.H.1 Science Museum Science and Society Picture Li- brary. INTRODUCTION: What is a industrial area? It is an area where there are commercial, manu- facturing, factories, and other such businesses. Also a non residential area. A “Regionally Significant Industrial Area” is an area planned and zoned for industrial use that: • Contains vacant sites, including brownfields, that are suitable for the location of new industrial uses or the expansion of existing industrial uses and that collectively can provide significant additional employment in the region; • Has site characteristics that give the area sig- nificant competitive advantages that are difficult or impossible to replicate in the region; • Has superior access to transportation and freight infrastructure, including, but not limited Industerial. Introduction Users SITE SELECTION. Structure planning and subdivision. DESIGN GUIDELINES . PROJECT ANALYSIS. to, rail, port, airport, multimodal freight or trans- shipment facilities, and other major transportation facilities or routes; and • Is located in close proximity to major labor markets. Once the council has made the designa- tions, local governments with land use authority over a regionally significant area must maintain the area for employment uses. The city or county may not: • Adopt a provision of a comprehensive plan or land use regulation that prevents industrial uses within the area. • Adopt a provision of a comprehensive plan or land use regulation that allows new non-industrial uses within the area that conflict with existing or planned industrial uses. • Decrease the land area planned or zoned for industrial uses within the regionally significant industrial area Fig.I.A.introo. industerial industerial
  • 156 157 Structure planning and subdivision The second phase of the development of indus- trial areas should determine the optimal form of the development. This may occur via development of a local structure plan or as part of the process of subdivision. Local structure plans contain objectives and requirements for the future subdivision and development of the area to which they apply. Local structure plans provide a framework for the provi- sion of infrastructure as well as a structure for the form of the development which outlines matters such as transport corridors, street and block layout, natural features to be retained and water manage- ment measures. A local structure plan may be required to be approved prior to the subdivision of the land under the provisions of the zone. This is likely where an area is zoned for “Industrial Development”, as the structure plan provides necessary information to support the fu- ture subdivision and development of the area. Elements of industrial development: These Guidelines propose that more sustainable industrial development may be achieved at each phase of the planning and development process by addressing five key areas or elements: • Governance • Ecology • Resources • Economy • Community Designing the Layout of the Industrial Area The creation of a local structure plan, which provides guidance on the design and layout of an industrial subdivision, is a significant opportunity to improve the environmental, social and economic sustainability of an industrial area. The form of the subdivision has a substantial impact on key aspects of the development, such as: • the character and nature of the development; • • the efficiency of the transport network; • • opportunities for mixed use and locally based business and employment; • • access to and attractiveness of public trans- port, cycling and walking; • • management of stormwater ; • • protection of key natural areas; • • provision of facilities and services; • • resource re-use opportunities; and • • the ability to optimise the on-going and ef- ficient use of the land and other resources. Although in some industrial areas, the develop- ment of a structure plan may not be required prior to subdivision, the Western Australian Planning Commission encourages the use of structure plans to provide the planning framework for an area, particularly in greenfield locations. This is because the development of a structure plan facilitates the integrated and site-based con- sideration of issues to achieve optimal outcomes. SITE SELECTION: Site selection and assessment requires the consideration of location and site features to identify the optimal position for a new industrial area. Chapter 2 of the Guidelines contains strategies and actions which should be considered when selecting and assessing locations for industrial developments, including site opportunities and constraints and required technical investigations. The planning stage at which site selection and assessment occurs may vary depending on the size of the proposed industrial area, however the considerations should be completed as part of strategic plan- ning at the subregional or district level, or as part of the statutory rezoning of the land for industrial devel- opment purposes. The achievement of good industrial development at this stage will largely be achieved via the comparative assessment of locations and broad concept for the industrial area. Implementation mechanisms are explored further in section 1.5. Fig.I.H.3 Implementation framework for the Guidelines. industerial industerial
  • 158 159 SHAPE OF BUILDING Early buildings were narrow because they need- ed natural light. They expanded by extending their ends and by adding cross buildings in a rectangular fashion. Today artificial lighting is relatively less ex- pensive. The number and frequency of production changes are greater. Therefore, emphasis today is on plants that are relatively square and not “honey- combed’’ or obstructed by walls . Such plants are built in rectangular sections, and expansion is by building additional sections onto the sides or end. Where land is limited, as in river valleys or where property lines run at curious angles the building must suit the limitations of the land itself . Dirty, odorous, noisy or vibration producing opera- tions should be segregated in separate buildings. Hazardous operations with fire or explosion pos- Fig.I.S.6 Cross ventilation achieved by operable clerestory and saw tooth roof skylights. Fig.I.H.4 Cross ventilation achieved by operable clerestory and saw tooth roof skylights. Fig.I.S.5 Example of shading to eliminate summer sun on north facing windows, while allowing solar. sibilities also fall in this class. And service buildings used for administration, sales, personnel offices, and power plant---buildings that do not directly participate in the flow of production--can also beset apart. Use the following lists to guide your decision in the matter of building shape. Use a relatively square building when there are: • Frequent changes in product design • Frequent improvements in process • Frequent rearrangement of layout Restrictions on building materials or savings desired in amount of materials used Use other shapes or separate buildings when there are: • Physical limitations of the land • Property lines at curious angles Fig.I.S.7 Features of the one-and-o-half story building (a) Rail siding with car floor at level of plant floor. DESIGN GUIDELINES: The trend toward automation has had a pro- found effect on plant design . Automation reduces employee density while increasing output . In terms of building area required, manufacturing space has diminished by some 50 percent in the last 10 years for the same process . Needless to say, productivity has increased by close to 400 percent . As discussed previously, a plant can be designed under two different concepts, depending on the product and the number of products . Product lay- out can be said to be linear while process layout is parallel . This can best be decided by a flow-activity study showing number of products and the quanti- ties of each . The importance of flexibility in internal con- struction cannot be stated strongly enough . Except in factories producing one product (e .g ., auto- mobile assembly plants), the need is mandatory . When a manufacturer is producing several products and one succeeds far in advance of the others, his plant must be flexible enough to handle this em- phasis . The other product lines must be held back until an expansion program is begun . The following is a list of criteria for production- line evaluation : I . Ease of flow of materials 2 . Degree of flexibility 3 . Ease of expansion 4. Ease of personnel movement 5. Ease of supervision 6. Least initial investment The outside consultant, working with the orga- nizational team, can synthesize the above criteria to produce an effective plant layout . In any plant design, it is essential that the outside consultant have available the detail for the pres- ent and projected manufacturing machinery . From this, the experience, knowledge, and imagination of the designer will yield the dividends . As used in the design of the administration spares, templates or space standards per machine must be established, - arranged, and rearranged to produce the beat organization of equipment and spaces INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS: Special lighting requirements Plumbing require- ments-special sinks, etc . Intercom requirements Our experience has shown that a study of requests for space by department heads in proposed admin- istration areas has resulted subjective judgments based on ego-orients requirements for space rather than objective judgments of function . The apace standard shown in Fig . 4 should be used in plan- ning the administration facilities . In order to develop plans as accurately a pos- sible, the following program must be initiated : 1 . Survey of existing personnel, furniture and equipment 2 . Determination of approximate square foot- age of each department 3 . Space analysis interviews with department supervisory personnel to determine existing space problems, their views on future projections, and the functional adjacencies of the departments 4 . Review of factors which would have a effect on both immediate and future depart mental space requirements 5 . Area standards recommended 6 . Determination of square footage requires for all departments with an itemized breakdown by type of space, i .e ., private office space general office space, and miscellaneous area, The projected requirements developed are based on the assumption that present policieand procedures will continue to apply in the future . Obviously, the company will initiate new policies and procedures and introduce new methods of operation . However, the exten to which any such changes would affect the projected area requirements could only be con jeclured . Therefore, to minimize arbitral judgments which would tend to dilute the validity of a study, consid- eration should no be given to such possible eventu- alities. industerial industerial
  • 160 161 Smaller materials and equipment will generally run in the narrowed spacing. As for columns that act as obstructions to the spot- ting of individual machinery and equipment, the layout man must plan a column arrangement that will tie in with his layout . Yet a lot of unnecessary money can be put into a building that calls for too-wide column spacing. Some layout men admit they always consult their architect and then call for about 15 percent greater spacing than he feels is economically justified . Another layout problem is to take whatever column spacing and arrange Safe and accessible buildings Efforts should be made to ensure that industrial buildings are comfortable, accessible, safe and ap- propriate for a variety of people. Indoor air quality is particularly relevant, considering the variety of chemicals and products used in various industrial operations. The following strategies are recom- mended to provide safe and accessible industrial buildings that also provide a productive work envi- ronment. • Clear and safe pedestrian access into busi- nesses from the road and any car parks, including disabled access; • Clear demarcation of how buildings should be accessed, such as an obvious entrance; • Avoid very heavy swinging doors or narrow doorways; • Minimize the use of steps or sudden level changes to access buildings • Avoid the use of alternative access points or facilities for disabled people. Instead, main facilities Fig.I.S .9 Studies by Sir Leslie Martin of a comprehensive planning grid for university laboratories and of the type of develop- ment that can be based upon it . Fig.I.S .8 Typical types of roof structures. ROOFS AND CEILINGS Roofs and ceilings affect layouts chiefly by their height above the floor. Table 1 has some generally rec- ommended heights for use as a rule of thumb. Roofs and ceilings are also affected in many cases by the type of construction . shows the several types of roof construction most commonly used . The usefulness of overhead space may be limited by what can be attached to the roof or ceiling. Very few plants hang their machinery from the roof or ceiling . But a great many suspend material-handling equipment, service pipes or wiring, and other equipment. Such considerations as natural light, heat conduction, and dust accumulation also Relate to the type and condition of the roof . WALLS AND COLUMNS Unlike early plants which depended on thick stonework or masonry to hold up their walls and roofs, modern buildings place their load on beams and support structures, generally of steel or rein- forced concrete . This way, the column carries the load and no wall is needed, except to keep out the elements . This is a great help to production for it means large, unobstructed working areas. Inner walls today are only partitions . When cer- tain operations must be segregated, partitions that are generally built up in standard sections can easily be installed or removed. They can be made as high as necessary to shield or protect the area or can be suspended from the ceiling. This latter type of baffle keeps the floor area free but holds fumes, noise, heat, and the like from circulating throughout the building . One feature easy to overlook is the size of open- ings in walls. Doors that are too lowor too narrow, for example, will limit the size of material-handling equipment. Even without interior walls, there is still the obstruction of columns used for roof sup sidport to plague the layout man. These columns interfere with spotting of machinery, aisles, storage areas, and overhead handling equip- ment . Columns cause two basic problems : 1 . The way they line up tends to confine the basic flow patterns . 2 . Their individual location limits the location of all facilities, especially large equipment. The layout man will undoubtedly want to line up major aisles, stock shelves, and service lines with the columns. Large operations will lie lengthwise down through the bays with the wider spacing. industerial industerial
  • 162 163 due to accidents in later years. This system is commonly used in research buildings with only one or two stories or where a single research floor is inserted in a multistory building primarily designed for other than research purposes . Designs employing exposed utilities are ideal for two-story or one-story-and-basement buildings where economy of construction is a major consideration . • Advantages Excellent flexibility Low first cost Low modification cost Low replacement cost High net to gross area efficiency Modifications do not interfere with conduct of work in adjacent modules • Disadvantages Requires increased ceiling height for same clearance Limits installation of wall cabinets increased clean- ing (maintenance) costs Requires independent type of air duct installation and drainage system Unsightly Fig.I.H.10 general zoning. should be designed so that they are convenient and safe for all users. This not only improves the experi- ence of all users of that space, as well as offering potential efficiencies from avoiding duplicate facilities, but it also avoids the segregation of social groups. Potential construction pollution Types of Systems Utility services are usually provided within a re- search laboratory building by either a horizontal or vertical distribution system or a combination of the two . Five systems are generally used to distribute laboratory utility services : • The utility corridor system • The multiple interior shaft system • The multiple exterior shaft system • The corridor ceiling with isolated vertical shafts The Corridor Ceiling Distribution In this system, utilities are located in the cor- ridor ceiling and in some cases above the ceilings of the rooms on each side of the corridor and are sup- plied by one or two vertical pipe shafts . Distribu- tion from the ceiling mains to the laboratory areas may be downward to the floor and upward through the floor above in order to supply two floors from one ceiling distribution arrangement . Generally, it is preferable to provide the distribution downward within each room to avoid perforation of the floor slab and consequent leaks and flooding industerial industerial
  • 164 165 Fig.I.A.12 section (2-2). Fig.I.A.11 section (1-1). PROJECT ANALYSIS Example1: Waste Treatment Facility / Batlle & Roig Architects Architects: Batlle & Roig Architects Location: Vacarisses, Barcelona, Spain Client: Consorci per a la Gestió dels Residus del Vallès Occidental Design team: Enric Batlle Durany and Joan Roig i Duran Collaborators: Xavier Ramoneda, architect, Ma- rio Suñer, architect, IDEMA, engineering Work date: 2010 Area: 45.000 sqm Budget: 74.000.000€ Engineers: IDEMA, engineering Landscape architects: Enric Batlle Durany and Joan Roig i DuranContractor: UTECTRV (FFC + HERA + URBASER) Photographs: Francisco Urrutia Fig.I.A.14.1EXTERIOR SHOTS. industerial industerial
  • 168 169 Fig.I.A.17.3ROOF PLAN Fig.I.A.17.2ROOF PLAN. Fig.I.A.17.1ROOF PLAN. Fig.I.A.16.2LAYOUT ANALYSIS.Fig.I.A.16.1LAYOUT ANALYSIS. Fig.I.A.15.3INTERIOR SHOTS. Fig.I.A.15.2INTERIOR SHOTS.Fig.I.A.15.1INTERIOR SHOTS. Fig.I.A.14.5EXTERIOR SHOTS. industerial industerial
  • 170 171 Fig.I.A.23.1 PLANS. Fig.I.A.19 layout. Example2: Eco Energy Plant / Urban Design Architects: Urban Design Location: Donetsk, Ukraine Client: Eco Energy Project Manager: Erik Jarlöv, Helena Glanz Project Year: 2011 Images: Courtesy of Urban Design Fig.I.A.18.3EXTERIOR SHOTS. Fig.I.A.18.1EXTERIOR SHOTS. Fig.I.A.18.2EXTERIOR SHOTS. industerial industerial
  • 172 173 Fig.I.A.25.1 ELEVATIOS. Fig.I.A.21 LANDSCAPE SECTION. Fig.I.A.23.2 PLANS. Fig.I.A.22 DETAILS.Fig.I.A.20 MASS CONCEPT.jpg industerial industerial
  • 174 175 INTRODUCTION: Embassy buildings are nations‘ physical embodiments abroad. It may set the stage for building bridges among nations, while at their worst they can aggravate difficult relations. Embassy architecture is used as a powerful tool for making bold political statements about international relations. Diplomatic facilities are more than just offices, residences, and places of assembly and refuge. They are the physical presence of the countries beyond its borders, symbols of the values and aspirations of the its people and often contribute to the first impression for all visitors who is seeking for visas, passports, family emergencies and legal issues in a host country ...etc. However, embassies also serve as potential targets of those who seek to perform violent acts (the deadly 1998 bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya), incidents of international terrorism direct- ed towards embassies. As a result, ensuring the safety and security of embassies and foreign nationals who work in and visit it so diplomatic facilities must remain the highest priority for the State Department and design and construction program. Architects, engineers, and other design professionals are required by their licensing bodies and codes of ethics to design structures that protect the health, safety, and welfare of the public. Ensuring to the Embassies. Introduction Users SITE SELECTION. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS. DESIGN GUIDELINES . PROJECT ANALYSIS. maximum extent possible the safety and security of people working in it. At the same time, embassies can, and must, reflect the countries values and ideals. Embassies should symbolize vitality, strength, decency, and innovation. These essential qualities contribute to the conduct of countries diplomacy, encourage international commerce, and enhance cultural exchange. Fig.E.H.1 80 dead, 1,000 hurt- U.S. Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya. Fig.I.A.25.2 ELEVATIOS. Fig.I.A.24 SECTON A-A. industerial emapssies
  • 176 177 •  Assess Sites Using Consistent Criteria To ensure an objective and holistic evaluation of selected sites, the Bureau of Diplomatic Security as- sesses the characteristics of all viable sites based on the following criteria: location, development, security, communications, planning/zoning, environmental attributes, and acquisition management. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS: • - The nature of the building in terms understood by and compatible to the host country. • - Quality without ostentation or luxury. • - A deference to local architectural tradition and materials. • - The conceptualization of values reflected in embassy architecture is based on the four major design patterns reflecting the values of tradition, innovation, wealth and security. General planning should include : • - Easy and direct pedestrian access and egress, including provisions for the physically handicapped. • - Easy vehicular access and egress with provision for adequate visitors, and staff parking along with the necessary service access to building, Shelter should be provided at main entrance for protection during inclement weather. • - Arrangement of public spaces for convenient service to the public. • - Arrangement of sensitive areas remote from public. • - Efficient circulation employing maximum use of double loaded corridors. • - Provision for building expansion either vertically, horizontally or both. • - Physical security of building by perimeter walls and/or fences, setbacks from property lines, exterior lighting, easy control of entrances. • - taking an approach to its building program that integrates security and cost with the long-term im- pact. DESIGN GUIDELINES: Embassies variations between the class I, II, III, and IV. These classifications depend on the level of Country’s embassy and the relations between it and the host one. Fig.E.S.3 Embassies sections. Office of the Ambassador: This section is a sensitive area and should be located on an upper floor and separated from the general public areas. Access to the ambassador’s and deputy chief of mission’s offices should be through and con- trolled by the secretaries’ office. The reception area should be separate but convenient to the secretaries’ office. • Political Section: USERS : SITE SELECTION: • Recognize the Representational Value of Potential Sites An embassy or consulate will represent the country government to the host nation for many decades. The site selection process considers the symbolic representation of country values in pro- moting a sense of openness, accessibility, and transparency through location. • Foster a Connection to the Community Wherever possible, urban sites are selected to facilitate forging connections to the host govern- ment and community. Urban sites also often pro- vide greater links to public transportation, making the mission more accessible to visitors and staff. Ur- ban sites can support the use of amenities outside of the Chancery compound, allowing for a smaller footprint. While politically and culturally prestigious areas in a host city are often desirable locations, there are unique opportunities in the redevelop- ment of emerging urban neighborhoods.   • Meet the Mission’s Objectives The best sites successfully meet operational re- quirements to support all aspects of the diplomatic mission. The separation of embassy and consular functions, and public circulation from employee and service flows, as well as the possibility of future expansion, are among some of the key consider- ations that are weighed to determine the viability of operations on a site. A site utilization plan for a future compound confirms a site’s ability to support these operational requirements. • Consider Security Measures The physical characteristics of a site impact its overall security. Multiple vehicular access points and sufficient room for required setbacks must be factored in when weighing alternative locations. When evaluating potential sites, the possibility of incorporating security measures into unique site attributes, such as existing topography and site geometry, is also considered. emapssies emapssies
  • 178 179 This section should be conveniently located for easy public access although not necessarily on the main ground floor except in the case of the commercial library. This latter function and any directly associated office should be immediately available to the public. Fig.E.S.6 Economic Section zoning. Fig.E.S.5 Political Section zoning. This is a Sensitive section which reports directly to the ambassador and should be located accordingly . • Economic Section: Fig.E.S.4 Office of the Ambassador zoning. emapssies emapssies
  • 180 181 Fig.E.S.7 Consular Section zoning. • Administration Section: The operation of this section will not be confined to one area of the building but will be distributed throughout . The responsibilities consist of general housekeeping of the post, supervision of building per- sonnel, post expenditures, message center or communications complex, maintenance personnel, Marine Guards, etc. The administration officer and his immediate staff, especially those coming in contact with lo- cal businessmen and tradespeople, should be on the ground floor near the main entrance. The communi- cations complex should be separate and in a more remote area, preferably near the ambassador, as it will contain the mail and file rooms, communications room, vault, and incinerator for classified material . This area will be contained in a concrete vault accessible through one controlled entrance . • Consular Section: The size of this section will vary greatly according to the volume of the consular activity . At some posts this work would be handled by one floor remote from all public areas and access Officer requiring one room ; at others, the complete operation would require one or more floors and several waiting rooms. Its varied function is to process visas, citizenship, veterans’ affairs, Notarial, shipping, and social security. This section will require its own file room, its own waiting areas (for larger posts preferably two, one for immigrants and one for nonimmigrants), toilet facilities, fingerprinting facilities, confidential interviewing room, and mail storage boxes. By its public nature it should be on the ground floor near the main entrance or possibly have an entrance of its own. emapssies emapssies
  • 182 183 • Military Attaches: This operation should be remote from the public and have their own communication complex. A photo laboratory may be required for each service. Fig.E.S.10 Military Attaches zoning. • Communication Section: Required areas will be determined by the department on a case basis for each building planned and should be located on the top floor remote from all public areas and access. Fig.E.S.8 Administration Section zoning. Fig.E.S.9 Communication Section zoning. emapssies emapssies
  • 184 185 Fig.E.S.11 Garage or Parking Area zoning. • Miscellaneous Functional and Service Area: • Garage or Parking Area: To the areas noted above there may be added garage facilities or outside parking, or a combination of both, depending on site. The following items are to be considered as necessary : • car Park area. • Bicycle racks. • Chauffeurs dayroom and toilet. emapssies emapssies
  • 186 187 ada’s identity which conforms to Berlin’s stringent design guidelines. In addition to housing the Cana- dian mission and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, the ten-story structure also provides commercial offices and residential space. The embassy’s material palette represents several regions of Canada and provides a rich dynamic of interior and exterior spaces for dip- lomatic, business and cultural activities. On axis with the main entrance in the central bay of the Leipziger Platz façade is the Timber Hall. This decahedral room, which is wrapped by a gen- tly ascending circular stair, is the focus of the design and informs both interior and exterior spaces. On the ground floor, an exhibition room can be opened up either entirely or selectively to this central space, allowing it to accommodate a va- riety of large events or devote itself exclusively and securely to diplomatic functions. Above, the Timber Hall, which is open to the sky via a lightly framed glazed skylight system, includes a state-of-the-art conference facility and first- class conference room. Its exterior is copper; the treads and risers of the grand curved stair- way are constructed of Ontario limestone. The building exterior is faced with Tyndall limestone from Manitoba. On the south side of the site, a water element creates an unexpected urban oasis PROJECT ANALYSIS: Canadian Embassy in Berlin Architect: Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects (KPMB Architects) with Gagnon Letellier Cyr architectes and Smith Carter Architects + Engi- neers Location: Leipziger Platz 17, Berlin, Germany Landscape: Cornelia Hahn Oberlander Office Interiors: Vogel Architects Lighting: Suzanne Powadiuk Design Cost: Vermeulens Cost Consultants Developer: Hanover Leasing, Tercon Immobilien Project Area: 180,000 sqf Project Year: 2005 • Overview : Located at the junction of Leipziger Platz and Postdamer Platz where a portion of the BerlinWall still stands, the new Canadian Embassy is one of several initiatives in the city’s third wave of recon- struction. The design participates in the reconstruc- tion of the original octagonal wall of Leipziger Platz, and conforms to the stringent planning and design guidelines set out by the District Office of Central Berlin which dictated a stone exterior with punched windows, and 22 meter setbacks. The winning submission in a national design competition, the design expresses elements of Can- Fig.E.A.18.1 Exterior Shots. Fig.E.A.18.3 Exterior Shots.Fig.E.A.18.2 Exterior Shots. emapssies emapssies
  • 188 189 Fig.E.A.20.1 Site analysis. Fig.E.A.20 Site analysis.Fig.E.A.19.4 Interior shots. Fig.E.A.19.3 Interior shots.Fig.E.A.19.2 Interior shots. Fig.E.A.19.1 Interior shots.Fig.E.A.18.4 Exterior Shots. emapssies emapssies
  • 190 191 Fig.E.A.22 Ground floor circulation.Fig.E.A.21 ground floor analysis. emapssies emapssies
  • 192 193 Fig.E.A.27 Section study. Fig.E.A.26 Tenth floor circulation. Fig.E.A.25 Tenth floor analysis.Fig.E.A.24 First floor circulation. Fig.E.A.23 First floor analysis. emapssies emapssies
  • 194 195 Museums. Introduction Users Design standard Project analysis Zonning Introduction A museum is an institution that cares for (con- serves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, or historical impor- tance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or tempo- rary. Most large museums are located in major cities throughout the world and more local ones exist in smaller cities, towns and even the countryside. History The museums of ancient times, such as the Musaeum (which included the famous Library of Alexandria,) of Alexandria, would be equivalent to a modern graduate institute. Fig.M.I.1 Museum of Islamic Art , Doha, Qatar. Early Museums Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts. These were often displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. Public access was often possible for the “re- spectable”, especially to private art collections, but at the whim of the owner and his staff. The oldest public museums in the world opened in Rome during the Renaissance. However, many significant museums in the world were not founded until the 18th century and the Age of Enlighten- ment. Modern museums These “public” museums, however, were often accessible only by the middle and upper classes. It could be difficult to gain entrance. In London for example, prospective visitors to the British Mu- seum had to apply in writing for admission. Even by 1800 it was possible to have to wait two weeks for an admission ticket The Ashmolean museum, however, founded in 1677 from the personal collection of Elias Ashmole, was set up in the University of Oxford to be open to the public and is considered by some to be the first modern public museum.  The collection in- cluded that of Elias Ashmole which he had collected himself, including objects he had acquired from the gardeners, travellers and collectors John Tradescant the elder and his son of the same name. The collection included antique coins, books, engravings, geological specimens, and zoological specimens—one of which was the stuffed body of the last dodo ever seen in Europe; but by 1755 the stuffed dodo was so moth-eaten that it was de- stroyed, except for its head and one claw. The mu- seum opened on 24 May 1683, with naturalist Rob- ert Plot as the first keeper. The first building, which became known as the Old Ashmolean, is sometimes attributed to Sir Christopher Wren or Thomas Wood. In France, the first public museum was the Lou- vre Museum in Paris  opened in 1793 during the French Revolution, which enabled for the first time free access to the former French royal collec- tions for people of all stations and status. American museums eventually joined Euro- pean museums as the world’s leading centers for the production of new knowledge in their fields of interest. A period of intense museum building, in both an intellectual and physical sense was real- ized in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (this is often called “The Museum Period” or “The Mu- seum Age”). While many American museums, both Natural History museums and Art museums alike, were founded with the intention of focusing on the scientific discoveries and artistic developments in North America, many moved to emulate their Euro- pean counterparts in certain ways (including the development of Classical collections from ancient Egypt, Greece, Mesopotamia and Rome). Users Design standard Types Types of museums vary, from large institutions, covering many of the categories below, to very small institutions focusing on a specific subject, location, or a notable person. Categories in- clude: fine arts, applied arts, craft, archaeology, an- thropology and ethnology, history, cultural histo- ry, science,technology, children›s museums, natural history, botanical and zoological gardens . Within these categories many museums spe- cialize further, e.g. museums of modern art, folk art, local history, military history, aviation history, phi- lately, agriculture or geology. Another type of museum is an encyclopedic museum. Commonly referred to as a universal museum, encyclopedic museums have collections representative of the world and typically include art, science, history, and cultural history. The type and size of a museum is reflected in its collection. A museum normally houses a core collection of important selected objects in its field. • Archaeology museums Archaeology museums specialize in the display of archaeological artifacts. Many are in the open air, such as the Agora of Athens and the Roman Forum. Others display artifacts found in archaeological sites inside buildings. Some, such as the Western Aus- tralian Museum, exhibit maritime archaeological materials. These appear in its Shipwreck Galleries, a wing of the Maritime Museum. This Museum has also developed a ‹museum-without-walls› through a series of underwater wreck trails. museums museums
  • 196 197 • Art museums An art museum, also known as an art gallery, is a space for the exhibition of art, usually in the form of art objects from the visual arts, primar- ily paintings, illustrations, and sculpture. Collections of drawings and old master prints are often not displayed on the walls, but kept in a print room. There may be collections of applied art, in- cluding ceramics, metalwork, furniture, artist›s books and other types of object. Video art is often screened. The first publicly owned museum in Europe was the Amerbach-Cabinet in Basel, originally a private collection sold to the city in 1661 and public since 1671 (now Kunstmuseum Basel). The Ashmolean Museum in Oxford opened on 24 May 1683 as the world’s first university art museum. Its first building was built in 1678–1683 to house the cabinet of curiosities Elias Ash- mole gave Oxford University in 1677. The Uffizi Gal- lery in Florence was initially conceived as offices for the Florentine civil service (hence the name), but evolved into a display place for many of the paint- ings and sculpture collected by the Medici family or commissioned by them. The specialised art mu- seum is considered a fairly modern invention, the first being the Hermitage in Saint Petersburg which was established in 1764. The Louvre in Paris was established in 1793, soon after the French Revolu- tion when the royal treasures were declared for the people.  The Czartoryski Museum in Kraków was established in 1796 by Princess Izabela Czartoryska.  • Encyclopedic museums Encyclopedic museums are large, mostly na- tional, institutions that offer visitors a plethora of information on a variety of subjects that tell both local and global stories. “With 3% of the world’s population, or nearly 200 million people, live outside the country of their birth, encyclopedic museums play an especially important role in the building of civil society. They encourage curiosity about the world • Historic house museums Within the category of history museums historic house museums are the most numerous. The earliest projects for preserving historic homes began in the 1850s under the direction of individuals concerned with the public good and the preservation of American history, especially cen- tered on the first president. Since the establishment of America’s first his- toric site at Washington’s Revolutionary headquar- ters at Hasbrouck House in New York State, Ameri- cans have found a penchant for preserving similar historical structures. The establishment of historic house museums increased in popularity through the 1970s and 1980s as the Revolutionary bicentennial set off a wave of patriotism and alerted Americans to the destruction of their physical heritage. These museums are also unique in that the ac- tual structure belongs to the museum collection as a historical object. While some historic home muse- ums are fortunate to possess a collection containing many of the original furnishings once present in the home, many face the challenge of displaying a collection consistent with the historical structure. Some museums choose to collect pieces original to the period while not original to the house.. Still other museums adopt a more aesthetic approach and use the homes to display the architecture and artistic objects. period. • History museums History museums cover the knowledge of his- tory and its relevance to the present and future. Some cover specialized curatorial aspects of history or a particular locality; others are more general. Such museums contain a wide range of objects, including documents, artifacts of all kinds, art, archaeological objects.  Antiquities muse- ums specialize in more archaeological findings. A common type of history museum is a historic house. A historic house may be a building of spe- cial architectural interest, the birthplace or home of a famous person, or a house with an interesting history. Fig.M.S.5 The National Museum of Natural History inWashington, D.C.. Fig.M.S.11 The Borusseum is a museum aboutBorussia Dortmund in Dortmund, Germany. Fig.M.S.10 Antique cuckoo clocks in the interior of Cuckooland Museum.. Fig.M.S.8 Museum of Science and Industry,Chicago. Fig.M.S.3 Museum of the Filipino Peo- ple, Manila, Philippines.. Fig.M.S.2 Museum of Modern Art, New York. Fig.M.S.9 CLSU Living Fish Museum CLSU,Philippines.. Fig.M.S.7 An old farmhouse at the Salz- burger Freilichtmuseum in Großgmain nearSalzburg.. Fig.M.S.6 The open-air museum of King Oscar II atBygdøy near Oslo in the museum guide of 1888. The World’s first open-air museum was founded in 1881  Historic sites can also become museums, particularly those that mark public crimes, such as Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum or Robben Island. Another type of history museum is a living mu- seum. A living museum is where people recreate a time period to the fullest extent, including build- ings, and language. It is similar to historical reenact- ment. • Living history museums Living history museums recreate historical set- tings to simulate past time periods, providing visi- tors with an experiential interpretation of history. [  These museums feature reconstructions of par- ticular time periods and/or locations and are staffed by historical site interpreters who often reflect the time period. To reflect the time period, interpreters use costumes, period speech, and character imper- sonations while performing daily tasks and crafts of the period. These museums have found particular popularity in the United States and Canada. The beginnings of the living history museum can be traced back to 1873 with the opening of the Skansen Museum near Stockholm, Sweden. museums museums
  • 198 199 The museum’s founder, Arthur Hazelius, began the museum by using his personal collection of build- ings and other cultural materials of pre-industrial society. This museum began as an open air museum and, by 1891, had several farm buildings in which visitors could see exhibits and where guides dem- onstrated crafts and tools. For years, living history museums were relative- ly nonexistent outside of Scandinavia, though some military garrisons in North America used some living history techniques[  However, the growth of new social history beginning in the 1960s and 1970s and excitement over the United States Bicenten- nial in 1976 gave living history displays new credibil- ity and use. Since this time, living history museums have become more widespread. Some of these first museums that are now well known in the United States are Colonial Williamsburg, Plimoth Planta- tion, Connor Prairie Pioneer Settlement, and Old Sturbridge Village. Many living history farms and similar farm and agricultural museums have united under an association known as the Association for Living History, Farm, and Agricultural Museums (ALHFAM). • Maritime museums Maritime museums are museums that specialize in the presentation of maritime history, culture or archaeology. They explore the relationship between societies and certain bodies of water. Just as there is a wide variety of museum types, there are also many different types of maritime museums. First, as metioned above, maritime museums can be pri- marily archaeological. These museums focus on the interpretation and preservation of shipwrecks and other artifacts recovered from a maritime setting. A second type is the maritime history museum, dedicated to educating the public about humanity›s maritime past. Examples are the San Francisco Maritime Museum and Mystic Seaport. Military- focused maritime museums are a third variety, of which theIntrepid Sea, Air and Space Museum is an example. • Military and war museums Military museums specialize in military his- tories; they are often organized from a national point of view, where a museum in a particular country will have displays organized around con- flicts in which that country has taken part. They typically include displays of weapons and other military equipment,uniforms, wartime propa- ganda and exhibits on civilian life during wartime, and decorations, among others. A military museum may be dedicated to a particular or area, such as the Imperial War Museum Duxford for military air- craft, Deutsches Panzermuseum for tanks or the In- ternational Spy Museumfor espionage, The Nation- al World War I Museum for World War I or more generalist, such as the Canadian War Museum or the Musée de l›Armée. • Mobile museums Mobile museum is a term applied to museums that make exhibitions from a vehicle, such as a van. Some institutions, such as St. Vital Historical Soci- ety and the Walker Art Center, use the term to refer to a portion of their collection that travels to sites away from the museum for educational purposes. Other mobile museums have no «home site», and use travel as their exclusive means of presentation. • Natural history museums Museums of natural history and natural sci- ence typically exhibit work of the natural world. The focus lies on nature and culture. Exhibitions educate the public on natural history, dinosaurs, zoology, oceanography, anthropology and more. Evolution, environmental issues, and biodiversity are major areas in natural science museums. Notable museums include the Natural History Museum in London, the Oxford University Mu- seum of Natural History inOxford, the Muséum national d›histoire naturelle in Paris, the Smith- sonian Institution›s National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., theAmerican Museum of Natural History in New York City, the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology in Drumheller, Alberta, Denver Museum of Nature and Science and the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. • Open-air museums Open-air museums collect and re-erect old buildings at large outdoor sites, usually in settings of re-created landscapes of the past. The first one wasKing Oscar II›s collection near Oslo in Norway, opened in 1881. In 1907 it was incorporated into the Norsk Folkemuseum.  In 1891, inspired by a visit to the open-air museum in Oslo, Artur Hazelius founded the Skan- sen in Stockholm, which became the model for sub- sequent open-air museums inNorthern and Eastern Europe, and eventually in other parts of the world. Most open-air museums are located in regions where wooden architecture prevail, as wooden structures may be translocated without substan- tial loss of authenticity. A more recent but related idea is realized inecomuseums, which originated in France. • Pop-up museums A concept developed in the 1990s, the pop-up museum is generally defined as a short term institu- tion existing in a temporary space. These temporary museums are finding increasing favor among more progressive museum professionals as a means of direct community involvement with objects and exhibition. Often, the pop-up concept relies solely on visitors to provide both the objects on display and the accompanying labels with the professionals or institution providing only the theme of the pop- up and the space in which to display the objects, an example of shared historical authority.. Due to the flexibility of the pop-up museums and their rejection of traditional structure, even these latter provisions need not be supplied by an institution; in some cases the themes have been chosen col- lectively by a committee of interested participants while exhibitions designated as pop-ups have been mounted in places as varied as community centers and even a walk-in closet. Some examples of pop- up museums include: • Museum Of New Art (MONA)- founded in De- troit, Michigan in 1996 this contemporary art mu- seum is generally acknowledged to be the pioneer of the concept of the pop-up museum. • The Pop-Up Museum of Queer History- a se- ries of pop-up museum events held at various sites across the United States focusing on the history and stories of local LGBT communities. • Denver Community Museum- a pop-up mu- seum that existed for nine months during 2008-9, located in downtown Denver, Colorado. • Museum of Motherhood, currently located on Manhattan’s Upper East Side. Has extended past its original close date & is seeking a permanent home. • Science museums Science museums and technology centers re- volve around scientific achievements, and marvels and their history. To explain complicated inven- tions, a combination of demonstrations, interactive programs and thought-provoking media are used. Some museums may have exhibits on topics such as computers,aviation, railway museums, phys- ics, astronomy, and the animal kingdom. Science museums, in particular, may consist of planetaria, or large theatre usually built around a dome. Museums may have IMAX feature films, which may provide 3-D viewing or higher quality picture. As a result, IMAX content provides a more immersive experience for people of all ages. Also new virtual museums, known as Net Muse- ums, have recently been created. These are usually web sites belonging to real museums and contain- ing photo galleries of items found in those real museums. This new presentation is very useful for people living far away who wish to see the contents of these museums. • Specialized museums A number of different museums exist to demon- strate a variety of topics. Music museums may cel- ebrate the life and work of composers or musicians, such as the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleve- land, Ohio, or even Rimsky-Korsakov Apartment and Museum in St Petersburg (Russia). Other music museums include live music recitals such as the Handel House Museum in London. In Glendale, Arizona the Bead Museum fosters an appreciation and understanding of the global, historical, cultural, and artistic significance of beads and related artifacts dating as far back as 15,000 years. Also residing in the American Southwest are living history towns such as Tombstone, Arizona. This historical town is home to a number of «liv- ing history» museums (such as the O.K. Corral and the Tombstone Epitaph) in which visitors can learn about historical events from actors playing the parts of historical figures like Wyatt Earp, Doc Hol- liday, and John Clum. Colonial Williamsburg (in Wil- liamsburg, Virginia), is another great example of a town devoted to preserving the story of America through reenactment. museums museums
  • 200 201 Another example of a specialized museum, in this case devoted to horology, is the Cuckooland Museum in the United Kingdom, which hosts the world’s largest and finest collection of antique cuck- oo clocks. Korea is host to the world’s first museum de- voted to the history and development of organic farming, theNamyangju Organic Museum, with exhibit captions in both Korean and English, and which opened in 2011 Museums targeted for youth, such as children›s museums or toy museums in many parts of the world, often exhibit interactive and educational material on a wide array of topics, for example, the Museum of Toys and Automata in Spain. The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Mu- seum and the “Borusseum», the museum about- Borussia Dortmund in Dortmund, Germany, are institutions of the sports category. The Corning Museum of Glassis devoted to the art, history, and science of glass. The National Museum of Crime & Punishment explores the science of solving crimes. The Great American Dollhouse Museum in Danville, Kentucky, U.S.A., depicts American social history in miniature.  Inter- pretation centres are modern museums or visitors centres that often use new means of communica- tion with the public. In some cases, museums cover an extremely wide range of topics together, such as the Museum of World Treasures in Wichita, KS. In other instances, museums emphasize regional culture and natural history, such as the Regional Museum of the National University of San Martin, Tarapoto, Peru. • Virtual museums A recent development, with the expansion of the web, is the establishment of virtual muse- ums. Online initiatives like the Virtual Museum of Canada[43] and the National Museum of the United States Air Force provide physical museums with a web presence, as well as online curatorial platforms such as Rhizome. Some virtual muse- ums have no counterpart in the real world, such as LIMAC (Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Lima), which has no physical location and might be confused with the city›s own museum. The art historian Griselda Pollock elaborated a virtual femi- nist museum, spreading between classical art to contemporary art. • Zoological parks and botanic gardens Although zoos and botanic gardens are not often thought of as museums, they are in fact “living museums”. They exist for the same purpose as other museums: to educate, inspire action, and to study, develop and manage collections. They are also managed much like other museums and face the same challenges. Notable zoos include the Bronx Zoo in New York, the London Zoo, the Los Angeles Zoo, the Philadelphia Zoo, the Saint Louis Zoological Park, the San Diego Zoo, Berlin Zoologi- cal Garden, the Taronga Zoo in Sydney, Frankfurt Zoological Garden, Jardin des Plantes in Paris, andZürich Zoologischer Garten in Switzerland. Notable botanic gardens include Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis,Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Chicago Botanic Garden and Royal Botanical Gardens (Ontario). Circulation 1-The Approach 2-Entrance 3-Pathway configuration 4-Path-space relationship 5-Form of the circulation space • The approach Is the distant view before entering the build- ing is very important to prepare the visitors for the experience of the spaces in the museums It’s supposed to be in an area easily accessible from all over the city as museum prefers to be close to the role of science and universities. Should be confirm- ing to the nature of museum exhibits or serve the design philosophy of the project. Fig.M.S.13 Circulation. Fig.M.S.14 Guggenheim hermitage museum. museums museums
  • 202 203 • Entrance The entrance of a museum is the start point where the visitors move from the outside space to the interior space. Museum’s entrances are usually highlighted by very visible items or attractive patterns, decorative or structural components. • Pathway configuration Refers to the path of movement from a starting point to the end point within the museum Fig.M.S.17 Sharjah Maritime Museum. Fig.M.S.15 Museum of Islamic Art , Doha, Qatar. Fig.M.S.16 War museum – london. • The movement of visitors and following spaces Which is considered one of the most impor- tant functions that must be observed and studied carefully, and be according to a logical order to showrooms and which is linked to the objective of the establishment of the museum, the museum was a scientific shall be arranged halls by a scientific nature that is designed for it, and that was based timeline or on the nature of the material before all those things must be taken into account in order halls that meet at the end the perfect movement required where movement begins from the en- trance of the museum which leads to entrance hall in which all events service necessary for visitors of spare tickets, queries and seats for a break and there is a key must be referred to a general plan of the museum to understand visitor how to move be- tween sections of the museum and paints himself a flowchart that helps plan Fig.M.S.18 Visitor movement types within the museum and is determined by the importance of the sequence spaces and the quality and type of the exhibits. • Path-space relationship The relationship between the path and space in a museum can be linked in three different ways. First: the path passes by the exhibitions and spaces, ensuring the connectivity for each space. Second: the path passes through spaces. In turn, the intervening of spaces trespassed creates patterns of rest and movement. Third: the path terminates in a space, often as a way of emphasizing the importance of the final destination • Form of the Circulation Space The form and size of the circulation space must to be considered in museums. A circulation space may be enclosed, open on one side or open on both sides Fig.M.S.19 Spiral circulation path. Fig.M.S.22 A space used glass and walls to separate different uses Fig.M.S.21 A circulation space covered with glass showing sky. Fig.M.S.20 Path may be related to spaces they link in the fol- lowing ways . museums museums
  • 204 205 Site selection and analysis • Site selection Site selection and analysis must to fit type of museum. Fig.M.S.23 The gateway to asia southern branch of national palace museum Site Layout. • Functional relationships study The site chosen to achieve healthy relationships and appropriate between components with differ- ent functions and include • Parking garages • Entrances • Exits • Wings • Green spaces • Water bodies • Permanent premises in the case of its exis- tence • Connectors internal corridors infantry • Vehicles • Corridors Service • Gathering spaces To reach these relations for the best solution suited to be ( first sites possibilities in both terms of topography, visual or having the advantages of natural and archaeological areas) use for the ben- efit of the design, and then try to compatibility with the program to be the most suitable site as possible and on the basis of the required conditions. • The visual formation study The visual formation prominent element in the design of the site and includes: 1-Site treatment 2-visual study of the relationships between buildings and spaces 3-Site Furniture. Fig.M.S.25 Perot Museum of Nature and Science. Fig.M.S.24 Perot Museum of Nature and Science layout. • Site treatment Visual study Begin with Site treatment, can either in confirming the site and maintain by eradi- cation what spoil the harmony and well confirms the nature of the site and highlighted, or eliminate what confirms this character or modify it. • Visual study of the relationships between buildings and spaces There are two museums: the standard design and free design. Visual design not only taken during the day, but must also various relationships of the blocks either buildings or trees and spaces must be taken for the night, as light interfering in materializing build- ings as vacuum units and define their relationship including surrounding the site, it clearly highlights the blocks without wrested from the surrounding frame . The lighting creates continuing seems to be dis- assembled during the day and highlight the beauty aspects or turning the building of a heavy mass day lighted to a light source at night. • Site Furniture Site furniture Considered from basic study visual supplements and includes • plants • fountains • columns of light • art elements and give fountains and water bodies refresh- ing sense and thin balanced with dry buildings and severity are also available places Poetics of pio- neers, and care must be found in the design form of fountains and it’s size fit with standard general surrounding view so that it gives one and coherent expression helps visually linked site. Other elements no less importance for the previous elements: elements art such as statues and paintings,sculpture and configurations should be the center of a vacuum as it connects different spaces and interfere with tilings pathways to guide and clarify the traffic within the site, as well as steps between the different levels and information stalls and sales and vehicles stations and advertising boards, attention leads to design optical coherence and cohesion of the site. Fig.M.S.27 Guggenheim Hermitage Museum in Vilnius, Lithu- ania.. Fig.M.S.26.2 Lanyang Museum in Yilan County, Taiwan. Fig.M.S.26.1 Lanyang Museum in Yilan County, Taiwan. museums museums
  • 206 207 Fig.M.S.31 fountains.png.Fig.M.S.30 Site Furniture like trees , columns of light and water. Fig.M.S.29 Guggenheim Hermitage Museum in Vilnius, Lithu- ania.. Fig.M.S.28 Museum of Islamic Art , Doha, Qatar. Program analysis Successful museum is based on the correct use of the bases in the design and displays it’s works at the rules of the organization for museum science and it’s main components which operate and provide func- tional service and aesthetic requirements to users. It’s nessecery to study the natural or artificial lighting And the width of it to suitability for exhibits type and size And openings distribution system  The windows and doors The entrances and exits , studying all of that and it’s arrangement in exhibition area and viewing methods Studying different elements which museum consist of and choose which achieve aims and sustainable level to the visitor and arrangement it and see if it will be in class boxes or will be displays uncovered or in different ways Fig.M.S.35 Different ways of movements inside exhibition hall. Fig.M.S.32 Zonning. museums museums
  • 208 209 The development of museum presentation techniques: The development processes of museums Includes style developments on the following stages: Display items accompanied by explanatory scientific or educational panels, such as charts or stereoscopic models. Fig.M.S.37 Using techniques suitable for the display of naval.Fig.M.S.36.3 elements museum could consist. Fig.M.S.36.2 elements museum could consist.Fig.M.S.36.1 elements museum could consist . As a result appear the need to re-examine the vacuum architectural and clarify the difference between what Original Viewed and what explanatory. Development comes to display items including it’s surrounded by the appearance of the original envi- ronment as a framework full of the image, whether what was uncovered in the light or in natural climate or what was artificially in shape and lighting. Development need to be added importance elements associated with the antiques are displayed scenes that are difficult for the museum set up, like a viewer of the mountain, the desert, and the sea, marine or archaeological sites. These shows viewed by colored iPods slideshow or by viewing video, as part of the path of museum presentation, including the consequent special design considerations in terms of location or format, light- ing, or audio. Appeared museums that attaches special importance to obtain information through self-experience for Fig.M.S.40 Different technique suited the type of museum.Fig.M.S.39 Different technique suited historic museum. Fig.M.S.38 Using suitable techniques to display works of art. the visitor (either touch or run the instruments shown), which led to the emergence of special consider- ations in implementation-style, raw materials and maintenance. museums museums
  • 210 211 Projects analysis Example 1 :German Pavilion Expo 2010 Shanghai Project: German Pavilion at Expo 2010, Shanghai Architecture: Schmidhuber + Kaindl, Munich Exhibition: Milla & Partner, Stuttgart Construction: NUSSLI (Deutschland) GmbH, Roth Organiser and Operation: Koelnmesse International GmbH, Cologne Exhibit: OKALUX+ von OKALUX GmbH, Marktheidenfeld • Overview Balancity”, the title of the German contribution, is devoted to the subject of “balance” within the framework of the Expos’s motto “Better city, Better Life”. It looks at the equilibrium that the sustaining ele- ments of a city must form in order to make it a place worth living in. At first sight, this balance can be seen in the pavilion – in its balance between the separate construction elements. When looked at separately, they seem unstable. As an ensemble, they hold each other in perfect equilibrium, expressing the “balanc- ity” concept through architecture. Cantilevered polygonal elements form levitating exhibition spaces and landscapes that interlace with the interior. They reveal individual “layers of earth” and show a new energy source in the shape of solar wafers. The façade of the German Pavilion is covered by a transparent textile skin. The silver fabric with its subtle glow supports climate control, offering shade and reflecting up to 80 per cent of the solar radiation. The architecture integrates innovative and intelligent materials which can take on several functions and increase the building’s sustainability. Fig.M.A. 1 German Pavilion Expo 2010 Shanghai. Fig.M.A. 3 German Pavilion Expo 2010 Shanghai. Fig.M.A. 2 German Pavilion Expo 2010 Shanghai. Fig.M.A. 13 German Pavilion Expo Elevation. Fig.M.A. 12 German Pavilion Expo Elevation. Fig.M.A. 11 German Pavilion Expo Exterior.Fig.M.A. 10 German Pavilion Expo interior. museums museums
  • 212 213 Fig.M.A. 4 German Pavilion Expo plan level 1. Fig.M.A. 15 German Pavilion Expo Elevation. Fig.M.A. 14 German Pavilion Expo Elevation.jpg Fig.M.A. 6 German Pavilion Expo plan level 3. Fig.M.A. 5 German Pavilion Expo plan level 2. museums museums
  • 214 215 Fig.M.A. 8 German Pavilion Expo contents. Fig.M.A. 7 German Pavilion Expo plan level 4. Fig.M.A. 9.2 INTERACTIVE SPHERE. Fig.M.A. 9.1 INTERACTIVE SPHERE. museums museums
  • 216 217 Example 2 :Cairo Expo City Architects: Zaha Hadid Architects Location: in Cairo, Egypt. Services: Architecture, Planning, Landscape Architecture, Strategic Planning, Urban Design, Sustain- able Solutions Size: The project includes 450,000sqm for exhibition and conferences, and also two office towers (31 and 33 stories each) and a shopping centre. • Overview : We were just informed that Zaha Hadid Architects will be designing the Cairo Expo City, together with multi-disciplinary engineering consultancy Buro Happold, after a two phase competition. This project follows the recently announced Stone Towers by ZHA in Cairo, Egypt.The new Cairo Expo City will provide a facilities suitable for the international conference and exhibition industry, making Cairo more competitive in a global scale. A carving and sculpting process (related to the strong relation of the country with the Nile) has been used to divide the large exhibition and conference areas required for Cairo Expo City into clusters of individual buildings that have their own formal composition, yet each building relates to the overall design. A main north-south artery is carved through the design, with secondary streams converging at the centre to ease crowd traffic during event. The movement of people within these streams informs the building entrances on the site. Fig.M.A. 16 Cairo Expo City. Fig.M.A. 19 Cairo Expo City Exterior. Fig.M.A. 17 Cairo Expo City. museums museums
  • 218 219 Fig.M.A. 18.3 Cairo Expo City zoning. Fig.M.A. 18.2 Cairo Expo City zoning. museums museums
  • 220 221 Fig.M.A. 21 Cairo Expo City Interior. Fig.M.A. 20 Cairo Expo City Exterior. Zoning Fig.M.Z. 1 Zonning of museum. museums museums
  • 222 223 Health. history Users important factors types design guidelines similar projects HELTH CARE CENTRES HISTORY : Primary helth care is deliverd in the commu- nity at the first contact point between members of the puplic and helth worker in the past people would see their general practitioners eathier at their homes or in the doctor surgery if necess- ery they would be referred to specialist to receive care . however the sastained trend towards spe- cialstation amongst doctor starting out on their carears has produced a shift towards medical and diagonostic centers offering extensive medical services the advantages for the pataint are shorter waiting items and a greater possibilty of being able to receive a diagnoses and treatment without hav- ing to be referred to another doctor . for the doc- tor the advantages are the introudaction of more regulated working hours and he ability to exchange and learn from the experiences of other doctors in the practice . this is a compination of two or more practising with shaed staff and premuses Although the main core of primary care services is the general medical practice .with the enphasis on the general practitioner (GP) . modern health- care centres increasingly comprise nursing and other professional staff of primary and community healthcare teams whose roles are also impotant there could be for example nursing and midwifery teams . Fig.H.H.3.1 HOSPITAL ( The twenty-first century). Fig.H.H.2.1 Turkey HOSPITAL (Nineteenth century). Fig.H.H.1.2 LONDON HOSPITAL ( Eighteenth century ). Fig.H.H.1.1 LONDON HOSPITAL ( Eighteenth century ). Fig.H.H.3.2 HOSPITAL ( The twenty-first century). health care centers USERS : Fig.H.S.4 simple hospital primary zoning. health care centers
  • 224 225 Fig.H.S.9 various department relationships. Fig.H.S.7 rooms types in hospital. Fig.H.S.5 simple hospital zoning. health care centers Fig.H.S.6 complex hospital zoning. health care centers
  • 226 227 Fig.H.S.8 functional parts and relationships. most important factors: • location of the building should be convenient to the people it serves • circulation: enterance and circulation within the building must consider wheelchire users parents with small childern and people with disabilities .etc. • effective zoning is required : public zone ,clinical zone , and stuff zone . • privacy and confidentiality are important . especially at the reception desk and clinical rooms during consulations and treatments • security and supervision in the premises will be necessary including staff protecction aginst personal assulate and equipment safeguarded against theft and vandalism • for running costs ,efficiant stuffing energy –efficiency .long life and low –maintences approches should be adopted • flexability and growth should be catered for: flexability in the use of some spaces , and potential for future extension of the building . health care centers Demaraction: The general hospital is divided into operational of care provision,examination and treatment ,supply and disposal , administration and technology .in addition ,there are residential areas and possibly areas for technology. In addition , there are residential areas and possibly areas for teaching and research as well as support areas for service operations . all of these are precisely defined within the hospital . opinions very concerning the arrangment of the different areas areas but it is important to the maintain the shortest practicable horizontal and vertical links while at the same time demarcation the individual departments as for as possible. Types: Hospitals may be subdivided into the following catergoies : smallest (up to 50beds ) , small (up 150beds) , standard (up to 600 beds) and large hospitals.Very few of the smallest and large category hospi- tals have been built in resent times , the trend now seeming to be to create an even coverage of standard hospitals . in fact , modern health reformed have produced a noticable reduction in the numbers of the smallest hospitals . the sponsors may be to puplic charitable or private or a mixture of these. Hospitals ara divided by function into a general specialist and university hospitals. University hospitals: University hospitals with maximum provision are to be considerd equal to the medical academies and some large general hospitals . they have at their disposal particulary extensive diagnostic and therapeutic facilities and systematicly carry out research and teaching . lecture theatres and demonstration rooms should be included in such a way that operations are not interrupted by the observes . larger wards shoud be planned so as to accommodate both visitors and observers . The amintiesand special requirements of univercity hospitals frequanty require a specially designed set of rooms. Specialist hospitals: The numbers of specialist hospitals is growing fast because of the increasing focus on individual types of treatment or medical fieldes casualty , rehabilitation , allergies , orthopaedics , gynaecology,etc . Also icluded in this category ara special clinics dealing with, for example cancer , skin problems , lung conditions psychiatric disorders , and the like . in turn , these feed residential rehabilitation centres , nurs- ing homes , special schools and old people’s homes. Bed requirements: Short-stay patients 5.5-7 beds Long-stay patients 3.3 beds ((General Medicine 29% - General Surgery 29% - Obstetrics and Gynecology15% - Children 8%)) These percentages vary on Hab factors surrounding each area and contagious reconstruction and living conditions and the social and professional level and frequent and …….etc. health care centers
  • 228 229 Designe rules: Hospitals are often build in the several phases or are added in stages to existing hospitals . therefor , the design (circulation system , floor levels ) and construction must be such as to allow a variety of exten- sion possibilities . Affinities: Form the commenecement of the first designe activities clarity must be achived within the designe team about the affinity between the individual operational spherers. The need for close co-operation be- tween various hospital department is facilitated by spatial proximity . Fig.H.S.10 connections between areas. Planning conception: Location : The site should offer sufficient space for self contained residential areas and hospital department it should be a quiet location with no possibility of future intrusive development not excluded by regulations on adjacent sites . no loss of amenity should result from fog. , wind , dust , smoke , odours or insects the land must not be contaminated and adequate open areas for later expansion must also be planned. Orientation : The most suitable orientation for treatment and operating rooms is between north- west and north-east .for nursing ward facades , south-east is favourable pleasant morning sun , minimal heat build –up , little requirement for sun shading , mind in the evenings . east and west fac- ing rooms have comparatively deeper sun penetra- tion , thoughless winter sun . the orientation of wards in hospitals with a short average stay is not so important . Some specialist disciplines might health care centers require rooms on the north side so that patients are not subjected to the direct sunlight. Cocept : an exisiting hospitals is to be expend- ed ;the desgine includes four building phases .a larg enclused area cointaining a park will be created to allow windows to be opened without the need to tackle problems of noise protection . Forms of building: The form of a building is strongly influenced by the choice of access and circulation routes . it is therefor necessary to decide early on whether to choose a spine from with branching sections (indi- vidual departments) , or wheather circulation will be radially outwards from a central core . concider- ation must be given to future expansion : this is most easily carried out with an extention work for more costly and disruptive. The vertical arrangement within a hospital should be designed so that the functional areas – care , treatment supply and disposal , access for bedridden patients, service yard, underground ga- rage, stores, administration, medical services - can be connected and accessed most efficiently. An effective arrangement would be as follows: Top floor: Helipad, air-conditioning plant room, nursing school, laboratories 2nd/3rd floor: wards 1st floor: surgical area, central sterilisation, intensive care, maternity, children’s hospital ground floor: entrance, radiology, medical services, ambulance, entrance for bedridden patients, emergency ward, information, administration, cafeteria Basement: stores, physiotherapy, kitchen, heating and ventilation plant room, radio-therapy, linear accelerator sub-basement: underground garage, electricity supply Fig.H.S.12 model treatment clinic section. Fig.H.S.11 model treatment clinic. health care centers
  • 230 231 Fig.H.S.13 functional areas vertical conections. health care centers Areas for the overall hospital including functional area for : supply/disposal 40 - 80 m2 PNplanned bed-care area nursing area 19 - 25 m2 PNplanned bed intensive therapy 30 - 40 m2 PNbed surgical area 130 - 160 m2 PNsurgical unit rehabilitation 19 - 22 m2 PNtreatment place physiotherapy 68 - 75 m2 PA/treatment place X-ray 60 - 70 m2 PA/diagnosis room radiotherapy 300 - 350 m2 PNequipment recovery area 25 - 30 m2 PA/recovery bed NMR diagnosis 100 - 150 m2 PNdiagnosis room clinical physiolog 80 - 100 rn-’ PA/diagnosis room Clinical neurophysi- ology 78 - 100 m2 PA/diagnosis room central reception 140 - 160 m2 PA/examination/treatment room delivery area 85 - 100 m2 PNdelivery room dialysis 70 - 80 m2 PA/dialysis bed specialist depart- ments 55 - 75 m2 PA/examination/treatment room (PA = productive area) Functional Areas: • intensive care • special care • normal care • Functional area 1 - care : • surgery • recovery area • rehabilitation • physiotherapy • X-ray diagnosis • NMR diagnosis • radiotherapy • clinico-chemical laboratory • clinico-physical laboratory • clinico-neurophysical laboratory • central reception and treatment  delivery • dialysis • specialist anaesthesia department • specialist eye department • specialist surgical department • specialist gynaecology department • specialist obstetrics department • specialist ENT department • specialist internal medicine department • specialist paediatric department • specialist neurosurgery department • specialist neurology department • specialist psychiatry department • specialist X-ray area department • specialist urology department. health care centers
  • 232 233 • Functional area 2 - examination/treatment • Functional area 3 - research • Functional area 4 – pathology • Functional area 5 - teaching/training: • library • files • Functional area 6 - scientific information: • emergency services • blood ban • Functional area 7 - special interdisciplinary facilities: • central administration • patient reception • Functional area 8 - administration/manage- ment: • staff changing room • canteen • shop • other patient facilities • Functional area 9 - housekeeping: • food provision • central store • central sterilisation • pharmacy • laundry • bed cleaning • waste disposal • transport service • Functional area 10 - supply/disposal: • foyer/entrance • cleaning service • maintenance • Functional area 11 - other functions: • other functions Corridors, Doors, Stairs, Lifts: • Corridors (1-6): Corridors must be designed for the maximum expected circulation flow. Generally, access cor- ridors must be at least 1.50 m wide. Corridors in which patients will be transported on trolleys should have a minimum effective width of 2.25 m. The suspended ceiling in corridors may be installed up to 2.40 m. Windows for lighting and ventilation should not be further than 25m apart. The effective width of the corridors must not be constricted by projections, columns or other building elements. Smoke doors must be installed in ward corridors in accordance with local regulations. Fig.H.S.15 lift lobby. Fig.H.S.14 corridors width. health care centers • Doors: When designing doors the hygiene requirements should be considered. The surface coating must with- stand the longterm action of cleaning agents and disinfectants, and they must be designed to prevent the transmission of sound, odours and draughts. Doors must meet the same standard of noise insulation as the walls surrounding them. A double-skinned door leaf construction must meet a recommended minimum sound reduction requirement of 25dB. The clear height of doors depends on their type and function: Normal doors 2.10-2.20m Vehicle entrances, oversized doors 2.50m Transport entrances 2.70-2.80m Minimum height on approach road 3.50m • Stairs: For safety reasons stairs must be designed in such a way that if necessary they can accommodate all of the vertical circulation. The relevant national safety and building regulations will, of course, apply. Stairs must have handrails on both sides without projecting tips. Winding staircases cannot be included as part of the regulatory staircase provision. The effective width of the stairs and landings in essential staircases must be a minimum of 1.50 m and should not exceed 2.50 m. Doors must not constrict the useful width of the landings and, in accordance with hospital regulations, doors to the staircases must open in the direction of escape. Step heights of 170 mm are permissible and the minimum required tread depth is 280 mm. It is better to have a rise/tread ratio of 150:300 mm. • Lifts(9-8): Lifts transport people, medicines, laundry, meals and hospital beds between floors, and for hygiene and aesthetic reasons separate lifts must be provided for some of these. In buildings in which care, examina- tion or treatment areas are accommodated on upper floors, at least two lifts suitable for transporting beds must be provided. The elevator cars of these lifts must be of a size that allows adequate room for a bed and two accompanying people; the internal surfaces must be smooth, washable and easy to disinfect; the floor must be non-slip. Lift shafts must be fireresistant. One multipurpose lift should be provided per 100 beds, with a minimum of two for smaller hospitals. In addition there should be a minimum of two smaller lifts for portable equipment, staff and visitors: Clear dimensions of lift car 0.90 x 1.20 m Clear dimensions of shaft 1.25 x 1.50 m Surgical Department: • Organisation of the surgery departmen: Every surgical department requires the following rooms: operati ng theatre 40-48 m2 entry room 15-20 m2 exit room 15-20 m2 washroom 12-15 m2 equipment room 10-15 m health care centers
  • 234 235 Fig.H.S.16 dimensions of bed lifts. In new projects, it is permissible for two operat- ing theatres to share the same exit room. Essential to surgical departments are a staff lobby, patient lobby, clean work corridor, anaesthetic workroom, waste lobby, supply lobby, standing area for two operating trolleys and, nearby, the recovery room. The patient demarcation lobbies are also used for bedto-bed transfer, preparation of operating tables and ward beds, and theatre stores. An appropri- ate size is around 35 m2 and fittings should inlude wash-basins and an electric conveyor for bed-to- bed transfer. Main surgical rooms: • Anaesthetics room: The anaesthetics room should be approximately 3.80 x 3.80 m in size and have electric sliding doors into the operating theatre (clear width 1.40 m). These doors must have win- dows to give a visual link with the operating the- atre. The room should be equipped with a refrigera- tor, draining sink (sluice), rinsing line, cupboards for cannulas, connections for anaesthesia equipment and emergency power • Anaesthetic discharge room: This is set out identically to the anaesthetics room. The door to the working corridor should be designed as a swing door with a clear width of 1.25 m. • Washroom: Division into clean and non-clean washrooms is ideal, but from a hygiene point of view a single large room is adequate. The minimum width of the room should be 1.80 m. For each operating theatre there should be three non-splash wash-basins with foot controls. Doors into the operating theatre must have an inspection window and, if they are electri- cal, be opened by foot controls. Swing doors can be used if cost saving is a priority. • Sterile goods room: The size of this room is more flexible but there must be sufficient shelf and cupboard space and it must be accessed directly from the operating theatre. One room of roughly 10 m2 is required per operating theatre. • Equipment room: Although direct access to the operat- ing theatre is preferable, it is not always feasible; where direct access cannot be provided, the equip- ment room must be located as close as possible health care centers to the theatre in order to reduce waiting times. A room size of approximately 20 m2 should be al- lowed. • Substerilisation room: This room mayor may not be connected directly to the operating theatre’s sterile area. It contains an non-clean area for non-sterile material and a clean area for prepared sterile items. It should be equipped with a sink, storage surface, work sur- face and steam sterilisers. Linking a substerilisation room to several operating theatres causes hygiene problems and so should be avoided. Note that sur- gical instruments are prepared in the central steril- ising unit, which lies outside the surgical area. • Plaster room: For hygiene reasons this is not located in the surgical zone but in the outpatient area. In emer- gencies the patient must be channelled through lobbies in order to get to the operating theatre. • Clean room technology and air conditioning: The air conditioning system is a vital part of clean room technology. A typical example uses a low-turbulence displacement with an even speed of moving air (0.45 m/sec) to produce a laminar flow, ahead of which any germs and particles re- leased are propelled out of the room. An additional directed jet with the flow directed towards the operating area allows air turbulence to be mini- mised. The combination of contaminated air and fresh air (clean room air) can also then largely be avoided. To maintain the hygiene of the operating equipment an area of approximately 3.00 x 3.00 m should be allowed. The air conditioning system also reduces the level of airborne germs by filtering, diluting and compressing the air before introduc- ing the appropriately prepared air in the quantity required. For example, 15-20 air changes per hour are required to ensure adequate decontamination of the air between operations. To create a zone which is as germ/particle-free as possible within the operating theatre, there must be no uncontrolled inward air flow from neighbouring rooms. This can be achieved by hermetic sealing of the operating theatre (all joints sealed as far as possible during construction) and/or by protective pressurising (i.e. highest pressure in the operating theatre, followed by the anaesthesia rooms, and the lowest pressure Fig.H.S.17 arrangement of operating theatre. in the auxiliary rooms, thus creating a pressure gradient which moves air outwards from the the- atre to the areas requiring less protection). Operat- ing theatre windows must therefore be equipped with sealable ventilation grills. Specific regulations determine the flow of air between the rooms in the surgical area. Fig.H.S.18 intensive room designe details. health care centers
  • 236 237 • Auxiliary functions: The rooms for auxiliary functions do not need to be in the immediate area of the operating theatre. Separation by a corridor which is not intended for patient use is advisable. • Nurses’ lounge: The dimensions of this room depend on the size of the surgical department. It should be assumed that there are eight members of staff per surgical team (doctors, theatre nurses, anaesthesia nurses). In the case of surgical units with more than two operating theatres, it is appropriate to separate smokers from non-smokers. The lounge must offer sufficient seating, cupboards and a sink. • Nurses’ workstations: These should be located centrally and have large glass screens to allow the working corridor to be viewed. In addition to a desk they must have cup- boards and walls on which organisational schedule planners can be mounted. • Dictation room: No larger than 5 m2 in size, such rooms are where the doctors prepare reports following an operation. They are not absolutely necessary. • Pharmacy: A 20 m2 pharmacy can supply a combination of anaesthetics and surgical medication and other materials, particularly if a space-saving rotating shelving system is installed. • Cleaning room: A size of 5 rn-’ is sufficient for cleaning rooms. They should be close to the operating theatre since cleaning and disinfection are carried out after each operation. • Standing area for clean beds: Close to the patient demarcation lobby there should be sufficient space to stand beds which have been cleaned and prepared. The requirement is for one additional clean bed for each operating table. • WCs: For hygiene reasons, toilets should be located only within the lobbies and not in the surgical area. Fig.H.S.19 hospital path model. SURGERY SAFETY REQUIREMENTS: • Central sterilisation : This is where all hospital instruments are pre- pared. The majority of instruments are used by the surgical department (40%), surgical intensive and internal intensive care (15% each). For this reason central sterilisation should be installed close to these specialist areas. It is recommended that the sterilisation area be situated in areas with relatively low volumes of traffic (both people and materials). The number of sterilisers is dependent on the size of the hospital and surgical department, and can occupy an area of approximately 40-120 m2. Fig.H.S.20 central sterilisation. health care centers Lighting: Lighting in the operating area must be adjust- able in order to provide light at different angles ac- cording to the position of the surgical incision. The most frequently used lighting system is the mobile ceiling-pendant operating light. It consists of a main ceiling light which rotates and pivots and is general- ly equipped with an additional light on a secondary arm. The main light is made up of a large number of smaller lights in order to avoid heavy shadows. Oc- casionally nowadays egg-shaped operating theatres are being planned with integrated ceiling spotlights. Guidelines for lighting in hospitals recommend the nominal lighting strength for operating theatres as 1000 lux and 500 lux for auxiliary surgical rooms Fig.H.S.21 surgical pendant lamp with satellite. Intensive Care Area: The operations centre must be self-sufficient in terms of medical facilities. Connection lines for oxygen, compressed air and vacuum suction must be available at all beds and, in addition to normal electrical sockets, low-voltage (for the nurse-call system) and high-voltage (e.g. for portable X-ray equipment) power must be provided. The intensive surgical medicine ward should be close to and preferably on the same level as the surgical department and internal intensive medi- cine ward. It should also be close to reception and the emergency service operations centre. Intensive wards which are not associated with a specialist area should be close to the outpatients and surgical department. Short routes to the clinical laboratory and to the blood bank are preferable. Care Areas: The care departments are each assigned to a specialist discipline and subdivided into care groups. To maintain an adequate level of supervi- sion each care area should contain no more than 16-24 beds. For economical use of staff, two work- stations are often placed together and connected to a large central nurses’ service area (caring for about 30-34 patients). The arrangement of the rooms is dependent upon the class, type and seriousness of the illness. The following nursing areas should be distinguished: normal nursing area, intensive care area, special care area patients). The arrangement of the rooms is dependent upon the class, type and seriousness of the ill- ness. The following nursing areas should be distin- guished: normal nursing area, intensive care area, special care area. There are fewer beds per care group in the intensive care and special care areas (6-12 beds, depending on the size of the hospital). The rooms must be arranged such that there is sufficient freedom of movement and that beds are accessible from both sides as well as the end. An adequate number of cupboards for patients’ be- Fig.H.S.22 intensive care rooms. health care centers
  • 238 239 longings must be provided as should space for care aids (trolleys, commodes) and equipment. Fig.H.S.25 rooms example 2. Fig.H.S.24 rooms example 1. Fig.H.S.23 normal nursing area. Fig.H.S.22 intensive care rooms. Layout of rooms: Medical rooms and washrooms should be ac- cessed from the main station corridor which must be easily supervised from the glazed nurses’ work- station to prevent unauthorised entry. The logistics of delivering patient care is an important factor in the cost-effectiveness of the department so it is desirable to plan the necessary supply and disposal rooms for medicines, linen, refuse, food etc. cen- trally in groups around the nurses’ workstation. Fig.H.S.28 rooms dimansions. Fig.H.S.26 room detials designe. health care centers Nursing teams: Each station (18-24 patients) is served by an independent nursing team which has full respon- sibility for patient care. As the nurses’ workstation has to be constantly occupied, it is sensible to plan a direct connection to the nurses’ kitchenette and rest room. One-to-one nursing care is very much the exception nowadays and the rising costs of such provision mean that it is unlikely to be feasible in the future. Size of the patient rooms: The patients’ beds must be accessible from three sides and this sets the limits for the overall room sizes. The smallest size for a one-bed room is 10 m2; for a two- and three-bed room, a minimum of 8 m2 per bed should be allowed (in accordance with hospital building regulations). The room must be wide enough for a second bed to be wheeled out of the room without disturbing the first bed (minimum width 3.20 m). Next to each bed must be a night table and, where appropriate, towards the window there should be a table (900 x 900 mm) with chairs (one chair per patient). The fitted cupboards (usually against the corridor wall) must be capable of being opened without moving the beds or night tables. Equipping the patient room: Around the walls there should be a strip made of plastic or wood (at least 400-700 mm above floor level) to protect the wall from damage caused by the movement of beds, night tables and trolleys. Similar strips should be included in the station Fig.H.S.29 nurses work area. Fig.H.S.32 wet cell details. Fig.H.S.31 patients cupboard. Fig.H.S.30 intensive room designe details. corridors. The patients’ cupboards must be large enough to store all of the belongings they have with them. It is best to have a suitcase locker over the cupboard and a lockable valuables section within the cupboard itself. A coinoperated locking system health care centers
  • 240 241 is recommended because keys often get lost. A lockable staff cupboard for medicines should also be planned for. Hinges which allow doors to open through 135 degrees should be fitted to all cup- boards. The room doors must be 1260 x 2130 mm in size and a design which gives a noise reduction of at least 32 dB should be considered (note that noise reduction seals are often necessary). The clos- ing mechanisms must be overhead and the door furniture should be designed to suit the needs of patients and staff carrying trays. The service supply duct runs behind the beds and supplies oxygen, a vacuum line and com- pressed air via special sockets. Power points, read- ing lights, telephone, nurse call and radio sockets are also housed in this duct. Whether each patient room is equipped with a shower often depends on the financing of the project. However, a wash-basin and WC are today standard in new buildings. Attention must be paid to the heights of the wash-basin and the WC: the wash-basin needs to be roughly 860 mm from the floor to allow wheel- chairs underneath and the WC for wheelchair users should have a seat height of about 490 mm. Each station must also have additional WCs for staff, visi- tors and wheelchair user. Rest rooms/kitchenette: Roughly 15 m2 should be allocated for staff breaktime facilities. In larger hospitals consider the inclusion of a smoking area. Fig.H.S.33 doctors offices. Station doctor: The station doctor must be provided with a 16-20 m2 room in which to examine patients. In addition to a desk, there should be ample shelving and an examination couch on which the doctor can rest when on-call. Fig.H.S.34 doctors rooms. Clean workroom: The clean workroom should have an area of about 10m2 and be equipped with fixed shelving (600 mm deep) or a flexible storage system consist- ing of modules which can be filled up in the central stores. Patients’ bathroom: Bathrooms are often equipped with a tub which is accessible from three sides to ease the lifting of patients. Showers are an option for more mobile patients and can also be suitable for wheelchair users pro- vided enough space is allowed (1400 x 1400 mm). Fig.H.S.35 patient bathroom. health care centers Plant room: Each station must have a small (approximately 8 m2) plant room equipped with a fuseboard. Patients’ lounge: A size of approximately 22-25 m2 should be allocated to serve as a general meeting place for patients. The design should emulate a domestic environment. Fig.H.S.37 station pharmacy. Fig.H.S.36 doctor treatment room. Treatment Area: Considerable changes have been seen in the functional area of hospitals in recent years. The proportion of bedcare space has decreased over 30 years from 70% to 40%, while the area for treat- ment has increased by 100%. This trend can be ex- plained by the increasing demand for medical care, diagnosis and therapy. An important aspect here is to coordinate medical disciplines to ensure better co-operation and consultation. Fig.H.S.38 The treatment areas should face north and have central access. Obstetrics: In addition to looking after normal deliveries, the obstetrics department also has to handle com- plications during pregnancy and childbirth so it is therefore essential to have a treatment room next to the conventional delivery rooms. It is also sensible to position this near to the surgery and intensive care departments. The delivery area is separated from the mater- nity and baby care units, as these are connect- ed more to the nursing areas. Fig.H.S.39 obstetrics general zooning. health care centers
  • 242 243 Room planning: Among the central delivery rooms is an observation room with large glass windows as well as waiting and admission areas with ‘contraction rooms’. In addition there should be Space Area Clean workroom 12 m2 Non-clean workroom 12 m2 a midwives’ workstation 20m2 Staff rest room 15m2 The equipment in the delivery rooms will depend on the birthing method chosen but it should ideally also include a bath for patients. Fig.H.S.40.3 planning exampls. Fig.H.S.40.1 planning exampls. Fig.H.S.40.2 planning exampls. health care centers Internal medicine treatment area This area brings together all the examination techniques and treatments associated with internal medi- cine which, depending on the size of the hospital, can encompass: cardiology, angiology, pulmonology, endocrinology and metabolism, and gastroenterology. Space Area examination rooms 25 m2 a secretarial/ administration office 12 m2 the senior physician’s room (15-20 m2) the chief physician’s room (20-25 rn-) Staff stand-by rooms (15 rn-) Radiology Radiology includes the specialist areas which use ionisinq radiation for diagnostic and therapeutic pur- poses. This includes X-ray diagnosis, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine. The radiology department should always be close to the ambulance entrance and, because of the great weight of the equipment (up to 14 t), it is sensible to plan these areas on the ground or first base- ment floor. The rooms of the individual diagnostic areas must be so arranged as to minimise the distance between them. A connecting corridor which can be used simultaneously as a store, dictating room and, possibly, a switch room as well as for staff circulation, is desirable. The size of the rooms depends on their use and what they contain: for example: Space Area sonography, mammography and jaw X-ray 12-18 m2 standard X-ray and admission rooms 20-30 m2 Fig.H.S.41 The basic facilities comprise. Fig.H.S.42 radiology general zooning. health care centers
  • 244 245 The access route for patients should be through two changing cubicles, and a wide door C~1250mm) for beds is necessary. WCs should be installed in X-ray rooms used for stomach/intestinal inspection. Angiography :rooms require an auxiliary room with a sink and built-in storage (e.g. medicine refrigera- tor); medical gases must be also be available. The admission room for computertomography: (CT) must be about 35 m2 in area. The patients pass through lobbies or changing rooms in order to reach the admission room. The switchroom is connected by a door and a window. An additional room: for switch cupboards and film developing is desirable. The walls, ceilings and floors must be shielded with lead sheeting, the thickness of which depends on the type of equipment to be used. Co-operation with the manufacturers of X-ray equipment is absolutely essential. Fig.H.S.44 radiology dep. Details. Fig.H.S.43 radiology planning. health care centers Radiotherapy In radiotherapy, conditions diagnosed in the radiography department (e.g. tumours) are treated. The radiotherapy department comprises Space Area doctors’ rooms 18 m2 a switchroom 15 m2 possibly a localisation room (20-25m2) a service room (20m2) a film developing room (10m2) a linear accelerator a workshop (treatment room) (15 m2) at least one physics laboratory (15-18m2) (15-18m2) a reception and waiting area, doctors’ rooms (approximately 18 m2), a switchroom (15m2), possibly a localisation room (20-25m2), a service room (20m2), a film developing room (10m2), stores and a cleaners’ room. Each treatment room requires a changing cubicle for patients. If the department includes a linear accelerator a workshop and at least one physics laboratory. The clear height: of the radiation rooms must be 4.30 m. For hygiene reasons the patient waiting area, examination, localisation, preparation and radiation rooms must be well vented and well entilated (at least five changes of air per hour). The safety requirements: are particularly strict for radiotherapy departments and must satisfy all ap- plicable national and international regulations. Structural shielding: from radiation can be achieved by using lead inserts or with thick concrete walls (e.g. barite concrete). The thickness of walls constructed in concrete only should be 3.00 m for treatment and examination rooms in the primary radiation area and 1.50 m for rooms in the secondary radiation area, according to the type of equipment. The huge weight: of the equipment and the required structural radiation protection measures make it necessary for radiotherapy departments to be located in the basement or on the ground floor. Fig.H.S.46 diagnosis planning.Fig.H.S.45 x- ray digonosis with layout knowa as an x-ray cross. health care centers
  • 246 247 Laboratories; Functional Diagnosis Laboratory department The laboratory department is concerned mostly with the Preparation and processing of blood, urine and faecal samples. It is often separated from the treatment and nursing areas, the Connection to the other depart- ments being through a special pneumatic tube dispatch system. The laboratory: itself should be in a large room with built-in work surfaces (standing work places) to offer a high level of flexibility. Specialist laboratories: are added on as sepa- rate rooms. Subsidiary rooms: include • rinsing rooms, • sluice rooms, • disinfection rooms, • cool rooms, • rest rooms and WCs for staff. The size: of the department depends on the demands of the hospital.Sometimes the laboratory departments are completely separate and serve a group of several hospitals. Fig.H.S.48.2 laboratory planning. Fig.H.S.48.1 laboratory planning. Fig.H.S.48.3 laboratory planning. health care centers Functional diagnosis Functional diagnosis is playing an increasingly important role in hospitals due to advances in heart and thorax research and the rising number of pa- tients with • heart, • lung and • circulation problems. Flexibility: in the design is absolutely essential to accommodate the wide range of techniques and equipment used in such departments. A direct connection: with the laboratory depart- ment is beneficial, but not essential. A data link: to the radiology, radiotherapy and surgical departments is necessary to allow com- bined monitoring (e.g. analysis of X-ray results together with ongoing assessment of the vital func- tions). All examination rooms: must be accessible through a patients’ cubicle and, possibly, also a preparation room. Waiting rooms: must be sympathetically de- signed because the patients are often extremely nervous. Fig.H.S.50 Functional general zonning. Fig.H.S.49 relationship between Functional diagnoi- sis and departments.jpg Fig.H.S.51 Functional planning. Fig.H.S.51.2 Functional planning. health care centers
  • 248 249 Supplementary Disciplines • Physiotherapy The physiotherapy department contains a ‘wet area’ consisting of: • an exercise pool (approximately 4 x 6 m), • A ‘four cell bath. • A ‘butterfly bath. • Inhalation rooms. • A massage bath. Hand and foot baths as well as the necessary subsidiary rooms. It is, obviously, important to use slipresistant tiles in this area. The department should be accessed through a main reception area and the division between wet and dry areas must be obvious. Additional rooms to be planned in- clude: • changing rooms for men and women, • wheelchair users’we, staff and patient wes, • rest rooms, • linen stores, • Waiting areas, • cleaners’ room and service rooms for the exer- cise pool. • A gymnasium is often included in the physiotherapy depart- ment. This will require a clear height of at least 3.00 m, the provision of a sprung floor and the installa- tion of impact resistant lighting. Because of the high internal temperatures (28-30°) construction physics problems should be anticipated. Ideally, the phys- iotherapy rooms should be arranged on the base- ment floor where natural lighting can be admitted through roof lights and light shafts. Fig.H.S.53.3 physiotherapy planning. Fig.H.S.52 physiotherapy general zonning. health care centers Urological treatment This discipline is related to X-ray diagnosis. The treatment room should be 25-30 m2 in size and it must be close to the surgical department. The room should contain: • an examination and treatment table for endo- scopic investigations and be equipped with:  a wash-basin  suspended irrigator  floor drainage  4-6volt power points (cystoscopy)  two changing cubicles and awe. • Instrument room adjoining (roughly 15 rn-’). With  sterilisers,  sinks  a wash-basin  a patient waiting area. Eye treatment Eye treatment can be carried out in a room ap- proximately 25 m2 in size which can be darkened as required. The necessary equipment includes: • a treatment chair • examination and diagnostic instruments, • an examination couch, • a wash-basin and a writing desk. A patients’ waiting room should be situated to the front of the treatment room. Fig.H.S.54 urological treatment. health care centers
  • 250 251 Ear, nose and throat (ENT) treatment ENT treatment is carried out for inpatients in their own care area. • The treatment room (25-30 rn-’). which can be darkened, should contain: • a treatment table for examinations, • a treatment chair, • a steriliser, • a sink and wash-basin, • storage spaces for portable equipment, • 4-6volt power points and compressed air/suc- tion lines. Adjoining the treatment room should be a rest room and a patients’waiting room. Dental treatment This specialist area of treatment should be provided primarily in special ENT and rheumatism clinics. The treatment room needs to be 25-30 m2 in size and contain : • a treatment chair with dental unit, • a desk, • a wash-basin, • X-ray and anaesthetic equipment, • a sink alcove with sterilizer • if possible, a darkroom. DAY CLINICS (OUTPATIENT SURGERY) The contracting out of services following health reforms has freed space in many hospitals. Much of this has been converted into day clinics for patients who are only cared for during the day and do not require hospital beds, or who have under- gone outpatient surgery. As these patients are divorced from the rest of the hospital activities, it is necessary to provide a separate entrance for them. Fig.H.S.56 outpatient surgery contains. Fig.H.S.55 day clinics visitors. health care centers Fig.H.S.59 operative day clinic planning. Fig.H.S.58 surgical day clinic planning. Fig.H.S.57 day clinic planning. The reception and waiting areas: must be de- signed to a standard equivalent to a doctor’s sur- gery and should be differentiated from the charac- ter of the hospital. Room schedules: are specified by the client; fire precautions and escape routes must comply to the hospital regulations and so should be discussed with the appropriate officials.Outpatient surger- ies for minor operations are becoming increasingly common. They can either be connected to existing hos- pitals or be completely independent clinics: both options seem to be developing in parallel. In a hospital, the outpatient surgery should be close to the emergency room and the surgical department. Supplies Areas For goods and materials which are required only by one department it is economic to provide a decentralized preparation/disposal unit (e.g. for surgical instruments and substerilisation , or for developing X-ray film in the X-ray diagnostic depart- ment). health care centers
  • 252 253 Means of transport In addition to the organisation of stores and the preparation of delivered and reused goods, there is the question of transportation. Multi purpose trolleys are frequently used for distributing the required items to each point of consumption and these can be used at the same time for storing equipment. ‘ In medium-size and large hospitals a vertical conveyor, with selective automated discharge, for distribution to the various storeys and return of used goods to the non-clean preparation zone is necessary in order to relieve personnel. A dispatch system using pneumatic tubes, for example, should be provided for sending small items such as drugs and notes. The scale of the transport system depends on the size of the institution: the supply and disposal requirement per bed per day is 30-35 kg. For large or heavy items: • beds, • respiration equipment, • heart and lung machines • conventional bed elevators are available. A fully automatic conveyor system can be used for transporting medium-size items e.g. : • food, • laundry, • refuse, • consumer goods in large hospitals. Central supply The advantages of collecting together all of the supplies functions on one supply/disposal level are uniform overall management, common stock control and the utilisation of the same transport systems. Centralisation also means there is a single point to which goods are delivered; from here, distribution and storage of goods can be controlled efficiently. For hygiene reasons it is important to separate clean and non-clean goods. This is a primary consid- eration when designing transport systems. Staff rooms In the supplies area, • changing and washrooms, • WCs, • cleaning rooms, s • torage rooms (for cleaning equipment) and rest rooms must be provided in the immediate vicinity of the goods inward/collection point. Sterilisation Since it is primarily items for the surgical depart- ment which are repared in the central sterilisation unit, the two should be situated close together. However, to meet immediate needs, the surgical department will have its own substerilisation facili- ties. The central store for drugs and instruments must be closely linked to the central sterilisation unit. Dispensary In institutions without a full pharmacy, medi- cation requiring approval is distributed from the dispensary.This consists of a work and dispensing room (25 m2) which is accessed directly from the main circulation corridor. It is fitted out with: • a desk, • washing facility, • sink, • weighing station • lockable cupboards. Fig.H.S.60 day clinic patients. health care centers Adjoining are • a dry store and proprietary medicines store (15 rn-), • a cold store (10 m2) for hazardous substances, • a dressing materials room • a damp store in accordance with fire regula- tions. When planning new buildings, it is recommend- ed that a full pharmacy be included in the design. The clinical, nursing and technical supply centre is located either in a separate supplies building or at a neutral supplies and disposal level under the main building. It is best to have a goods yard which is separated from the main and ambulance entrances. A north-facing orientation for this entrance is ideal. External and internal circulation routes must be co-ordinated so that overlaps with the routes used by the care and treatment areas are avoided. During the design stage, it must be remembered that this area of the hospital can create a great deal of noise (goods vehicles and machinery) and smells (refuse containers, kitchen waste etc.) and so should not be situated close to the nursing wing. The planning of the supplies area is arranged according to the medical departments of the hos- pitals. A detailed specification can only be devised after the detailed design of the nursing and treat- ment wings has been established. The increasing use of automation demands cooperation between the architects, specialist engi- neers and manufacturers in the design stages. A tendency towards greater centralisation is no- ticeable, the incentive being to keep investment at a minimum and to produce economies in staffing. As a result of this, in the case of small clinics, an inhouse main kitchen and laundry can be dispensed with: meals are delivered from a central kitchen and the laundry is managed by an external service organisation. Supplies Areas • Pharmacy In medium-size and large hospitals the phar- macy stocks prescriptions and carries out exami- nations under the management of an accredited pharmacist. In the design the following rooms are necessary: • dispensary, • materials room, • drug store, • laboratory • possibly, • an issue desk. Fig.H.S.61 general zoning. health care centers
  • 254 255 If necessary, also include • herb and dressing materials rooms, • demijohn and acid cellar, • a room in which night duty personnel can sleep. The dispensary and laboratory should contain • a prescription table, • a work table, • a packing table • a sink. The storage of inflammable liquids and acids, as well as various anaesthetics, means appropriate safety measures are stipulated for the walls, ceilings and doors. The pharmacy must be close to lifts and the pneumatic tube dispatch system. Fig.H.S.62.2 pharmacy general zoning. Fig.H.S.62.1 pharmacy general zoning. Central bed unit From the point of view of hygiene and economy, every hospital should contain a bed unit, in which the appropriate staff strip down, clean, disinfect and make up the beds. A complete bed change is required for new admissions, patients after 14 days as an inpatient, after operations and deliveries, as well as after serious soiling. The size of the bed unit depends on the number of nursing beds in the hospital: for about 500 inpa- tients a bed unit for 70 beds should be provided. The functional demarcation requires a clean and non-clean side, separated by the bed cleaning room, mattress disinfecting room and staff lobby. For carrying out repairs, a special workshop, ap- proximately 35 rn-’, should be situated in the close vicinity, as should the laundry and store for clean bedding, mattresses etc. health care centers If machines are to be used to clean the bed frames and mattresses, the specific requirements of the equipment must be taken into account at an early stage (e.g. demands for floor recesses, clear heights). Fig.H.S.64 Functional diagram of the supply center. Fig.H.S.63 functional diagram. Laundry provision Figures for the amount of dirty dry washing gen- erated per bed per day vary between 0.8 and 3.0kg. The following sequence of work is preferred in the laundry: • receipt, • sorting, • weighing, • washing, • spinning, • beating out, • mangling or drying (tumble dryer), • pressing (if possible high pressure steam con- nection), • ironing, • sewing, • storage, • The laundry hall consists of a sorting and weighing area (15 rn-’), • aundry collection room under laundry chutes from the wards, • wet working area (50 m-), • dry working area (60m2), • detergent store (10 rn-), • sewing room (10m2) • laundry store (15 m2). Meal provision Providing the patients with proper nutntion places high demands on food preparation since the required amounts of protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, fibre and flavourings often vary. The dominant food provision systems are those which rationalise the individual phases of conven- tional food preparation (preparatory work, health care centers
  • 256 257 making up, transporti ng, distribution). Preparation of normal food and special diets takes place separately. After preparation and cook- ing the meals are put together on the portioning line. The portioned trays are transported with the supply trolleys to the various stations for distribu- tion. The same trolleys are used to transport the used crockery back to the central washing up and trolley cleaning unit. Staff catering consists of about 40% of the total catering demand. The staff dining room should be close to the central kitchen. A division into separate rooms for domestic staff, nurses, clerical staff and doctors could be con- sidered in a large hospital but, again, for economic reasons, these rooms must be near to the main kitchen. For small and medium-size hospitals this type of division is not recommended. Fig.H.S.65 restaurant planning. Supplies Areas Central kitchen: Historically, kitchens were on the top floor to reduce the smell and noise. Today they are positioned on the same level as supplies to give an efficient working process: delivery, stor- age, preparation, making up and dispatch. When deep-frozen food is used, the set-up of the kitchen changes. The clear height: of the kitchen hall should be 4.00 m. The size: of the kitchen depends on the require- ments and number of patients in the hospital. In the main kitchen an area of 1.00m2 is need- ed per person. • A special-diet kitchen (60 m2 minimum) should also be planned, with a desk for the head chef, • a 30 m2 vegetable cleaning area and a 5m2 provision for waste disposal. • a daily supplies room (8m2), • a cold store with compartments for meat, • fish and dairy products (8 m2 each) and • a pre-cooling store (10m2) with a chest freezer and cooling unit. • The goods delivery area should be connected to administration and have • sufficient storage space (15-20 rn-’), • The main store should hold fruit and vegeta- bles (20m2), • dry goods (20m2) and tinned goods/pre- serves, and must be adjoining. Central washing-up unit: The central washing- up unit, adjacent to the central kitchen, stores and cleans the staff and patients’ dishes. Technical sup- plies: The technical service is responsible for tech- nical supplies and plays an increasingly important role as more automation is introduced. Tasks include • building maintenance, • domestic technology, • medical technology, • conveyor technology and administration. It should be noted that sanitary installations are the subject of rapid technical development. It is advantageous to have ring circuits for the horizontal supplies on each storey and rising sup- plies in separate ducts for vertical connections. The horizontal supply pipes should be installed in the voids above suspended ceilings to make subse- quent alterations easy. Water is treated centrally; only areas with health care centers higher quality requirements (pharmacy) have local water preparation (desalination, softening). Water consumption is calculated at 400-450 I of water per hospital bed per day, depending on the type and situation of the hospital. Note that waste water is subject to local regulations. Ventilation and gases: The ventilation equip- ment is best situated near to the open air. During planning, the horizontal and vertical ven- tilation ducts should be tested against technical fire protection criteria. It is necessary to provide medical gases for the surgical, intensive care and radiology departments, and special supply rooms are required. The pumps for: • oxygen, • carbon dioxide, • vacuum and compressed air should be duplicated so as to provide a backup in case of failure. An additional technical require- ment is an emergency electrical supply system. Central heating unit: Earlier systems, using a boiler room, required large basement areas k 100 m-’), generally on two storeys. Current heating systems are less area-intensive and district heating is particularly advantageous. Note that the surgical and intensive care de- partments must have a continuous heat supply so emergency systems must therefore be planned. The heating system and medical services sup- ply/emergency power unit may be accommodated in one large room. The layout requirements for ser- vices (water, electricity, gas etc.) and flues are laid down in regulations and these must be observed. Emergency escape doors must open outwards. If possible, the ‘heat store’ (and entry to it) should be situated underground, outside the build- ing. Note that there are building and heating room regulations which apply. Supplies Areas Fig.H.S.66.1 Supplies Areas planning. In recent years increasing use has been made of modern organisational models. The central organ- isation of individual supply and disposal areas al- leviates the problem of increasing staff shortages. Internal central supply routes are separated from the other traffic flows in the hospital and ex- ternal disruption is avoided, allowing optimum use of the transport system’s capacity. Computer simulation programs can show the architect efficient operational sequences (which can still be modified throughout the planning phase) and setting utilisation targets allows the space required in the supplies area to be minimised. health care centers
  • 258 259 General Areas • Administration rooms Rooms for administration should be connected by corridor to the entrance hall and be close to the main circulation routes. A uitable route to the supplies area must also be planned. Staffing per 100 occupied beds and 1000 patients (Germany. 1980-1995) The following requirements are based on a one hundred-bed occupancy level. In the administra- tive area, 7-12 m2 per member of staff should be planned. Rooms for dealings with patients and rela- tives need to be connected to • reception (entrance hall), • admissions and accounts (25m2). • Links to the casualty entrance are also impor- tant, and there should be at least • two reception areas (each 5m2) for demarca- tion before the main reception, • the cash-desk (12m2) and accounts (12m2). • Additional rooms needed include: an office for the • administrative director (20m2), • a secretarial room (10m2), • an administrators’ office (15m2, possibly in the supply area), • a nurses’ office (20m2), • a personnel office (25m2) • central archives (40m2, possibly in the base- ment with a link to the • administration department via stairs). • According to requirements, the plan should also provide: • Duty rooms for matron and • welfare workers, • a doctors’ staff room and consulting rooms, • a messenger room, • a medical records archive, • specialist and patients’ libraries, • and a hairdresser’s room (with two seats). The increasing rationalisation of accounts and the use ofelectronic systems and computers should be taken into consideration during planning (e.g. cableways in floors possibly, raised floors - central desk with tube post link etc.). • Main entrance General traffic goes only to the main entrance; for hygiene reasons (e.g. risk of infection), special entrances are to be shown separately. The entrance hall, on the basis of the open-door principle, should be designed as a waiting room for visitors. Today’s layouts are more like that of a mod- ern hotel foyer, having moved away from the typical hospital character. The size: of the hall depends on bed capacity and the expected number of visitors. Circulation routes: for • visitors, • patients • staff are separated from the hall onwards. The reception and telephone switchboard (12m2) are formed using counters, allowing staff to supervise more effectively. However, it must be Fig.H.S.69 entrance orientation health care centers Fig.H.S.68 Stuff diagram. possible to prevent public access from reception to inner areas and main staff circulation routes. The entrance hall should also contain pay phones and a kiosk selling tobacco, sweets, flowers and writing materials. • Casualty entrance A covered access road or closed hall overlooked by the administration department, but not visible from the main entrance, is preferred for incoming casualty patients. Short routes to outpatients, the surgical/X-ray departments and the wards should be planned and these must be free of general traffic. • An examination room for first aid (15m2), • a washroom (15m2), • an ante-room (10m2), • standing room for at least two stretchers, • a laundry store should be included in an area where they are accessible directly beyond the en- trance. Teaching and Research • Residential area The residential areas are, without exception, separated from the main hospital but reached via the access road for the entire site. The area is divided into residential homes, apartments and training schools. There must be sufficient parking spaces for vehicles belonging to the employees. In addition to nurses, residential homes for fe- male employees should also accommodate • female doctors, • assistant physicians, • auxiliary staff and students, if necessary. health care centers
  • 260 261 Bedsitting rooms should be designed uniformly as • single rooms with  a cupboard  wash-basin (16m2) or, preferably, with  a separate WC/shower area. The usual dimensions of the rooms are approxi- mately 4.60-4.75 m x 3.00-3.50 m. The storey height of standard residential build- ings is adequate. Opinions on the arrangement of kitchen units vary. • Previously the norm was 10-12 bedsitting rooms in a resi- dential group sharing a kitchen (6 rn-’), lounge (20 m-’). possibly a balcony, and a cleaning room (10m2). Today bedsitting rooms with an integrated cooking area and ensuite facilities are usual (see the sec- tion covering student halls of residence). Common rooms for all employees are one lounge (1.0 m2 per bedsitting room; 20 m2 minimum), connecting with a multipurpose room (20m2), a cloakroom, WCs, a laundry room (10 m2), a drying room (15 m2) and a storage room (30 m-’). Similar residential homes for male employees should be in the design unless the size of the hospital necessitates a common residen- tial home. • Apartments Doctors should be housed in two-room apart- ments (40 m2) in separate male and female resi- dential blocks. Three- and four-room apartments (70-90 m2) away from these blocks should also be planned for doctors, hospital administrators and house masters. Communal rooms may be arranged for doctors if necessary: library and reading room (25 rn-). Club room (35 m2). The proportion of apartments for doctors is currently growing smaller. • Training schools To provide practical experience, a specific area in close contact with the hospital is required for training medical students, teaching and research. Increasing student numbers are making greater demands on training schools. The following must be provided: • stores, • workshops, • experimental stations (pharmacy), • audiovisual facilities for video transmissions from the surgical department, possibly a separate cafeteria, lecture theatres (150-500 seats), • a library, • research and teaching laboratories, • practice rooms and office space. The number and size of all rooms depend on the scale and location of the institution. Fig.H.S 70 vertical section. • Experimental stations This is where all laboratory animals are kept and is an area of particular importance in university hospitals. The experimental station is connected to other laboratory areas by passenger and goods lift. Large additional areas must be planned for the breeding and keeping of animals. • Library Medical libraries should be designed as open- shelf libraries, with no closed stores and no require- ment for issuing books. A large part of the literature health care centers will be made up of periodicals. It is important to have an adequate number of reading tables with reading lamps, workstations with microfiche readers, slide viewers and typewrit- ers. It is advantageous if the library is connected to the small or medium-size transportation systems of the hospital. Fig.H.S 72 library planning. Fig.H.S 71 Experimental stations. OUTPATIENTS DEPARTMENT Accident and emer- gency (A&E): The accident and emergency department is for ambulant and bedridden patients and is accessed via the emergency entrance (note that the mini- mum vehicie headroom is 3.50 m). Clear signposting to the drive-in entrance is of life-saving importance for ambulance drivers. Fig.H.S 73.3 The accident and emergency planning. It is convenient to site this entrance on the op- posite side of the building to the main entrance to avoid contact with the visitors and other patients. The accident and emergency department con- sists of • emergency treatment rooms (20-25 m2) equipped with operating tables, • small operating lights, • cupboard units with sinks, • and patient cubicles. In addition, a plaster room with plastering bench and equipment and a shock treatment and health care centers
  • 262 263 recovery room must be available.Proximity to the surgical department is essential, even if a special in- tervention room for emergencies is included in the plan, and surgery and anaesthesia services should also be grouped nearby. • Casualty hospitals These are generally found only in cities and often also serve zrehabilitation purposes. Such auxiliary hospitals, with a welltrained surgical de- partment, are often accommodated in old general hospitals which have been moved to new buildings. • Maternity and Neonatal Care The maternity and neonatal department pro- vides continual physical, medical, psychological and social care for mothers and new babies follow- ing a hospital delivery. After uncomplicated births, the care of new mothers can be considered part of normal care. However, new mothers with highly in- fectious diseases, such as typhoid, TB and hepatitis, need to be housed in an isolation care ward. Where vital functions are disrupted, provision should be made for easy transfer to the intensive care ward. Neonates with infections or respira- tory difficulties (e.g. premature babies) have to be transferred to special departments or the nearest children’s hospital. The division of maternity care is the same as for normal care: basic care, treatment care, patient care, administration and supply. Organisation of the processes with the options of ward care, group care or individual care are also the same as for normal care. With centralised neonatal provision, the care unit for neonates is located at the side of or within the maternity care unit. To reduce infection, the area is divided into small rooms or compartments. Neonates are carried into the mother’s room on trolleys or by hand for breast feeding. This achieves more frequent and more intensive contact between mother and child than in previous designs with central feeding rooms. Accommodating mothers and neonates in one room (‘rooming in’) means the infants do not need to be moved, which thus relieves the staff, but requires uneconomic local neonatal provision. De- spite this, it has become standard practice in some hospitals. Fig.H.S 75.The maternity and neonatal health care centers Facilities and size of care units They are generally smaller than the units in normal care areas. Smaller wards are preferable because they are easier to control in terms of hygiene (less movement of staff and visitors) so it is advisable to limit the size per care unit to 10-14 bed spaces. The functions may be divided into: care of healthy mothers, care of healthy neonates, care of special neonates (e.g. premature babies) and incidental functions. For hygiene reasons, higher demands are to be made on maternal and neonatal care than on normal care. Therefore, a visitors’ lobby and cloak- room area must be provided in addition to the usual system of demarcation. The bed space can be planned as in normal care but the bed spacing must be increased to allow space for a baby’s crib next to the beds. Sit-bath/shower combinations and show- ers must be provided in the sanitary zones where mothers should not take full baths in tubs. The neonatal care units comprise: bed spaces for neonates, undressing/dressing areas, baby bathing, weighing point, children’s nurses’ duty sta- tion and, possibly, a trolley standing area. A special neonatal care unit with isolated beds and care points should be provided for babies with pathogenic conditions. The fol- lowing elements or rooms are also to be included in an incidental function area: duty station for the ward sister, nurses’ lounge, kitchenette, doctors’ offices, examination and treatment room, clean workroom, patient bathroom, day- rooms for patients and visitors, storage space for equipment and cleaning materials, staff and visitors’ WCs, linen cupboards and a room for consultation with rela- tives. Mortuary, Pathology, Service Yard • Mortuary, pathology The mortuary of a hospital contains storage rooms and post-mortem rooms. Specifically, there must be a coffin store, refrigerated storage for corpses, an area for laying out and undertakers, and changing facilities for pathologists. As an indepen- dent hospital department it should be so planned as to have access by a short route to a group of lifts (to the nursing stations). The entrance must be clearly marked for the relatives and there should be a short drive-in entry point for the undertakers. Depending on the size of the hospital, this area can be extended with the addition of a laboratory and an archive. Fig.H.S 76.4 The mortuary planning. health care centers
  • 264 265 SPECIAL HOSPITALS Hospitals specialising in specific medical fields are becoming increasingly important. They require a far more space-intensive general arrangement and this leaves the planner facing extra demands. It is vital to have ongoing cooperation between the architect, medical engineers and the doctors/ nurses who will be working in the hospital.Special hospitals cover medical disciplines such as specific surgical procedures, a range of therapies, psychiatry and paediatrics. There has been a proportionate increase in the number of clinics for treating allergies, skin com- plaints and lung diseases. Fig.H.S 81.1 Hospitals specialising planning. Fig.H.S 80.2 Hospitals specialising planning. Fig.H.S 80.1 Hospitals specialising planning.jpg Fig.H.S 79.2 Hospitals specialising planning. Fig.H.S 78 Hospitals specialising planning. Fig.H.S 77 Hospitals specialising planning. health care centers Fig.H.S 81.4 Hospitals specialising planning. Fig.H.S 81.3 Hospitals specialising planning. SPECIAL CARE AREA SAFETY • Infants and children The patients generally found in special children’s hospitals may be categorised as follows: infants (35%) and premature babies (13%), small children and schoolchildren up to the age of 14 (22%), and groups of all ages with infectious diseases (22%). In such areas, contact between the patients and other patients/staff should be avoided as far as possible. Windows, heaters and electrical apparatus must be secured in such a way that children cannot be put at risk. Rooms for teaching, entertainment and play should be similarly fitted out. Isolation wards must be provided for measles, chickenpox, diphtheria, scarlet fever and TB. The walls must withstand washing and disinfecting below a height of 1.50m and the design should as far as possible resemble a kindergarten rather than a clinical area. • Care of patients receiving radiotherapy When planning a care area using nuclear medi- cine for patients needing radiotherapy, the provi- sions of radiation protection regulations must be observed. The size of such care groups should be similar to that of a normal care group. The opera- tions centre is divided into a control area and a supervision area. In this way, patients whose bodies have received the greatest radiation doses are sep- arated from those who have received less. Patients should therefore be accommodated primarily in one-bed rooms.Care of the mentally ill The variable nature of mental illness results in a requirement for open and closed wards (for those in need of slight care and those who are seriously ill and possibly violent). The two types need to be accommodated when planning and setting up care units. Large areas are required for day-rooms, dining rooms and rooms for occupa- tional and group therapy, because patients are not confined to bed. Small care units (up to 25 patients) should have short circulation routes and provide good observation points for nursing staff. A homely design should always be used to give patients a feeling of well-being. There is a trend towards inte- grating wards for the mentally ill into general hospitals to prevent these patients be- coming institutionalised. health care centers
  • 266 267 Similar projects: Examples 1:Sheikh Khalifa Medical City in Abu Dhabi: Fig.H.A 84 exterior shot 1. Architects: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP Location: Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Project Area: 2.5 million SF Building Height: 57m Overview: Saif Bader Al Qubaisi, Chairman of Abu Dhabi Health Services (SEHA), has unveiled plans for the new three-million-square-foot, 838- bed Sheikh Khalifa Medical City (SKMC). The new complex, designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM) in a joint venture with ICME and Tilke, will replace the existing Sheikh Khalifa Medical City and provide expanded medical, pediatric, and trauma care for the residents of Abu Dhabi. Mustafa K. Abadan, Design Partner for the project, says “The new Sheikh Khalifa Medical City balances the technical demands of a world-class medical center with the psychological well being of its visitors. The design allows for the flexible inte- gration of next generation medical technologies, while the incorporation of amenities, such as trees and hanging gardens coupled with restaurants and retail, provides tranquility, relief and a sense of nor- malcy for patients and their families.” With construction scheduled to start in 2013, Sheikh Khalifa Medical City will combine a gen- eral hospital with a level-one trauma center and women’s and pediatric hospitals. Given the massive scale of this project, creating a hospitable sense of character and overall unity for the entire facil- ity – while conveying a sense of identity for each individual hospital – is one of the primary design challenges. Envisioned as a “city within a city,” the design endeavors to create a new paradigm for a medical center, one that is more like a bustling campus, with vibrant public spaces and a sense of community. Informed by historical regional precedents, the design seeks to strike a balance as a state-of-the-art vision rooted in local heritage. The design responds health care centers Fig.H.A 88 interior shot 2.Fig.H.A 87 interior shot 1. Fig.H.A 86 exterior shot 3. Fig.H.A 85 exterior shot 2. to, and is respectful of, the unique culture of the UAE and its demanding desert climate. The primary architectural challenge of the project was to balance the client’s desire to create distinct identities for each of the three hospitals, while maintaining an overall unified expression for the medi- cal city. This was achieved by developing a series of unifying and differentiating components. The medi- cal city’s heavy stone plinth – a reference to the ancient architecture of the region – serves as a common pedestrian-scaled expression, within which the most intense medical functions will be found along with shared amenity spaces and light-filled courtyards. The roof of the plinth is home to a network of gardens that also serves to unify the bed towers that rise above. The architecture of the bed towers communicates the identity of each hospital within a common vocabulary. The exterior sun screens, which characterize the bed tower facades, will vary from the simple rhythm of the general hospital to playful colors and patterns of the children’s hospital to the intricate mashrabiya-inspired geometries of the women’s hospital. health care centers
  • 268 269 Fig.H.A 100 Ground plan zoning. health care centers Fig.H.A 101 frequent plan zoning. health care centers
  • 270 271 Fig.H.A 102 Ground plan circulation. health care centers Fig.H.A 103 entrances. health care centers
  • 272 273 Fig.H.A 95 Vertical layers.Fig.H.A 91 interior shot 5. Fig.H.A 90 interior shot 4.Fig.H.A 89 interior shot 3. Fig.H.A 105 wall details 2.Fig.H.A 104 wall details 1. health care centers Fig.H.A 98 Vertical layers green roof.Fig.H.A 97 Vertical layers roof. Fig.H.A 96 Vertical layers stairs.Fig.H.A 94 interior shot 8. Fig.H.A 93 interior shot 7. Fig.H.A 92 interior shot 6. health care centers
  • 274 275 Fig.H.A 99 layout. health care centers Examples 2:Sant Joan de Déu de Manresa Architects: Estudi PSP Arquitectura, SCP. Location: Carrer del Doctor Joan Soler, Man- resa, Spain Architect In Charge: Jaume Espinal Farré, Joan Ribera Mestres Project Year: 2010 Project Area: 39928.0 sqm Photographs: Courtesy of Ute Bages Sanitària Overview : This is the first phase of the expansion executed of Hospital San Joan de Déu de Manresa (ALTHAIA). The basic project was drawn up for the entire ex- pansion. Formally, the new building is conceived as a set that suits the overall topography of the land that has a difference in elevation between the extremes of over 20 m, proposing as the existing building, central plant access and outreach activities among hospitalization and outpatient clinic, some higher floors for hospitalization, and a few floors below for external ambulatory activity in acute activity support and services. Volumetrically, if the current building reads like a comb, the new building will also follow this pattern, but rotated 90 degrees to fit the topography, the best overall approach to the available plot, and also the morphology of growth of the buildings in the city, so that now the new building is no longer an isolated building in the middle of the field, and adapt to the alignment of the front facade of the Passeig de Sta. Clara. Conceptually, the use of “the rhythm of light” as a model of composition, has been the approach to be followed in concluding the new building. Right from the entrance hall, large triple height volume includes entries for hospitalization, external con- sultation and emergency, covered with a skylight lamellae, gives the first reading of “light” will be the order of all the compositional system of the new building, and can also have a second reading relating to the natural healing virtues of this light. From here, the layout of each of the services that will have the new building is organized in an orderly and scheduled the environment along the quad that you can start looking from the entrances, and accompanying professional users over different services and facilities. Fig.H.A 106 Exterior shot 1. health care centers
  • 276 277 Fig.H.A 113 Ground floor. Fig.H.A 112 interior shot 3.Fig.H.A 111 interior shot 2. health care centers Fig.H.A 114 1 st floor plan. Fig.H.A 110 interior shot 1.Fig.H.A 109 Exterior shot 4. health care centers
  • 278 279 Fig.H.A 116 3 st floor plan. Fig.H.A 115 2 st floor plan. health care centers Fig.H.A 118 1 st floor plan. Fig.H.A 117 4 st floor plan. health care centers
  • 280 281 Fig.H.A 120 2 st floor plan. Fig.H.A 119 2 st floor plan. health care centers Fig.H.A 122 2 st floor plan. Fig.H.A 121 2 st floor plan. health care centers
  • 282 283 Fig.H.A 124 horizontal section. Fig.H.A 123 2 st floor plan. health care centers Exterior shot Exterior shot health care centers
  • 284 285 project sammery Fig.H.A 142 general zoning hospital. health care centers History of Scientific Research: Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable ex- planations and predictions about the universe. In an older and closely related meaning, «science» re- fers to the body of reliable knowledge itself, of the type that can be logically and rationally explained.In modern use, “science” more often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, not only the knowledge it- self. It is “often treated as synonymous with ‘natural and physical science’, and thus restricted to those branches of study that relate to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws, sometimes with implied exclusion of pure mathematics. This is now the dominant sense in ordinary use.  This narrower sense of “science” developed as scientists such as Johannes Kepler, Galileo Gali- lei and Isaac Newton began formulating laws of nature such as Newton›s laws of motion. In this period it became more common to refer to natural philosophy as «natural science». Over the course of the 19th century, the word «science» became increasingly associated with the scientific method, a disciplined way to study the natural world, includ- ing physics, chemistry, geology and biology. It is in the 19th century also that the term scientist was created by the naturalist-theologian William Whewell to distinguish those who sought knowl- edge on nature from those who sought knowledge on other disciplines. The Oxford English Diction- ary dates the origin of the word “scientist” to 1834. This sometimes left the study of human thought and society in a linguistic limbo, which was resolved by classifying these areas of academic study as so- cial science. Similarly, several other major areas of disciplined study and knowledge exist today under the general rubric of «science», such as formal sci- ence and applied science. As symbols of the Nation’s technological prog- ress, research facilities are essential to the discov- eries and breakthroughs of yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Thousands of public and private sector scientists and engineers from industries such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, manufacturing, and biotechnology use all types of laboratories and instruments to advance the frontiers of knowledge. At times, an entire facility may be built to support the specialized instruments required for research, including accelerators, light sources, research reac- Laps. history Users important factors types design guidelines similar projects tors, neutron beam facilities, plasma, fusion science facilities, genome centers, advanced computational centers, wind tunnels, model testing facilities, hot cells, and launch facilities. There are many kinds of research facilities. Within the WBDG they are divided into two major groups: Animal Research Facilities and Research Laboratories. Research Laboratories are further cat- egorized by type (e.g., wet labs and dry labs), and by sectors (e.g., academic, corporate, and govern- ment labs). Early labs, such as Thomas Edison’s facility in Fort Myers, Florida, were simple work areas, with basic casework and straightforward operational procedures. Technology was limited, and there was little equipment to support the research. The first major shift in laboratory design in the 1960s, with the development of interstitial space at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California. Jonas Salk led the effort to create the first laboratory facility that encouraged change, allowing scientists to design spaces that were appropriate for their research. Fig.R.H.1 History of Scientific Research. Acadimic laps
  • 286 287 We are now witnessing the next major shift in laboratory design. The three key drivers of this change are the development of the competitive global marketplace, the move toward team-based research, and the use of computer technology to accelerate the research process. USERS : Acadimic laps Research Laboratory: • Definition: • A laboratory is a facility that provides con- trolled conditions in which scientific research, ex- periments, and measurement may be performed.  • Research Laboratories are workplaces for the conduct of scientific research. • BUILDING ATTRIBUTES: • A. Architectural Considerations Over the past 30 years, architects, engineers, facility managers, and researchers have refined the design of typical wet and dry labs to a very high level. The following identifies the best solutions in designing a typical lab. • Lab Planning Module: The laboratory module is the key unit in any lab facility. When designed correctly, a lab module will fully coordinate all the architectural and engineer- ing systems. A well-designed modular plan will provide the following benefits: • Flexibility: The lab module, as Jonas Salk explained, should “encourage change” within the building. Research is changing all the time and buildings must allow for reasonable change. Many private research companies make physical changes to an average of 25% of their labs each year. Most academic institutions annually change the layout of 5 to 10% of their labs • Expansion: The use of lab planning modules allows the building to adapt easily to needed ex- pansions or contractions without sacrificing facility functionality. • Basic Lab Module: A common laboratory module has a width of approximately 10’ 6” but will vary in depth from 20’ to 33’. The depth is based on the size necessary for the lab and the cost-effectiveness of the structural system. The 10’ 6” dimension is based on two rows of casework and equipment (each row 2’ 6” deep) on each wall, a 5’ aisle, and 6” for the wall thickness that separates one lab from another. The 5’ aisle width should be considered a minimum because of the requirements of the Americans with Disabili- ties Act (ADA) and to allow one researcher to pass another without interference. The 6” wall thickness should also be maintained for all walls between labs, whether the walls are built during initial con- struction or may be added later during renovation. • Two-Directional Module: Another level of flexibility can be achieved by designing a lab module that works in both direc- tions. Employing the common width of 10’ 6” and a depth of either 21’ (2 modules at 10’ 6”) or 31’ 6” (3 modules at 10’ 6”) allows the casework to be organized in either direction. This concept is more user-friendly than the basic lab module concept but may require more space. The use of a two-directional grid is beneficial to accommodate different lengths of run for casework. The casework may have to be moved to create a different type or size of workstation. Many times it is helpful to have movable casework, which lets re- searchers rearrange the casework to accommodate the particular research their team is doing. Utility drops, if necessary, should occur at the intersection of the 10’ 6” modules. Fig.R.S.2 Lab plan. Acadimic laps
  • 288 289 Fig.R.S.4 Lab planning. Fig.R.S.3 Lab section. • Three-Dimensional Lab Module: The three-dimensional lab module planning concept combines the basic lab module or a two-di- rectional lab module with any lab corridor arrange- ment for each floor of a building. This means that a three-dimensional lab module can have a single- corridor arrangement on one floor, a two-corridor layout on another, and so on. To create a three-dimensional lab module: 1. A basic or two-directional lab module must be defined. 2. All vertical risers must be fully coordinated (vertical risers include fire stairs, elevators, rest- rooms, and shafts for utilities). 3. The mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems must be coordinated in the ceiling to work with the multiple-corridor arrangements. Focus- ing on a building three-dimensionally allows the designer to be more responsive to the program needs of the researchers and faculty on each floor. A three-dimensional design permits the corridor arrangement on any floor to be easily changed, facilitating renovations. This approach is highly rec- ommended for most facilities, but it requires much more thought and coordination in the initial design. Fig.R.S.5 vertical Lab section. • Lab Planning Concepts: The relationship of the labs, offices, and corri- dor will have a significant impact on the image and operations of the building. • Do the end users want a view from their labs to the exterior, or will the labs be located on the Acadimic laps interior, with wall space used for casework and equipment? • Some researchers do not want or cannot have natural light in their research spaces. Special instru- ments and equipment, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) apparatus, electron microscopes, and lasers cannot function properly in natural light. Natural daylight is not desired in vivarium facilities or in some support spaces, so these are located in the interior of the building. • Zoning the building between lab and non-lab spaces will reduce costs. Labs require 100% outside air while non-lab spaces can be designed with re- circulated air, like an office building. • Adjacencies with corridors can be organized with a single, two corridor (racetrack), or a three corridor scheme. There are number of variations to organize each type. Illustrated below are three ways to organize a single corridor scheme: Fig.R.S.6.3 Building Systems Distribution Concepts. • Interstitial Space An interstitial space is a separate floor located above each lab floor. All services and utilities are located here where they drop down to service the lab below. This system has a high initial cost but it allows the building to accommodate change very easily without interrupting the labs. • Conventional design (Service Corridor): Lab spaces adjoin a centrally located corridor where all utility services are located. Maintenance personnel are afforded constant access to main ducts, shutoff valves, and electric panel boxes with- out having to enter the lab. This service corridor can be doubled up as an equipment/utility corridor where common lab equipment like autoclaves, freezer rooms, etc. can be located. • Basic Engineering Considerations: Typically, more than 50% of the construction cost of a laboratory building is attributed to engi- neering systems. Hence, the close coordination of these ensures a flexible and successfully operating lab facility. The following engineering issues are discussed here: structural systems, mechanical sys- tems, electrical systems, and piping systems. • Structural Systems: - Once the basic lab module is determined, the structural grid should be evaluated. In most cases, the structural grid equals 2 basic lab modules. If the typical module is 10 ft. 6 in. x 30 ft., the structural grid would be 21 ft. x 30 ft. A good rule of thumb is to add the two dimensions of the structural grid; if the sum equals a number in the low 50’s, then the Fig.R.S.7 Conventional design vs. interstitial design. Acadimic laps
  • 290 291 structural grid would be efficient and cost-effec- tive.. Fig.R.S.8 Typical lab structural grid. • Key design issues to consider in evaluating a structural system include: • Framing depth and effect on floor-to-floor height • Ability to coordinate framing with lab modules • Ability to create penetrations for lab services in the initial design as well as over the life of the building • Potential for vertical or horizontal expansion • Vibration criteria; and Cost. • Mechanical Systems: The location of main vertical supply/exhaust shafts as well as horizontal ductwork is very crucial in designing a flexible lab. Key issues to consider include: • Efficiency and flexibility. • Modular design • Initial costs. • Long-term operational cost. • Building height and massing. • Design image. Fig.R.S.9 The various design options for the mechanical sys- tems are illustrated below. • Electrical Systems: Three types of power are generally used for most laboratory projects: • Normal power circuits are connected to the utility supply only, without any backup system. Loads that are typically on normal power include some HVAC equipment, general lighting, and most lab equipment. • Emergency power is created with generators that will back up equipment such as refrigerators, freezers, fume hoods, biological safety cabinets, emergency lighting, exhaust fans, animal facili- ties, and environmental rooms. Examples of safe and efficient emergency power equipment include distributed energy resources (DER), microturbines, and fuel cells. • An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is used for data recording, certain computers, micro- processor-controlled equipment, and possibly the vivarium area. The UPS can be either a central unit or a portable system, such as distributed energy re- sources (DER), microturbines, fuel cells, and build- ing integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). Key issues to consider include: • Load estimation. • Site distribution. • Power quality. Acadimic laps • Management of electrical cable trays/panel boxes. • Lighting design. • User expectations. • Illumination levels. • Uniformity. • Lighting distribution—indirect, direct, combi- nation. • Luminaire location and orientation—lighting parallel to casework and lighting. perpendicular to casework. • Telephone and data systems. • Piping Systems There are several key design goals to strive for in designing laboratory piping systems: • Provide a flexible design that allows for easy renovation and modifications. • Provide appropriate plumbing systems for each laboratory based on the lab programming. • Provide systems that minimize energy usage. • Provide equipment arrangements that mini- mize downtime in the event of a failure. • Locate shutoff valves where they are acces- sible and easily understood. • Accomplish all of the preceding goals within the construction budget. • Operations and Maintenance: Cost Savings The following cost saving items can be considered without compromising quality and flexibility: • Separate lab and non-lab zones. • Try to design with standard building compo- nents instead of customized components. See also WBDG Functional—Ensure Appropriate Product/ Systems Integration. • Identify at least three manufacturers of each material or piece of equipment specified to ensure competitive bidding for the work. • Locate fume hoods on upper floors to mini- mize ductwork and the cost of moving air through the building. • Evaluate whether process piping should be handled centrally or locally. In many cases it is more cost-effective to locate gases, in cylinders, at the source in the lab instead of centrally. • Create equipment zones to minimize the amount of casework necessary in the initial con- struction. • Provide space for equipment (e.g., ice ma- chine) that also can be shared with other labs in the entry alcove to the lab. Shared amenities can be more efficient and cost-effective. • Consider designating instrument rooms as cross-corridors, saving space as well as encouraging researchers to share equipment. • Design easy-to-maintain, energy-efficient building systems. Expose mechanical, plumbing, and electrical systems for easy maintenance access from the lab. • Locate all mechanical equipment centrally, either on a lower level of the building or on the penthouse level. • Stack vertical elements above each other without requiring transfers from floor to floor. Such elements include columns, stairs, mechanical clos- ets, and restrooms. • Lab and Personnel Safety and Security: - Protecting human health and life is para- mount, and safety must always be the first concern in laboratory building design. Security—protecting a facility from unauthorized access—is also of criti- cal importance. Today, research facility designers must work within the dense regulatory environ- ment in order to create safe and productive lab spaces. The WBDG Resource Page on Security and Safety in Laboratories addresses all these related concerns, including: • Laboratory classifications: dependent on the amount and type of chemicals in the lab; • Containment devices: fume hoods and bio- safety cabinets; • Levels of bio-safety containment as a design principle; • Radiation safety; • Employee safety: showers, eyewashes, other protective measures; and Acadimic laps
  • 292 293 • Emergency power. • Sustainability Considerations: The typical laboratory uses far more energy and water per square foot than the typical office building due to intensive ventilation requirements and other health and safety concerns. Therefore, designers should strive to create sustainable, high performance, and low-energy laboratories that will: • Minimize overall environmental impacts; • Protect occupant safety; and • Optimize whole building efficiency on a life- cycle basis. • Three Laboratory Sectors: - There are three research laboratory sectors. They are academic laboratories, government labo- ratories, and private sector laboratories. Academic labs: are primarily teaching facilities but also include some research labs that engage in public interest or profit generating research. Government labs: include those run by federal agencies and those operated by state government do research in the public interest. Design of labs for the private sector: run by cor- porations, is usually driven by the need to enhance the research operation’s profit making potential. • Academic labs : Academic laboratories include both research and teaching labs. Academic research labs can be very similar to those of the private and government sectors; teaching labs are unique to the academic sector. • Building Attributes: • Types of Spaces: An academic laboratory incorporates a number of space types to meet the needs of the students, teachers, faculty, staff, and visitors. These may include: • Laboratory: The Dry Laboratory space type is a laboratory space that is specific to work with dry stored ma- terials, electronics, and/or large instruments with few piped services. The laboratories defined by this space type are analytical laboratories that may require accurate temperature and humidity control, dust control, and clean power. • Space Attributes: Dry laboratory space types are designed to accommodate project-specific work patterns and scientific equipment. • Functional / Operational Constant and Reliable Temperature and Hu- midity: As some equipment and experiments are temperature- and humidity-sensitive, constant con- ditions are required in Dry Laboratory spaces to en- sure that equipment can perform properly and that experiments produce accurate results. Laboratories are usually supplied with variable volume terminal reheat system with pre-filters and after-filters for 90% efficiency. In general, laboratory spaces have positive pressure relative to other spaces with no return air from the laboratory to the other spaces. Durable/Flexible/Mobile Casework: As working conditions will often change due to new projects and equipment, dry laboratories are usually fitted with mobile casework to allow for flexibility in the floor plan. This casework is generally a pre-man- ufactured laboratory metal casework system with cantilever support off of central service chase sys- tem. Counters are typically a plastic laminate with integral splash. The chase system has metal channel support with a horizontal distribution of wiring. Reliable, Easy to Access, Wiring System: Due to the flexible nature of the Dry Laboratory, the distribution of critical wiring (power, voice data, and HVAC) should be clearly laid out, and easy to access and redirect. Thus, a raised floor system is the recommended system of distribution of critical services for this space type. Secure / SafeFire and Life Safety: All Laboratory spaces typically will contain a hand-held chemical emergency fire extinguisher in an emergency equip- ment cabinet. There is generally one fire alarm pull station by each egress point and an audible and visible (strobe) alarm in each occupiable space (not including closets, storage rooms, or coat racks). Acadimic laps • Sustainable Laboratory: Wet Laboratory space types are defined as laboratories where chemicals, drugs, or other material or biological matter are tested and analyzed requiring water, direct ventilation, and specialized piped utilities. Space Attributes: Wet Laboratory space types are unique in that they must accommodate simulta- neous and separate ventilation and utility connec- tions at individual lab modules to ensure both the reliability and accuracy of results as well as occu- pant safety throughout the space. • Aesthetics Surfaces: Resilient surfaces are an integral part of the Wet Laboratory space type design. Use epoxy paint for lab walls and monolithic, seamless, chemi- cal-resistant vinyl flooring with integral coved based and mylar finish. • Functional / Operational Separate Laboratory Modules: A Wet Lab space is typically divided into separate laboratory mod- ules that contain individually controlled connec- tions to HVAC, utilities and safety devices. Modules are defined spatially by floor-to-ceiling structural slab with under-floor plenum divider. Constant and Reliable HVAC: As some equip- ment and experiments are temperature- and hu- midity-sensitive, constant conditions are required in Wet Laboratory spaces to ensure that equipment can perform properly and that experiments pro- duce accurate results. Laboratories are usually sup- plied with variable volume, terminal reheat system with pre-filters and after-filters for 90% efficiency. In general, laboratory spaces have positive pressure relative to other spaces with no return air from the laboratory to the other spaces. Gas/Utility Services: Utility connections in Wet Laboratory space types can include vacuum, pneu- matic supply, natural gas, O2 and CO2, and distilled water. The fittings and connections for each module are connected to the building distribution system for six nominal piping systems. Fume Hoods: Design Wet Laboratory space types to accommodate one 6’-0” chemical fume hood for each laboratory module, and provide direct 100% exhaust. It is also typical of this space type to include an acid and corrosives vented stor- age cabinet located under the fume hood, as well storage for emergency equipment. • Fire and Life Safety: All Laboratory spaces should contain a hand- held chemical emergency fire extinguisher in an emergency equipment cabinet. There is generally one fire alarm pull station by each egress point and an audible and visible (strobe) alarm in each occupi- able space (not including closets, storage rooms, or coat racks). Also include toxic gas monitors in each lab module and a gas storage area with audio and visual (strobe) alarms both inside and outside the lab. Eyewash and deluge shower should be located at each module quad. • Conference / Classroom: For academic labs, the passive, front-facing lec- ture/ discussion room is becoming obsolete, yield- ing to the team-based interactive learning theatre where everyone can see the faces and hear the words of all in the room and those connected by the web. At Wallenberg Hall at Stanford University, there is no fixed furniture and the space can serve formal presentations, dynamic team based activi- ties and support virtual concerts. Rooms like this are designed to allow small teams to work together in addition to dynamic full room discussions. So- phisticated audio speakers and microphones, image capture cameras and immediate digital connections to science communities around the world are the norm. In medium-to-large lecture rooms, triple projector screens are common with combination rear projection and or flat panel monitor systems often served by multiple computers with a single wireless control for the lights, blackout screens, and electronic media. These environments allow a view of the audience with the room fully illuminated; a view of the remote location; and a view of the information being shared in any combination, while capturing the entire event for future use. • Auditorium: The Auditorium space types are areas for large meetings, presentations, and performances. Audi- torium space type facilities may include assembly halls, exhibit halls, auditoriums, and theaters. Audi- torium space types do not include such features as sound reinforcement systems, audiovisual systems and projection screens, food service facilities, pro- scenium stages. Acadimic laps
  • 294 295 • Office • Library • Automated Data Processing: Mainframe • Automated Data Processing: PC System • General Storage • Light Industrial • Loading Dock • Lobby • Undergraduate Teaching Labs: Teaching laboratories differ from research labs in a number of ways. Because instruction occurs in them, a specific bench or lectern for the lecturer may be required. Benches are oriented toward the pro- fessor and the marker boards. Computer equipment, such as electronic cameras, computer boards, and Elmos (overhead projectors tied into a computer), enhances the learning environment. Casework is usu- ally fixed around the perimeter, though many teaching labs have mobile casework in the middle to allow lectures and research to occur in the same space. To increase utilization, casework is installed in a way that allows for different teaching environments and for multiple classes to be taught in the same space. Storage for student microscopes, book bags, and coats is necessary for most teaching labs. The number of students typically enrolled in a course usually determines the size of the teaching lab used for that course. A typical lab module of 10’ 6” x 30’(320 net square feet [NSF]) may support four to six students. Fig.R.S.10 typical lab module. Depending on the discipline and number of students, shared bench space can range from 15 to 30 linear ft per teaching laboratory, is usually configured as perimeter wall bench or center island bench, and is used for benchtop instruments, exhib- iting displays, or distributing glass materials. Ten to 20 linear ft of wall space per lab should be left available for storage cabinets, as well as for built-in and movable equipment such as refrigerators and incubators. The flexibility of the furniture encourages a variety of teaching and learning scenarios. The additional cost of flexible furniture is offset by the Acadimic laps amount of space saved by eliminating the require- ment for separate sit-down and stand-up worksta- tions. Fume hoods shared by two students should be at least 6 ft wide. The distance between student workbenches and fume hoods should be minimized to lessen the possibility of chemical spills. • Integrating Teaching and Research Labs: As the need for flexibility has grown and as sci- ence instruction, even at the undergraduate level, more and more focuses on hands-on experience, the traditional distinction between teaching and research labs becomes less important. The greatest variances between teaching and research labs are space allocation • Academic Lab Design Requirements: Requirements differ widely according to the kind of lab being designed. Academic labs include the following categories: • Biology labs • Physics labs • Chemistry labs • Engineering labs • Geology labs • Computer science labs Fig.R.S.13 Integrating Teaching and Research Labs. Fig.R.S.12 Integrating Teaching and Research Labs. Fig.R.S.11 Integrating Teaching and Research Labs. • Biology labs: Biology Labs are wet labs requiring the follow- ing: • Layout and equipment to serve a variety of teaching models • Fume hoods and biosafety cabinets • Space for incubators, refrigerators, and • freezers of various sizes • Bench and storage space for • equipment and student materials • High-quality water at the sink • Cabinets for chemical and flammables Acadimic laps
  • 296 297 • storage • Adjacent prep, storage, and equipment • supply to support efficient use of the • teaching lab Biology labs should be flexible enough to ac- commodate anatomy, biochemistry, general biol- ogy, microbiology, cellular biology, and molecular genetics. Support spaces for biology labs include vivarium facilities, greenhouses, tissue culture areas, environmental rooms, incubators, growth chambers, glass washing areas, darkroom areas, instrument rooms, storage, and shops. Plant and animal specimen storage and display rooms should be located in close proximity to the biology teach- ing labs. • Physics labs: Physics labs require significant computer and telecommunications support. The key design issues for physics labs include the following: • Layout and equipment to serve a variety of teaching models. • Noise and vibration control for • accurate measurements • Magnetic shielding • Extensive electrical power • requirements • Durable and mobile casework • Extensive computer networking • Flexible workspace • Storage on shelves or in cabinets for • experiment “kits” in small containers Some physics labs are dry labs that do not require 100 percent outside air. There is minimal need for fume hoods. Labs with specialized require- ments include workshops for optics, metalwork- ing and electronics, high bay pilot and equipment areas, isotope labs, and equipment storage. Physics labs require storage rooms for large equipment. Mobile carts may be used to move equipment between labs and storage. Floor loads may be higher than in most other labs. Fig.R.S.16 Chemistry labs. Fig.R.S.15 Physics labs. Fig.R.S.14 Biology labs. • Chemistry labs: Areas to focus on in designing teaching labs for chemistry include the following: • Layout and equipment to serve a variety of teaching models • Adequate bench space for equipment and instrumentation • Under-hood or under-bench storage for stu- Acadimic laps dent experiments • Large number of fume hoods along perimeter walls • Write-up areas for documenting research experiences Synthetic chemistry (organic and inorganic) labs generally require 3 linear ft of fume hood for each student. Adjacent prep, storage, equipment, and chemical and glassware supply areas help to sup- port efficient use of the teaching lab. inorganic) labs generally require 3 linear ft of fume hood for each student. Adjacent prep, storage, equipment, and chemical and glassware supply areas help to sup- port efficient use of the teaching lab. Instrument labs often have split benches and flexible utility service carriers for unique equipment needs. Chem- istry labs are wet labs requiring piped gases, heavy electrical and data infrastructure for instruments, and 100 percent outside air ventilation. Chemistry support and research areas include gas chromatog- raphy labs, mass spectroscopy, NMR apparatus, and imaging. • Engineering labs: Engineering labs are typically like large work- shops, often requiring custom-made setups or provisions for equipment that may be too tall for a standard lab ceiling. The labs are usually open, with little fixed case- work; utility services are located along the wall and overhead. The following are key characteristics of engineering labs: • Flexible open space for large equipment • A greater volume of space for tall apparatus • Overhead cranes to move large and/or heavy equipment • Heavy floor loads (may require locating such labs on the lowest level of the building) • Wide and tall doorways to allow forklifts to haul in equipment. Engineering labs may be wet labs, requiring fume hoods and 100 percent outside air. There are also many dry labs for engineering re- search. Fig.R.S.15 Chemistry labs. Fig.R.S.17 Engineering labs. Acadimic laps
  • 298 299 • Geology labs General geology labs are usually dry labs that require a significant amount of space for the hanging of maps and for rock storage and display. The casework is unique to these types of labs. Large flat files (4 ft wide and 3 ft deep) are necessary to hold maps. Cabinets for rock storage need to have sturdy drawers of various sizes. It is important to reserve wall area above the casework for hanging maps. Some geology labs may require hoods and sinks that may need water service and drains to support large experiments with custom apparatus. Small hydraulic lifts are often provided to assist in moving large, heavy rocks. • Computer science labs: The computer science lab is a fairly new type of space. Most are dry labs that need extensive wire management. Electrical and data wiring must be readily accessible at the floor, walls, and ceiling to accom- modate the teaching and research needs. Many computer science labs require magnetic-field shielding and an extensive lightning protection system. Clean power, separate from the ordinary electrical outlets, is necessary in each room. The length of wire runs should be minimized for efficiency of operation. Raised flooring may be helpful for wire management and for under floor delivery of cool supply air. Because of the heavy. use of computers and other equipment the need to cool the space is of high importance. The raised floor can also help protect the room from electromagnetic fields. Computer science labs also require a vacuum system and compressed air. Lab doors should be wide enough to allow large equipment and racks of computers to be moved in and out. Some doors and rooms for chip design and circuitry will require spe- cial shielding to minimize the penetration of radio frequencies. Acadimic laps Similar projects: Examples 1: NW Beijing Inc. Research Center and Offices • Overview : The urban concept strategy by Maxthreads Architectural Design for the NW Beijing technology and research center pursues the maximization of open public space on the ground level of the site, including a canal walk area, open spaces and car park area. The mass of the new building is therefore raised into the first floor level. This open space is important to activate the site and the new research center. It is also important as an appropriate take off point or point of termination) for the overall site area sustainable mechanics. They are proposing a generous, diagonal underpass that emerges from the site environment and grand connective ges- ture. More images and project description after the break. The urban concept strategy by Maxthreads Architectural Design for the NW Beijing technology and research center pursues the maximization of open public space on the ground level of the site, including a canal walk area, open spaces and car park area. The mass of the new building is therefore raised into the first floor level. This open space is important to activate the site and the new research center. It is also important as an appropriate take off point or point of termination) for the overall site area sustainable mechanics. They are proposing a generous, diagonal underpass that emerges from the site environment and grand connective ges- ture. More images and project description after the break. Our primary intention was to create instantly recognizable buildings for the research center that was vivid in its individuality, with flexibility being one of the key objectives. The architectural expres- sion for the research center has been inspired by the well organized computing system. As an artifi- cial computing threading that run through the main façade. It also equip with solar tracking system to minimize the direct sun light penetration. The urban intentions that are emphasized with the placement of the building volumes are further pursued and complemented with the articulation of this volume. The volume is open up between the center of the two research center, direction to Fig.R.S.18.2 exterior shots Acadimic laps
  • 300 301 communicate with the open public space as well as direct connection for large volume of personnel access every day. This large, inviting opening becomes a strategy which cleared all the way through the building to connect with all site buildings. This opening communicates diagonally in both plan and section and thus accommodates to the typography. By extending the ground opening area allows the eco-sys- tem to extend through the site. Exterior shot Exterir shot Acadimic laps Exterior shot Exterior shot Acadimic laps
  • 302 303 Fig.R.S.23 zoning. Fig.R.S.21 layout. Acadimic laps Examples 2: BIG + OFF win the competition to design the Research Centre of the University of Jussieu • Overview : BIG + Paris-based architects OFF, engineers Buro Happold, consultants Michel Forgue and environ- mental engineer Franck Boutte is the winning team to design the new 15.000 m2 research centre for Sorbonne’s Scientific university University Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris. More images and complete press release after the break. The new multidisciplinary research centre, Paris PARC, located between Jean Nouvel’s Institut du Monde Arabe and the open green park of the Jus- sieu Campus will become a significant addition to the campus, strengthening the international appeal and openness of the leading French University for Science and Medicine. The facility will bring togeth- er academic scholars and the business community, while re-connecting the university physically and visually with the city of Paris. The winning team was honored as the best design among proposals from MVRDV, Lipsky Rollet, Mario Cucinella and Periph- erique. Paris PARC is located in the visual axis of the Notre Dame Cathedral in a dense context of univer- sity buildings from different historical periods. BIG proposes a building geometry that adapts to the specific conditions of all adjoining sides, optimized for daylight, views and accessibility. The three-di- mensional envelope retracts from the neighboring facades, opens up towards the square of Institut du Monde Arabe and the park, and folds into a publicly accessible rooftop landscape, resulting in an adapt- ed sculptural building volume situated between the emblematic architectural monuments of the univer- sity. “As a form of urban experiment the Paris PARC is the imprint of the pressures of its urban context. Wedged into a super dense context – in terms of space, public flows and architectural history – the PARC is conceived as a chain of reactions to the various external and internal forces acting upon it. Inflated to allow daylight and air to enter into the heart of the facility, compressed to ensure daylight and views for the neighboring classrooms and dormitories, lifted and decompressed to allow the public to enter from both plaza and park and finally tilted to reflect the spectacular view of the Paris skyline and the Notre Dame to the Parisians.” Bjarke Ingels, Founder, BIG. A central canyon provides daylight and a visual connec- tion between laboratories and offices. In the atrium a cascade of informal meeting spaces lead to the public rooftop terrace and faculty club. A public stair to the Fig.R.S.24.1 exterior shots. Acadimic laps
  • 304 305 rooftop offers glimpses into the activities of the labora- tories which are divided by transparent walls throughout the building to ensure visual connections between the working spaces. The upper levels have panoramic views towards the Notre Dame and the skyline of Paris. Fig.R.S.24.3 exterior shots. Fig.R.S.24.2 exterior shots. Acadimic laps Fig.R.S.29.3 MASS EVALUATION.Fig.R.S.27.2 enterior shots. Fig.R.S.26.2 enterior shots. Fig.R.S.25.3 exterior shots. Acadimic laps
  • 306 307 Fig.R.S.29.2 MASS EVALUATION.Fig.R.S.29.1 MASS EVALUATION. Fig.R.S.28.2 MODELS.Fig.R.S.28.1 MODELS. Acadimic laps Fig.R.S.33 prespective shot. Fig.R.S.32 vertical elements circulation. Fig.R.S.30 GENERAL ZONING. Acadimic laps
  • 308 Fig.R.S.31 circulation elements. Acadimic laps
  • 309 universites. history Users design standerds types design guidelines similar projects Introduction THE HISTORY OF THE University A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects and provides both undergradu- ate education and postgraduate education. The word “university” is derived from the Latin univer- sitas magistrorum et scholarium, which roughly means “community of teachers and scholars.” Higher education: background After the foundation of Oxford and Cambridge in England (1133 and 1209) and St Andrews in Scotland (1412), the first university not to be tied to the Church was London University, now University College London (1824); during the 19th century the so-called red-brick universities were established in the UK’s, main provincial cities (Sheffield, Manches- ter, Birmingham etc.). Further education: background The further education sector in England and Wales by 1997 consisted of 435 colleges, with 2.35 million students, studying for 3.6 million qualifica- tions.Until recently most students were making the transition from school into employment, but now only 28% are under 19, and over half are between 25 and 59 years old. Fig.U.I.4. Museum of Islamic Art , Doha, Qatar Fig.U.I.2.Part of the college of further education in the district of viersen. Fig.U.I.1.Space allocation scheme. college of further education universites
  • 310 311 Design standard Colleges include: • agriculture and horticulture: 7% • art, design and performing arts: 2% • general further education and tertiary: 64% • sixth form colleges: 24% • specialist designated institutions: 3 %. One thing these colleges do have in common is that they were all made ‘independent’ in1993. Be- fore that time they were part of the local education authority system of schools and colleges, and al- though they did not provide compulsory education and training, their legal arrangements were similar to those of schools, with most of their administra- tive tasks being carried out by the local authority. Now they have to find the expertise, and the sup- porting facilities and space, to deal with their own finance, personnel, premises, marketing and student support. CLASSROOMS Major factors to be considered in designing a classroom are the following: 1. Seating and writing surfaces. 2. Space and furnishings for the lecturer 3. The use of wall space, including chalkboards, screens, size and location of windows, etc. 4. Facilities for projection and television. 5. Coat racks, storage, and other conveniences. 6. Acoustics and lighting. 7. Heating and air conditioning. 8. Aesthetic considerations. The seating arrangement is the most important feature in determining the size and shape of a class- room. Seating arrangements in a mathematics classroom should provide all students with a good view of the front chalkboard, ready access both to the seats and to chalkboards on other walls, an adequate, we illuminated writ- ing surface at each seat, a place to set books and papers, reasonable comfort, and privacy in taking examinations. In a class of 50 or fewer students, where a long front chalkboard is desirable, it seems better to have the front wall longer than the side walls. This presupposes that there are more stu- dents in a row of seats than there are rows ; for ex- ample, visibility is better in a classroom having five rows of seven seats than in one having seven rows of five seats. In a room measuring 26’ X 30’ (Fig . 1) Fig.U.S.1.1. Seminar rooms. Fig.U.S.1. Seminar rooms. universites Users Fig.U.I.3. Types of teaching and space requirements. universites
  • 312 313 ency by a thermal Duplicator or similar equipment. Such copies can be posted after the lecture for inspection by students. Storage for such materials must also be provided, as well as for any materials distributed to students to supplement their lecture notes. Provi- sion for receiving and transmitting television is also an important consideration in planning a lecture room for large group instruction. Fig.U.S.5. Projection angles. Fig.U.S.6. Viewing angles. Seating and Visibility Good visibility depends not only on the arrange- ment of chalkboards and of projection screens and equipment, but also to a large degree upon seating arrangements. Factors to be considered are avoid- ance of obstructions, slope of the floor and height of the Speaker’s platform, viewing distance, and the extreme vertical and horizontal viewing angles . It is clear that a good lecture room will not have columns or supports so placed as to block the front screen and chalkboard from any seat in the room . Basic room requirement for all subjects General – purpose seminar rooms usually have 20, 40, 50,or 60 seats , with movable double desks ( width 1.2 depth 0.6 ) space required per student 1.90 – 2.00 m Different arrangements of desks for lectures group work, colloquiums, language labs, pcs, labs and meeting rooms have the same space require- ments Offices for academic staff: • professor 20-24 m2 • Lecturer 15 m2 • Assistant 20 m2 Fig.U.S.8.1. Arrangement of reading places and bookshelves. Fig.U.S.8. Arrangement of reading places and bookshelves. Fig.U.S.7. Basic offices furnishings. universites Lecture Rooms A lecture room should be so placed in a building that it is accessible to students without overcrowding of corridors or stairways. Coat racks, adequate bulletin boards lining the corridors, and ample toilet facili- ties should be provided nearby. The room itself should be arranged so that the audience can see well, hear well, and be comfortable. In part this depends on temperature, humidity, background of light and sound, and seating space. Projection Systems The large lecture room should be built to ac- commodate a variety of projection systems that may be used immediately or in the more distant future. An overhead projector requires an electri- cal outlet near the lecturer’s table, placed so that the lecturer will not trip over the cord, and also a screen properly mounted to assure that the entire class has good visibility with minimum distortion. More screens or a wide screen may be needed to enable the lecturer to use two or more overhead projectors at once. If movies, films, or slides are projected from the rear of the room and reflected from a front screen, the room should have a projec- tion booth, or at least a suitable stand and electrical outlet for the projector. Remote controls for oper- ating the projector are desirable. Shades may be required for darkening a room with windows. If the “rear screen” method of projection is to be used, in which the image is thrown onto a translucent screen mounted in the front wall from a projec- tor in an adjacent room beyond the front wall, the building plans must include adequate provision for this projection room . A room or space for the preparation of transparencies or other visuals is a corollary of their use. Material can be prepared on ordinary paper and copied quickly onto a transpar- Fig.U.S.3. Three auditeriums with common preperation room. Fig.U.S.4. Classroom divisible into two seminar rooms. universites
  • 314 315 Fig.U.S.9. Workplace in drawing room work surface. Fig.U.S.17. Drawing office , section and adjustable angle desk and drawing table. Fig.U.S.15. Sheet steel drawing cabinet.Fig.U.S.14. Drawing stored upright. Laboratories Laboratories for teaching and paracticals , comprising a large number of workstations , usually with simple basic equipment Research labs are usually in smaller spaces with special equipment and additional rooms for activi- ties such as: weighing and measuring, centrifuges and autoclaves washing up, climatised and cold storge rooms with constant temperature, photo- graphic rooms /dark rooms, etc …….. • Lab workstation The bench fixed or moveable is the module which determines the lab workstation its measure- ments including work space and passage space, from the so-called lab axis the basic spatial unit. Normal measurements for standard work bench: 120cm width for practical’s several times this for a research lab 80 cm depth of work surface including energy conduit. There are various possible arrangements of ser- vice ducts, columns and vertical circulation cores : 1. Services concentrated in internal main shafts at each end of the building, vertical circulation core inside 2. Service concentrated in external shafts at each end of the building, vertical circulation core outside 3. Service concentrated in main shafts centrally in each part circulation core as link element 4. Services distributed in discrete duct installa- tions vertical circulation core inside universites • Typists 15 m2 if shared by two typists 20 m2 • Department ( open shelf ) libraries : capacity for 30000 – 200000 books on open shelves • Book space with 6-7 shelves 2m high ( reach height ) Distance between bookcases 1.50 – 1.60 m • Space required 1.0 -1.2 m2 / 200 books • Reading spaces : width 0.9 – 1.0 / depth 0.8 m space required 2.4 – 2.5 m2 per space Control counter at entrance with locker for personal personal property, catalogue and photo- copying rooms Drawing Studios Various space requirement for technical subject, including architecture, and art academies (painting and modeling rooms) • Basic equipment Drawing table of dimensions suitable for A0 size (928*127 cm) fixed or adjusted board. Drawings cabinet, is desirable. Adjustable-height swivel chair on castors . Drawing tables , upright board adjust- able height or usable as flat board when folded down. Further accessories : table top for putting things on drawing cabinets for hanging drawings or storing flat suitable for A0 at least . Each workplace should have a locker. Fig.U.S.16. Drawing office. Fig.U.S.13. Work space plan. Fig.U.S.10. Adjustable drawing table and it’s Section. Fig.U.S.12. Drawing board sizes. Fig.U.S.11. Light for writing coming from behind left, and for drawing from the front left. universites
  • 316 317 Fig.U.S.29. Digestors ( fume cupboards).Fig.U.S.28. Physics bench. Fig.U.S.27. Arrangement of walk- in duct ( BASF).Fig.U.S.26. Laboratory equipment in main science lab ( Bayer AG dye factory ). Fig.U.S.25. Chemistry bench. Fig.U.S.24. Rooms dimentions derive from bench size ( size of workstation ). Fig.U.S.23. Uniform labs with measuring and weighing rooms in front of them ( Universty clinc in frankfurt-main ). Fig.U.S.22. Research lab universites 5. Main service inside linked to vertical circulation core 6. Service shaft outside vertical circulation core offcentre Fig.U.S.21. Example of clean-room lab.jpg Fig.U.S.20.1. BASF plastics laboratory section – plan.jpg Fig.U.S.20. BASF plastics laboratory section – plan.jpg Fig.U.S.19. Lab for teaching and practicals.jpgFig.U.S.18. Minimum passage width between workstations.jpg universites
  • 318 319 Fig.U.S.31. Hexagon-based carrel with mechanical core. Fig.U.S.30.3. Various possible arrangements of service ducts. Fig.U.S.35. A variety of possible carrel arrangements. Fig.U.S.34. Library table with storage units as dividers. Fig.U.S.36. Conventional library table subdivided by panel.Fig.U.S.35.1. A variety of possible carrel arrangements. universites Fig.U.S.30. Various possible arrangements of service ducts. Libraries LIBRARIES, ACADEMIC AND RESEARCH Formulas and Tables The figures given here are at best only approxi- mations and may be altered by local conditions ; they are not arrived at by exact cientific calculation Six groups are dealt with ; those relating to : I. Column spacing 11 . Ceiling heights and floor size areas III . Reader accommodations IV . Book storage (excluding problems that are affected by column spacing) V. Card catalogs VI . Government standards Planning Academic and Research Library Build- ings, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York . 1965 . • Individual Study Carrels Owing space standards are to serve as guide- lines for the design of new buildings or additions to existing buildings : 1 . Book-stack areas at the rate of 0 .10 act ft per volume . 2 . Readers’ stations at the rate of 25 sq ft per station, with stations to be provided for 25 percent of predicted FTE (full-time equivalent students) . 3 . Special materials . An additional area equal to 25 percent of the bound-volume area should be the budget standard for special materials: unbound periodicals, maps, courses of study, and sample textbooks . 4 . Special functions : (These data relate to each person employed in any of these categories) Fig.U.S.32.Avarietyofpossibleshapesandarrangementsforsmall-grouprooms.jpg Fig.U.S.30.2. Various possible arrangements of service ducts.jpg Fig.U.S.30.1. Various possible arrangements of service ducts.jpg universites
  • 320 321 Dormitories should accommodate a 60-yd straightaway for men’s track plus sufficient distance for starting and stopping . A wide door at the end of the straight- away to permit competitors to run outside the field house would prevent injuries and eliminate a mental hazard where space is limited. Six regulation lanes are desirable. The track around the portable or permanent basketball floor should be of such size as to be a convenient Consisting of: • Balconies and Bleachers • Press, Radio, and Scout Accommodations • Entrances • First-Aid and Training Rooms • Lounge and Trophy Room • Drinking Fountains • Service Units • Public-Address System • Scoreboards and Timing Devices • Concession Booths • Storage Space • Lighting, Heating, and Ventilation Student Rooms: The student room is the smallest element and the basic space in the housing facility. It is the core environment of the student who spends many of his waking hours here. • General 1-Room dimensions must accommodate : a . Furniture sizes and design (wall mounted, freestanding) b. Furniture use spaces c. Combination of furniture items 2. Room size (and shape) will affect two levels of possible room change: a . Adaptability of furniture arrangements b. Divisibility of spaces-physical or visual separation of activities 3 . Double rooms with bunked beds a . Minimum recommended area-140 sq ft b . Optimum recommended area-160 sq ft c . Generous recommended area-180 sqft 4 . Double rooms without bunked beds a . Minimum recommended area-180 sqft b . Optimum recommended area-220 sq ft c . Generous recommended area-240 sqft • Offset Single Rooms . Conclusions a . The area of the room with an offset may be comparable to a rectangular room with little or no loss in the adaptability of furniture . b . If dimensions of the room and furniture sizes share a common module, an offset room may have a slightly greater amount of furniture adaptability than a rectangular room of equal area . c . In an offset room, the controlling object is the bed in determining the proportional areas of the two sections of the room If it is desirable to move the bed from one section to the other, the two sections will be approximately equal in size . If it is not desirable, the interchangeability of other pieces of furniture will control the dimensions and size of each section of the room d. An offset room will increase the possibility of space divisibility In a rectangular room, the items must create the space; in an offset room the walls divide the space . Student unit Student Room 2 Suit 4- 12 Group 16- 24 House or floor 48- 72 college 120-800 Complex of halls 1,200 – 4,800 Complex 12,000 – 27,500 universites Communications Centers ; Regional Education Center Production Services Regional office and conference Research, testing, and evaluation Equipment mock- up and repair Radio origination studios and support TV origination and support Film origination and sup- port Photographic and film processing Graphics center Writing and editing publications areas Publications mock-up areas Central reproduction facility Shipping and receiving “ Curriculum Services Regional office and conference Curriculum development and project center Resource rooms for the various disciplines Spaces for adjunct and consulting staffs Student testing area Pupil personnel services staff area In-service training areas Demonstration classrooms Exhibit areas “ Administrative Services Legal advisory office Financial planning, audit, and contro office Transporta- tion, aintenance, etc . offices Central personnel interviewing and records center “ Supporting Services Lobby and central exhibition spaces Large-group areaConference and assembly areas Cafeteria and kitchen Central receiving and storage entral workshop Maintenance, toilet, services, etc . Theater-Arts-Laboratory Teaching Station • Net workspace areas general teaching workplace (m2) lecture theatres; close seating arrangements 1.0 m teaching at tables in informal groups 1.8-2.1 teaching at tables or desks 2.3-2.5 teaching with demonstration facilities and students seated at large tables 2.5 - 3.0 information technology 2.7-3.2 science (most science laboratories) 5.6 art and design (studios and drawing offices) large scale (under certain conditions,these figures may be increased) 4.0-5.6 engineering 5.6 science and technology 5.6 art and design (specialist areas) 5.6-8.4 library/resource centre 2.5 terminol room 3.0 project work as appropriate Fig.U.S.39. Carrels with storage for books. Fig.U.S.37. Carrels with typing unit. universites
  • 322 323 Fig.U.S.47. Basic room-hall plan types. Fig.U.S.46.2. Suite organization 2. Fig.U.S.46.1. Suite organization 2. Fig.U.S.46. Suite organization 2. Fig.U.S.45. Diagrammatic arrangements rectangular rooms, double rooms. Fig.U.S.44. Diagrammatic arrangements rectangular rooms, single room. universites Recommended Space Standards per Student from a Group of Recent Studies University single Double Nodining With dinning University of california 100 100 239 265 California state college 94-110.5 84-91 215.5 230.5 University of Guelph 115 nr 230 University of pennsylvania 108 nr 271.5 290 M.I.T 140 470 486 Men 96.7 211.1 234.7 Women 103.5 237.4 261.4 Fig.U.S.43. Museum of Islamic Art , Doha Fig.U.S.42.2. Suite organization 1.jpg Fig.U.S.41.1. Examples of furniture layouts depicting some possible arrangements involved in the planning of the student room .. Fig.U.S.41. Examples of furniture layouts depicting some possible arrangements involved in the planning of the student room ..jpg universites
  • 324 325 Fig.U.S.50.1. Lecture Seating minimum dimension. Fig.U.S.50. Lecture Seating minimum dimension. Fig.U.S.49. Closet. universites Fig.U.S.47.1. Basic room-hall plan types. Handicapped Students • RESIDENCE HALLS • Sleeping and Study Quarters Space There must be a minimum clear floor space in such areas of 6’ [183 cm] by 6’ [183cm] enabling a 360° turn by a wheelchair. • Working Area Space clearance under counter, table, and desk tops to be used by a wheelchair student shall be a mini- mum of 271/2 “ 69.8 cm] in height and 32” [81 .3 cm] in width. Beds Beds shall have minimum di- mensions of 3’ [92 cm] by 6’ [183 cm] and between 9” [48.3 cm] and 22” [55.9 cm] in mattress height from floor level. • Mirrors Mirrors should be adjustably hung (a minimum of 2’-0” [61 .0 cm] in length) so that the bottom is 30” [76.2 cm] above floor evel Where this lower height is not feasible, mirrors of greater height shall be tilted from the top to a degree to sufficiently ac- commodate individuals described in rational . • Electrical Outlets Electrical outlets shall be mounted no lower than 20” [50.8 cm] above floor leve.Handles and Switches Protruding desk and dresser drawer handles shall be installed . • Switches for electrical fixtures and equipment shall be of a toggle or push-button type or equipped with pull-chains of a minimum length of 15” [38 cm]. • Closets Where one closet is provided for each occupant, the clothes bar should provide two different heights. Three-quarters of the total length should be at 52” [132 cm] and the remaining quarter at 62” [157 .5 cm]. To achieve this, the lower bar, three-quarters of the total length, can be suspended from the higher bar. Wall hooks shall be installed within a height range of 40” [101 .6 cm] to 56” [142 .2 cm]. Shelves of various height intervals shall be installed on the side- closed wall . The top shelf shall not exceed 45” [114 .3 cm] in height . Shelves above the clothes bars shall be provided for long-term storage. (See Fig. 2.) • PERFORMING ARTS Aisles Where possible all new theater construc- tion shall have ramped aisles (no greater Architec- tural Accessibility for the Disabled of College Com- puses, Stephen R . Cotler and Alfred H . Degraff, State University Construction Fund, Albany, N.Y ., 1976 . than 1 in 12) with no steps (sight lines should be considered). If this is not possible, accessible and level cross aisles between seating sections shall be provided with minimum width of 7’-6” [228 .6 cm]. Fig.U.S.48. Sleeping and Study Quarters. universites
  • 326 327 model of sustainable strategies. The first phase features key civic components: the campus central plaza, the library, the campus cen- ter, and the rectory. From this core, the rest of the campus will grow over time along a linear landscape spine linked by shaded walkways. As part of the foundational phase, all academic programs and aca- demic support areas are brought together into three flexible buildings, until academic department complexes are built around them and their spaces are reclaimed for academic support uses. The sharing of space among faculties provides an unprecedented interdisciplinary experience, helping the school transition into a new pedagogic model. As the campus extends into academic neighborhoods, instruc- tional, research, and student life spaces will continue to be shared—promoting the same interdisciplin- ary collaboration of the campus beginnings. Fig.U.A.4. UTEC University Campus.Fig.U.A.4. Universidad del Istmo. Fig.U.A.2. Universidad del Istmo. universites Projects analysis Example 1 :Universidad del Istmo mala City, Guatemala. Sasaki Associatesdesigned the 49-hectare site, and the first phase of the plan, which consists of the heart of campus, is cur- rently undergoing implementation. The university aims to enroll approximately 6,200 students in suc- cessive stages of implementation over 20 years. The educational objectives and mission of the university include a strong focus on the individual and the community within the learning environment. More images and architects’ description after the break. The form of the new campus is a response to the university’s social goals and commitment to- wards contemporary learning relationships. Taking into account the ecological forces and systems that influence the site, together with a careful position- ing and orientation of new buildings to promote natural ventilation and daylighting, the campus is a Architects: Sasaki Associates Location: Fraijanes, Guatemala Client: Universidad del Istmo (UNIS) Services: Architecture, Planning, Landsca- peArchitecture, Strategic Planning, Urban Design, Sustainable Solutions Materials: Walking paths: pebbles, concrete; Lighting: floor washlights, fluorescent light; Plants: almond tree, pine trees, aromatic plants; Others: green colored asphalt, artificial grass Size: 49 hectares; 126,800 m2 Overview : The new campus of Universidad del Isthmo is located on a beautiful hillside in the rapidly growing community of Santa Isabel near Guate- Fig.U.A. 1. Universidad del Istmo. universites
  • 328 329 Fig.U.A.6. Universidad del Istmo. Fig.U.A.5. Sections. universites Fig.U.A.3. Plan 1 Fig.U.A.3. Plan 1.jpg universites
  • 330 331 Fig.U.A.9. Diagram 03. universites Fig.U.A.8. Diagram 02. Fig.U.A.7. Diagram 01. universites
  • 332 333 Fig.U.A.20. Adolfo Ibanez University.Fig.U.A.20. Adolfo Ibanez University. Fig.U.A.12. Site plan. universites Example 2 :Adolfo Ibañez University Architect: José Cruz Ovalle y Asociados Location: Viña del Mar, Chile Year: 2008-2011 Area: 14,500 sqm Overview : This new campus located on the hills of the city of Viña del Mar, in a 20 hectare plot, overlook- ing the city, the bay of Valparaiso and the Pacific Ocean, attempts to create a unique compound for university life, that allows for a certain relationship between study and contemplation. The various bodies that make up the building compound constitute a sheltered patio, whose gra- dated openings link the proximity with the distance, focus on the extension of space and open the patio into a large park that stretches along the slopes. The interiors of the various bodies are connected together by catwalks suspended above ground level which allows orbiting the entire set with no begin- ning or end. This spatial breathing that conceives interiors from the void, unfolding simultaneously depths -in different directions- from the spacing of its floors: it is not about different floors but of an ensemble of multiple levels. Thus, the vertical expansion of inner void, not only emerges from below, like in a Gothic cathedral, but also circulates through its three dimensions, simultaneously being inhabited space and luminous void in suspension. Fig.U.A.10. Adolfo Ibañez University. universites
  • 334 335 Fig.U.A.16. 4th floor plan. Fig.U.A.15. 3rd floor plan. universites Fig.U.A.14. 2nd floor plan. Fig.U.A.13. Ground floor plan. universites
  • 336 337 Fig.U.A.26. Adolfo Ibanez University.Fig.U.A.22. Adolfo Ibanez University interior. Fig.U.A.19. Elevations. universites Fig.U.A.18. Sections 02. Fig.U.A.17. Sections 01. universites
  • 338 339 Brief History: Since the beginning of their existence in the ancient Roman Empire, arenas and amphitheaters were the center of attraction in city, especially in the capital Rome, some of them were very enor- mous and Really Magnificent and they were made to last forever. sports. history Users design standerds types design guidelines similar projects In our current days, the concept behind the construction of beautiful and structurally amazing stadiums, shifted from an emperor’s need. Despite the natural hazard and the messing that was done to the structure that destroyed part of it, the Colosseum still retains its power and beauty and is justifiably regarded as the ‘’Mother of all Sta- dia’’. It has served as a model for Countless modern stadia and remains a portent source of inspiration for today’s stadiums builders. Even though the Greeks discovered the virtues of many engineering innovations before the Ro- mans, they didn’t quite use them for their sports facilities, their stadiums were Just an idea of “U” shaped playground graved in a hill on which stone sloped seating was placed for the best view. In the field of stadium design the Romans bypassed the Greeks with the improvement of the techniques. The Colosseum is one of their well-done stadiums. The origin of stadium dates back as far as the eight century B.C with the Greek who invented in 776 B.C the first competition game which later be- came the Olympics. Fig.S.H.4 . Opening Season at Michigan Stadium, 1927. Fig.S.H.3 . The Grand Opening of Shea Stadium on April 17, 1964. Fig.S.H.2 .hardcore Chelsea 1930. Fig.S.H.1 .San Diego Chargers (AFL), 1961-66. sports centers Fig.U.A.27. Adolfo Ibanez University. Fig.U.A.25. Adolfo Ibanez University. Fig.U.A.24. Adolfo Ibanez University. Fig.U.A.23. Adolfo Ibanez University interior. universites
  • 340 341 They shouldn’t be sited close to industrial area where smoke, odors and noise might create unpleased conditions, but in relation to town, it must fit in well the local topography and be designed with good transport links and supply facilities (train, bus, tram station, large car parks, etc.) Fig.S.S.8 . general urban zoning. Fig.S.S.7 . steps zoning diagram. Fig.S.S.6 . Stadium Shadow Solution. Fig.S.S.5 . Stadium Orientation. • Pitch layout and dimensions: The size of inner sports field can be based on the size of football pitch. The basic shape for the playing area is usually simi- lar to the elliptical shape used in ancient stadiums. As a rule a stadium is partly below ground with the excavated earth heaped up around it. • Stadium capacity: Capacity is, of course, one of the primary con- siderations for any stadium design project. The stadium needs to be big enough to accommodate all those fans who wish to attend matches, yet not so big that there are lots of empty seats, as this will detract from the visual impact and overall atmo- sphere. Conversely, the atmosphere will be at its best when the stadium is full to capacity and buzzing. It is therefore very important that projected average attendances are correctly gauged when determin- ing the capacity. There is no set formula for deter- mining the optimal capacity. This will depend on a variety of factors, including the status and popular- ity of the club/national team, the location, and any plans for alternative uses of the venue. sports centers Users Design standers: • Master Planning. • External Planning. Master Plan: • Contents of the stadium 1-Orientation: Pitch area (Central area): The starting point of design is the central area or playing field. Its shape, dimensions and orientation must enable it to fulfill all the functions required of it. Pitch orientation must be suitable for the events to be staged, and the master plan must be structured around this. 2-Contents of the stadium: •Stadium capacity. • Access and egress. • Specific access requirements and facilities for disabled people. • Media facilities. • VIP and hospitality areas. • Shops and other commercial facilities. • Support facilities (e.g. storage, operations and maintenance facilities, catering facilities, storage areas, loading areas, technical installations). • Medical and first aid facilities. • Security and emergency service provision. • Marketing and advertising. • Hiring out of the stadium for corporate use. • Food and beverage concessions. • Pitch and other sports facilities. • Parking (for VIPs, players, match officials and delegates). • Player facilities (e.g. dressing rooms). • Toilets. • External public parking areas. • General Layout: sports centers
  • 342 343 • Athletics track and field: The shape of the track can be varied to suit the shape of the land available. The running track shouldn’t be less than 400 m in length and not less than 7.32 m in width. If possible the track should be bordered on the inside with a kerb of concrete or other suitable material, approximately 0 mm on height and a minimum 50 mm in width. Where it is not possible for the inner edge of the running track to be a raised border, the inner edge is marked with lines 50 mm in width. Although the preferred track length is 400 m , there is no standard measurement for the length of the straights or the radius of the curves. Both measurement can be varied according to the area of land available, provided the track length remains 400 m. however the recommended radius between 35 and 38 m. The formula for measuring track lengths is as follows: Track length (400m)=(2xL) 2πr where “ L” is the length of the straights curves, giv- en that the track length is 400m and the dimension of one of the two variables has been determined, the dimension of the other can be derived using the above formula. Remaining lanes shall be measured 200 mm from the outer edges of the line. Example: if the length of the straight is 84.38 then the radius of the curve r is: The radius of the track border, which is 300 mm inside the actual track measurement will be 36.5 m. the radius of a line marking the inside of the track, which is 200 mm inside the actual track measure- ment will be 36.6 m. Alternatively, if the radius of the curve has been set at 36.8 m, then the length of the straights L is: • Lanes : In intentional meetings the track should allow for at least six lanes preferably eight lanes, particu- larly for major international events, all lanes must Fig.S.S.16 . measurement distance. Fig.S.S.14 . Running Track diagram. Fig.S.S.13 . 400m Running Track. sports centers Fig.S.S.11 . stadium layout types. Fig.S.S.11. Pitch dimensions. Fig.S.S.9 . u-shaped stadium layout zoningFig.S.S.10 . stadium layout types. Fig.S.S.12 . Stadium capacity. sports centers
  • 344 345 Fig.S.S.25 . Shot put. Fig.S.S.24 . Lane sprint. Fig.S.S.23 . pole vault. Fig.S.S.22 .1. Triple jump. Fig.S.S.27 . Throw Hurting. Fig.S.S.26 . Throwing cage. • Spectators Facilities: To give spectators clear view and ensure good acoustics, It’s recommended a fixed gradient of 1:2 for both seating and standing area. In staggered seating rows, spectators in every row should be able to see over the heads of those in the corresponding two rows in front. This results in a parabolic curve. The best viewing conditions are to be found on the “long side” of the segment. • Access and egress: The arrival of spectators happens relatively slowly so the widths of entrances and stairways have to be calculated on the basics of the maxi- mum. According to research in the Amsterdam Stadium every 5000 spectators needs 7 minutes or 420 seconds to leave via the 9.5 m wide steps.( In equivalent stadium the times are: Los Angeles 12 minutes, Turin: 9 minutes ). The formula giving the staircase width necessary to allow a certain number of spectators to leave the stadium in a given time is: All planning must be done in accordance with national regulations for the construction and man- sports centers be of an identical width, minimum of 1.22 m and a maximum of 1.25 m marked by lines 50 mm in width. • Hurdle races: The start and finish of the race is denoted by a line 50 mm in width at right angles to the track. The distance of a selected race is measured from the edge of the starting line further from the finish to the edge of the finish line nearer to the start. • Steeplechase: The standard distance are 2000 m and 3000 m ( 2000 m for juniors only ). The water jump includ- ing the hurdle is 3.66 ± 2 cm. the bottom is 700 mm deep in front of the hurdle and slopes to the hurdle at the water jump is the approach end with suitable matting at least 3.66 mm wide and 2.5 long , the thickness of which shouldn’t exceed 25mm. Fig.S.S.22 . Triple jump.jpg Fig.S.S.21 . Javelin.jpg Fig.S.S.20 . High jump.jpg Fig.S.S.18 . water jump Lanes diminution.png Fig.S.S.17 . Lanes diminution.png Fig.S.S.19 . water jump.jpg sports centers
  • 346 347 • Standing Area: The necessary space for standing spaces is calculated as follows: Width of standing spaces 0.5 m Depth of standing space 0.4 m Fig.S.S.31 . steps dimension. Fig.S.S.30 . steps dimension. Fig.S.S.29 . steps types. Again, for every 750 spaces an escape route (stairway. Ramp, flat surface) with an minimum width of 1.00 m must be provided dangerous overcrowding, they should be divided into groups or blocks of around 2500 places. Each block should have it own entry/exit points and should be separated from the others by fences. Inside the blocks of standing places, a staggered arrangement of crush barriers will be necessary to pre- vent diagonal crowed surges. It must also be ensured that there is a suitably strong barrier, with a height of around 1.10 m, between every 10 rows of standing spaces. Wheelchair accessible seating is required At least one percent of the seating must be wheelchair seat- ing locations. Each wheelchair seating location is an open, level space that accommodates one person using a wheelchair and has a smooth, stable, and slip-resistant surface. sports centers agement of meeting places, in which the requirements for access ways, stairways, ramps and spectator accommodation are set out. Depending upon the planned capacity, seating is provided either along the long side of the ground (to take advantage of the shortest viewing distance) or, for capacities above 10000, around the whole ground. To improve conditions in the multi-row layout, there has to be sufficient super-elevation. In smaller grounds with up to 20 rows of terracing or 10 rows of seats, a linear gradient of 1:2 can be taken as a basis. In all other grounds the linear gradient should ideally be replaced with one which is parabolic, in this case the gradient for seating and standing places is to be set using a construction based on the spectators line of sight, in terracing stands the super-elevation should be 12 cm and in rows of seating it should be 15 cm. • Seating Areas: The necessary space for seating areas is calculated as follows: Width of seats 0.5 m Over all depth 0.5 m Seat depth 0.35 m Circulation 0.45 m Rows of seats (benches) as well as single seats can be planned, seats with back rests offer greater com- fort. Depending on the arrangement of entrances and exits, each row can be comprise: on each side of passage In shallow rising rows 48 places In steeply rising rows 36 places Seating and standing areas must be separated by fences. For every 750 seats an escape route (stairway, ramp, flat surface) with a minimum width of 1.00 m must be provided. Fig.S.S.28 . Throw Hurting. sports centers
  • 348 349 Types of halls Dimensions (m) Useable sports area (m2 ) Indoor games Num- ber of training courts/ pitches Number of competition courts /pitches Multifunc- tional halls Single hall 15x27x5.5 405 Badminton basketball volleyball 4 1 1 Triple hall 27x45x73|4 div. into 3 sec- tions (15x27)5} 1,215 Badminton basketball football handball volleyball 12 3 3 56} 1 1 1 1 Quadruple hall 27x60x73} div.into 4 sec- tions (15x27)5} 1,620 Badminton basketball football hockey volleyball 16 4 4 76} 2 1 1 1 Alternative double hall 22x44x73|4} div. into 2 sections (22x28÷22x16) or (22x16÷22x185} ) 968 Badminton basketball football handball hockey volleyball 6 3 56} 1 1 1 1 1 Games hall Single hall 22x44x73|4} 968 Badminton basketball football handball hockey volleyball 6 3 5 1 1 1 1 1 Triple hall 44x66x83} div. into 3 sec- tions (22x44)5} 2,904 Badminton basketball football 20 x 40 30 x 60 handball hockey volleyball 24 9 15 46} 3 1 3 3 3 Quadruple hall 44x88x93} div. into 4 sec- tions (22x44)5} 3,872 Badminton basketball football 20 x 40 40 x 80 handball hockey volleyball 32 56} 256} 4 1 4 4 4 4 sports centers In stadiums where spectators can be expected to stand during the show or event (forexample, football, baseball, basketball games, or rock con- certs), all or substantially all of the wheelchair seating locations must provide a line of sight over standing spectators. A comparable line of sight, as illustrated in the figure below, allows a person using a wheelchair to see the playing surface between the heads and over the shoulders of the persons standing in the row immediately in front and over the heads of the persons standing two rows in front. This graphic delineates the optimum and maxi- mum viewing distances for football. The region within the red circle is ideal. The next bigger region is the recommended maximum distance which is determined by describing a 150m arc from each of the corners The next bigger region is the recom- mended maximum distance which is determined by describing a 150m arc from each of the corners. Beyond the outer ring, the ball would virtually disappear from view. This image demonstrates that the majority of the stadium’s seats fall within the recommended distance, and all of them fall within the maximum distance. This is consistent with the goal of providing the best gameday experience possible, which includes being able to clearly watch the game being played. The blue lines represent lines of sight from various seats throughout the stadium. In the plan view, the lines outline a 60 degree field of vision from particular seats. This Fig.S.S.32 . stadium section Fig.S.S.33 . Special Needs steps. range approximates the range of a person’s vision looking straight ahead. In the section view, the blue lines demonstrate the ability of a person to see the field from various seats. The upper deck seating has a greater slope than the lower deck, to ensure that the people who sit the farthest away from the field still are able to see. • Sports Halls: The planning basics for multipurpose games halls should take into account the competition regulations of the incividuals sports organisations to give the best possible integration of all individual types of activity. Note that a dividble hall offers more versatility than several separate decicated halls. The necessary size of the site depends on the area reguired for the desired sporting activities and administration rooms. As a rule of thumb, it can be estimated as follows : required sports area x 2 + necessary parking area for vehicles. The following ancillary rooms and spaces are required for sports events: an entrance area with ticket office, spectators cloakroom and cleaning equipment room ( 0.1 m2 per spectator); spaces for spectators ( 0.5 x 0.4 -0.45 m per seat, including adjacent circulation area), and as appropriate, for guests of honour, press, radio and television (in- cluding circulation areas: 0.75 x 0.8-0.85 m for each member of the press; 1.8 x 2.0 m per commentary box; 2.0 x 200 m per camera platform). A box office, cafeteria, emergency services room, adminstration office and meeting room will also be required. sports centers
  • 350 351 • Storge space: The storage space for tables and chairs per visi- tor works out at 0.05-0.06 m2 . For cleaning/ main- tenance equipments stores, allow 0.04 m2 per 100 m2 (8 m2 minimum) for hand tools and 0.06 m2 per 100 m2 (12 m2 minimum) for machinery. If central services or outside contractors (who transport their own equipment) are used, their own equipment) are used, this space can be dispensed with. Stores for sports and maintenance equipment for adjacent outdoor facilities have to be included in the room program of the sports hall if separate building are not provided. Allow 0.3 m2 per 100 m2 of useable sports area ( minimum area of 15 m2 ). If the centre is equipped with a small demount- able storage per m2 of stage will be required. Changing facilities for actors also need to be consid- ered. • Spectator stands: Stands for spectators can be fixed or movable. For small stands with up to 10 steps of seating. The gradient of the rows can be linear ( height 0.28- 0.32m). a parabolic slope should be planned for larger stands ( height of eye level: 1.25-m seated, 1.65 standing: height of sight-line: 0.15m seated, 0.12m standing). The distance between rows of seat- ing should be 0.80-0.85m . and for standing spaces 0.40-0.45m. the point reference for the sight-line is 0.5m above the playing area boundary marking. Fig.S.S.36 .1. Spectator stands. • Showers: showers have to be immediately accessible from the changing rooms and there needs to be a drying area in between. The shower rooms should be de- signed as two separated sections, both connected to the two neighboring changing rooms in such a way that from each changing room either one or both sections can be accessed. The first aid rooms should be on the same level as the playing area and could be integrated with the instructors’/referees’ room, which should be near the changing rooms. Fig.S.S.37 . Spectator stands. Fig.S.S.40 . indoor Basketball dimension. sports centers Type of sport Net useable area Additional obstruction- free zone obstruction- free gross use- able areas Clear height Permissable dimension Standard di- mension Long sides m Short sides m Length m Width m Length m Width m Length m Width m badminton 13.4 6.1 13.4 6.1 1.5 2.0 17.4 9.1 92} basketball 24-28 13-15 28 15 13| 13| 30 17 7 Boxing 4.9-6.1 4.9- 6.1 6.1 6.1 0.5 0.5 7.1 7.1 4 Cricket 29.12- 33.12 3.66- 4.0 33.12 4.0 1 1 35 6 4.0- 4.58} Football 30-50 15-25 40 20 0.5 2 44 21 5.5 Weightlifting 4 4 4 4 3 3 10 10 4 Handball 40 20 40 20 14} 2 44 22 75} Hockey 36-44 18-22 40 20 0.5 2 44 21 5.5 Judo 9-10 9-10 10 10 2 2 14 14 4 Netball 28 15 28 15 1 1 30 17 5.5 Body-building 12 12 12 12 1 1 14 14 5.5 Gymnastics 52 27 52 27 - - 52 27 8 Bicycle polo/stunt cycling 12-14 9-11 14 11 1 2 18 13 4 Rhythmic gymnastics 136} 136} 136} 136} 1 1 15 15 82} Wrestling 9-12 9-12 12 12 2 2 14 14 4 Roller-skate hockey 34-40 17-20 40 20 - - 40 20 4 Roller-skating/dancing 40 20 40 20 - - 40 20 4 Dancing 15-16 12-14 16 14 - - 16 14 4 Tennis 23.77 10.97 23.77 10.97 3.65 6.4 36.57 18.27 7 Table tennis 2.74 1.525 2.74 1.525 5.63 2.74 14 7 4 Trampolining 4.57 2.74 4.57 2.74 4 4 12.57 10.74 7 Volleyball 18 9 18 9 5 8 34 19 12.52} Table S.S.35 : Size of sports hall • Administration area: An area of 0.1 m2 per visitor should be allowed for administration rooms adjacent to the entrance in multipurpose halls. Cloakroom: cloakroom space of 0.05-0.1 m2 should be allowed per visitor, with 1m of counter for each 30 spaces. The reguired number of toilets per visitor is 0.01, of which: 40 % toilets for women 20 % toilets for men 40 % urinals sports centers
  • 352 353 Fig.S.S.43 .1. Handball Stadium dimension.Fig.S.S.43 . Handball Stadium dimension. Fig.S.S.42 .1. Boxing ring dimension.Fig.S.S.42 . Boxing ring dimension. Fig.S.S.41 .1. Boxing ring dimension.Fig.S.S.41 . Boxing ring dimension. sports centers Fig.S.S.40 .1. indoor Basketball dimension. Fig.S.S.39 .1. Badminton dimension. Fig.S.S.39 . Badminton dimension. Fig.S.S.38 . General Zoning.png sports centers
  • 354 355 Fig.S.S.49 .1. Gymnastics playground dimension.Fig.S.S.49 . Gymnastics playground dimension. Fig.S.S.48 .1. Table tennis dimension.Fig.S.S.48 . Table tennis dimension. Fig.S.S.47 .1. tennis playground dimension.Fig.S.S.47 . tennis playground dimension. sports centers Fig.S.S.46 .1. Basketball playground dimension.Fig.S.S.46 . Basketball playground dimension. Fig.S.S.45 .1. Hooky Stadium dimension.Fig.S.S.45 . Hooky Stadium dimension. Fig.S.S.44 .1. Hooky Stadium dimension.Fig.S.S.44 . Hooky Stadium dimension. sports centers
  • 356 357 • MODERN AND AESTHETIC STRUCTURAL SYSTEM: The membrane structure, called also fabric structure or tension structure, is a modern struc- tural system that was developed in the middle of 20th century, with a thin and flexible surface. This structure uses various types of thin and high strength membrane materials such as PVC, PTFE or ETFE, which is usually supported by another ten- sion or compression or bending structures such as high strength cables or steel columns or space truss structure. By applying a tension stressing in the membrane surface, it may present an aesthetic shape of a spatial structure. Due to its characters of being flexible, easy to form, and light weight, the membrane structure is most often used as roofs as they can economically and attractively be extended to large span, e.g. for the aesthetic roofing or siding of various buildings such as stadium, theatre, swimming pool, exhibi- tion hall, lobby’s roofing or side walk’s awning of a hotel or mall, or a rest area’s awning in a garden or beach, as well as for roofing at an entertainment center, etc. Fig.S.S.53 . modern STRUCTURAL SYSTEM. • VARIOUS TYPES OF MEMBRANE STRUCTURES • Tension and Suspension Membrane Structure The tension/suspension membrane structure represents the main stream of membrane design and construction at this era. In this type of mem- brane structure, all membrane surfaces will have a curve shape. There is no point of zero curvature so that the membrane surface represents more natu- ral stream line and more smooth. Therefore this type of membrane structure is usually most prefer- able by the designers because of its aesthetics. • Frame Membrane Structure : This kind of membrane structure is composed by a self-stable frame structure covered with mem- brane. The frame structure can be steel frame, steel space frame or space truss, then working together to support all working loads. The design of this structural system is similar than the usual frame structure. Fig.S.S.54 . Tension and Suspension Membrane Structure. Fig.S.S.55 .1. Frame Membrane Structure. sports centers Fig.S.S.51 .1. Tkoando plaza dimension.Fig.S.S.51 .1. Epee plaza diminution. Fig.S.S.51 . Tkoando plaza dimension. Fig.S.S.51 . Epee plaza diminution. Fig.S.S.50 .1. Volleyball playground dimension. Fig.S.S.50 . Volleyball playground dimension. sports centers
  • 358 359 • EPTFE Type Membrane Material: ePTFE type membrane is composed of ex- panded PTFE as base fabric and then treated with PTFE lining so that is becoming a pure PTFE based material. It is more flexible and has better pliant behavior than the other membrane materials and more transparent than the usual PTFE membrane (tranparancy rate ≈ 40%). Besides, it is possible to be recycled so that can be rated as sustainable ma- terial. ePTFE membrane has been used in Norway Pavilion at 2010 Shanghai World Expo. Fig.S.S.59 . EPTFE Membrane.pngFig.S.S.58 . ETFE Membrane.png sports centers Fig.S.S.56 . Air-supported Structure. • Air-supported or Air-inflated Membrane Struc- ture: The air-supported or air-inflated membrane structure uses the air pressure that is blown con- tinuously inside the membrane structure to inflate the membrane until becoming stiff to support its self weight and all other surface loads. Usually a pressure of approximately 3/1000 higher than the atmospheric pressure will be applied and should re- main constant during operation. To attain this con- dition, an automatic air pressure regulator should be installed in order to ensure the maintenance of constant air pressure inside the membrane. • VARIOUS TYPES OF MEMBRANE MATERIALS : • PVC Type Membrane Material : PVC type membrane is basically composed of high strength fiber such as polyamide, polyester or polyvinyl as a base fabric, and then apply main coating of poly-vinyl-chloride (PVC). For this type of membrane, it is mostly required to apply an- other surface treatment by using poly-vinyl-di-fluor (PVDF) or acrylic in order to improve its self-clean- ing performance and increase its durability. • PTFE Type Membrane Material : PTFE type membrane is based on glass fiber cloth and surface lining of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethyl- ene (PTFE). It is no need to give any surface treat- ment on this type of membrane material because PTFE itself is chemically very stable In general, PTFE has better strength and durability as well as better self-cleaning performance than PVC (PVDF) type membrane, but it is more expensive in price. • ETFE Type Membrane Material : ETFE type membrane is composed of thin ethylene-tetra-fluoro-ethylene layer. Due to its fine- ness, ETFE membrane is much more transparent (tranparancy rate ≈ 90%) than the above two types of membrane so that in certain extent can replace glasses as transparent roofing material. However, as there is no base fabric in this type of membrane, it has less strength. Therefore, this membrane is usually not used for the tension membrane struc- ture but is more applicable in the frame membrane structure or air-supported membrane structure. Application example of this membrane can be seen at the “Cube” Swimming Hall in the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympic Games. Fig.S.S.57 . PVC Membrane.png Fig.S.S.57 . PTFE Membrane.png sports centers
  • 360 361 The stadium is made up of different tiers; during the games the stadium was able to hold 80,000 specta- tors. The base tier, which will be permanent and allow for 25,000 seats. • Exterior wrap: Plastic, or an environmentally sustainable fabric such as hemp, was initially designed to be wrapped around the stadium exterior. The wrap would have been 20 meters (66 feet) high and would have en- circled the 900-metre (1,000-yard) circumference of the stadium.  • Roof: To allow for fast on-site assembly, compression truss and roof column connections were bolted; this will also enable easy disassembling of the roof structure after the closing ceremonies. The cable-supported roof structure covers approxi- mately two thirds of the stadium’s seating. The roof is made from a (PVC) fabric to keep costs down. • Stadium island: The stadium site is on former industrial land be- tween the River Lea, and the Old Pudding Mill River; completes an “island” surrounded by water This “island” site for the stadium lies at the southern end of the Olympic Park. The existing waterways were modified to surround the stadium, and access is via several footbridges positioned around the building’s perimeter Fig.S.A.61 . London 2012 Olympic Stadium. sports centers Analysis similar projects Examples 1: London 2012 Olympic Stadium: Location: Olympic Park, Stratford, London, England Built: 2008–2011 Opened: 2011 Construction cost: 486£ million Architect: Populous Capacity: 80,000 The Olympic Stadium in Olympic Park in Stratford, London, England was the centerpiece of the 2012 Summer Olympics, the last stop in the 2012 Olympics torch relay, and the venue of the athletic events as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. It was the central venue of the 2012 Summer Paralympics. the third-largest stadium in England behind Wembley Stadium and Twickenham Stadium. Land preparation for the stadium began in mid-2007, with the official construction start date on 22 May 2008, although piling works for the foundation unofficially began four weeks ahead of that date. The stadium will also host the 2017 World Championships in Athletics. • Structures and facilities: The stadium’s track and field arena is excavated out of the soft clay found on the site, around which is per- manent seating for 25,000, built using concrete “rakers”. The natural slope of the land is incorporated into the design, with warm-up and changing areas dug into a semi-basement position at the lower end. Specta- tors enter the stadium via a podium level, which is level with the top of the permanent seating bowl. . A demountable lightweight steel and concrete upper tier is built up from this “bowl” to accommodate a further 55,000 spectators. london staduim sports centers
  • 362 363 Fig.S.A.63 . London 2012 Olympic Stadium layout. sports centers Fig.S.A.61 .2. London 2012 Olympic Stadium. Fig.S.A.61 .1. London 2012 Olympic Stadium. Fig.S.A.60 . London 2012 Olympic Stadium layers. sports centers
  • 364 365 Aqua sports. history Users design standerds general principels pools detailing similar projects Introduction What is aquatic center? (Swimming) complex with facilities for water sports, including swimming pools. History of swimming The history of swimming goes way back to that of prehistoric times. Books written from 2000 to 1500 BC including the Bible have references to swimming. It was mostly used in these times as a means of cleansing. Any form of competitive swim- ming wasn’t formed until the 1800’s in Europe. It was included in the first Olympics in 1896 in Ath- ens, Greece. It was noted that Ancient Egypt had cave draw- ings of humans swimming in the nearby sea. They often depicted a form of the breaststroke as the first type of swimming or something they used to call the front crawl. Ancient Egyptian, Grecian and Roman palaces were often equipped with swim- ming pools or baths. Often reserved for the elite that used them as relaxation pools and cleaning tubs. Started swimming to flourish since the emer- gence of the first books on swimming by the Ger- man Professor Nicholas in 1538 (Plunger) and suc- cession of interest in the Second Book of Professor Jonfrost 1861 and is the first book that explains the principles of writing a scientific way.. - Although humans have been swimming for thousands of years, swimming only became a competitive sport in the early 1800s. Today, swimming is the third most-watched sport in the Olympic Games. Fig A.H.3 Olympic competition Fig A.S.4 Olympic Trials pool sports centers users Design standards: • Swimming pools: 1- For Olympic competitions: Be customized for different kinds of competi- tions and have fixed shapes and dimensions and be under the supervision of a panel and its audience and strips, and also used to teach swimming or training posts in the Champions League and there are open and covered Olympic swimming pool : An Olympic sized swimming pool (first used at the 1924 Olympics) is a pool that meets FINA’s additional standards for the Olympic Games and for world championship events. It must be 50 m (160 ft) in length by 25 m (82 ft) wide, divided into eight lanes of 2.5 m (8.2 ft) each plus two areas of 2.5 m (8.2 ft) at each side of the pool.[21] The water must be kept at 25–28 °C (77–82 °F) and the lighting level at greater than 1500 lux. Depth must be at least 2 m (6.6 ft), and there are also regula- tions for color of lane rope, positioning of back- stroke flags (5 meters from each wall), and so on. Pools claimed to be “Olympic pools” do not always meet these regulations, as FINA cannot police use Fig A.S.5 Olympic Australia pool Fig A.S.7 Olympic pool Diminution sports centers
  • 366 367 of the term. Touchpad are mounted on both walls for long course meets and each end for short course. Fig A.S.6 Olympic pool Diminution. 2-For leisure: Some of the main features of pools specifically created for indoor leisure and recreational swim- ming are areas of shallow water with beach edges ,nfant pools, wave machines, water chutes , flumes and splash pools. These, together with the use of good quality materials, artificial sun bathing ,plant- ing, lagoons , islands, seating and refreshment areas for swimmers and spectators give a much greater range of experiences for the bather rather than the serious swimmer. Fig A.S.8.3 Pools for Leisure. Fig A.S.8.1 Pools for Leisure. Fig A.S.8.2 Pools for Leisure. sports centers • And both of these two types may be : 1-Outdoor swimming pools: open air pools are used almost exclusively forleisure activities , the required water area perinhabitant ranges from 0.15 m in low populationdensity catchment areas to 0.05 m where thepopulation density is high. Table A.S.1 planning unit for outdoor swimming pools. sports centers
  • 368 369 A site area of 8-16 m per square meter of the planned water area should be planned , allow parking spaces for one car and two bicycles for every 200-300 m of the site area , for the entry area , 200 m, should be allocated per 1000 m water area , of which 50 m will be for a covered entrance with a ticket office and some form of entry control , An area of 10m should be planned for staff rooms in facilities with water areas up to 2000 m , above .this 20 m should be allowed for staff. 2-Intdoor swimming pools: Reference figure for estimating the required size of indoor swimming pools must take into account the demands made by residents , schools and the sports clubs within the catchment area as a rough guide , a pool area per inhabitant of between 0.025 m ( low population density ) and 0.01 m ( high population den- sity ) may be used. • There are many kinds of swimming pools: 1-Teaching pools: - Water area 500 to 1200m2, depth of water 0.50/0.60 to 1.35m ; possibly divided into several pools of varying depths. 2-Vario pools: A bulkhead is a structure that can separate a pool into different sections.  Typically these struc- tures are moveable in the United States to allow the pool to be adjusted to accommodate different field of play (Yards and Meters).  For example, in a 50 meter pool with 2 movable bulkheads there can be as many as 19 different course configura- tions that can support swimming, water polo and synchronized swimming.  For NCAA swimming, race courses that utilize a bulkhead as a turning surface must be Certified for each session of a competition.  Courses with two hard walls require certification only once.  In the United States movable bulkheads are typically 4 or 6feet wide. 3-Wave pool: A wave pool is a swimming pool in which there are artificially generated, reasonably large waves, similar to the ocean’s. Wave pools are often a ma- jor feature of water parks. Disney’s Typhoon La- Table A.S.2 planning unit for indoor swimming pools. sports centers goon Water Park at the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida is home to the world›s largest outdoor wave pool. 4-Competition pool: Swimming pools have fixed shapes and dimen- sions and be under the supervision of a panel and its audience and strips, and also used to teach swimming or training posts in the Champions League and there are open and covered. 5-Water polo pool: - Water polo, or Water ball, is a team water sport. The playing team consists of six field players and one goalkeeper. The winner of the game is the team that scores the most goals. Game. -Water polo field of play dimensions, to Olympic standard; for other competitions, size is 20~8m, minimum depth 1 m; allowance must be provided for referee to move freely from end to end of the field and for the goal judges at the goal line. Fig A.S.12.1 wave pools Dimension.Fig A.S.11.1 vario pools Dimension. Fig A.S.11 vario pools Dimension. Fig A.S.10.2 Teaching pools Dimension.Fig A.S.10.1 Teaching pools Dimension. sports centers
  • 370 371 Fig A.S.14 wave pools. Fig A.S.13 wave pools. Fig A.S.12.2 wave pools Dimension. 6-Diving pool: Diving pits are usually equipped with two kinds of diving -off point : rigid platforms , which must be level , ( 1,3,5 and 10 m high ) and springboards ( 1 and 3 m high ) . the height are measured from the water surface . springboard are made aluminium , wood ar plastic . both platforms and springboards must have non-slip surfaces , ladders are usually used to reach platforms and boards , although lifts should be considered for large competition facili- ties , all boards and platforms are situated at one side of the pool , to allow divers to see the water surface better , water surface agitators or sprinklers are used. • Types of Pools according to how the basin is constructed: • Above-ground pools: • Fiberglass pools. • Vinyl-lined in-ground pools. • Gunitepools. • Poured-concrete pools. 1-Above-ground pools: Are the cheapest construction options, as well as the easiest to build . Most above-ground pools are made from prefabricated kits, which even an amateur can put together. The main disadvantage of this sort of pool is that it’s less durable than other designs, and generally less attractive. It’s also less permanent. And the main advantages it’s rela- tively easy to disassemble the pool and move it to a new location. sports centers Fig A.S.14.2 Plane for water polo pool. Fig A.S.14.1 Plane for water polo pool.Fig A.S.14 Competition pool. 2-Fiberglass pools: Are made from fiberglass-reinforced plastic, which has been molded into a basin shape. To in- stall the pool, a construction crew digs an appropri- ately sized hole, lays the necessary plumbing, adds some sand filler and lowers the preformed pool structure into the hole. Then they level the pool, hook up all the plumbing and backfill in the area around the pool. Usually, the pool is surrounded by a concrete deck structure. 3-Vinyl-lined in-ground pools: Are a lot like above-ground pools, structurally, but they look more like conventional in-ground designs. The construction crew digs a hole and as- sembles a metal, plastic or wood frame wall around the hole’s perimeter. As in an above-ground pool, the crew lays sand along the bottom of the hole and secures the vinyl lining to the structural wall. The liner needs to be replaced every 10 years or so. 4-Gunite pools: Gunite pools are the most popular type of pools in places such as South Africa, Australia and the United States. To build one of these pools, the construction crew digs a hole, puts the plumb- ing in place and assembles a framework grid with 3/8-inch steel reinforcing rods (rebar). The rebar rods are spaced about 10 inches apart, and secured together with wire. When the grid is in place, the crew sprays a heavy coating of gunite, a mixture of cement and sand, around the rebar. The sprayer unit combines dry gunite mix with water just before spraying -- this produces the wet concrete material. The crew trowels the gunite smooth and lets it for a week or so before applying a smooth finish to the rough surface. The most popular finish for this type of pool is called marble plaster (actually a mixture of cement and marble sand), but a lot of people fin- ish their pools with special concrete paint. Gunite pools can also have tile, exposed aggregate or even fiberglass finishes. Gunitepools are highly durable, and they can be built in any shape or size. 5-Poured concrete pools: • SWIMMING Pools Services: Changing room: To estimate the required size of the changing room area see the unit data values given in the previous tables, all larger pools should sports centers
  • 372 373 contain at least two communal changing rooms . - For the purposes of estimation , the following figures can be used locker spaces 0.6-0.8 of the standard unit value number of which 0.6-0.08 of the standard unit value are changing cubicles - Of the changing cubicles available, 10% should be for families and disabled people, the ratio of cubicles to clothes lockers should be 1:4. in a communal changing room at least 30 lock- ers are necessary and there should be no less than 7.50 m length of bench . The ratio of changing room spaces or lockers ranges up to 1:8 in holiday restores it can become necessary to double the amount of locker spaces. Fig A.S.20.2 Poured concrete pools. Fig A.S.20.1 Poured concrete pools. Fig A.S.19.2 gunite pools construction. Fig A.S.19.1 gunite pools construction. Other facilities per standard unit value are hair- styling spaces with hairdryers 0.03, foot disinfection baths 0.015 and basins 0.015. A cleaning materials room of 1-2 m must be planned within the chang- ing room area all rooms need a minimum clear height of 2.5 m. Theminimum size of foot disinfec- tion bath should be 0.75 wide , 0.50 m deep. In the changing room area , for built -in cu- bicles the following minimum dimensions are valid , overall measurements 1.00 m wide , 1.25 m deep 2.00 m high cubicles for families should be at least 1.50 m wide , 1.25 m deep m 2.00 m high changing rooms for wheelchair users need overall measure- ments of 2.00 m wide , 1.00 m deep , 2.00 m high , and a clear door width of 0.8 m , lockers are 0.25 m or 0.33 m wide and 1.80 m or 0.90 m high , with a clear depth of 0.50 . separate sanitary areas , containing shower rooms and toilets , must be provided for men and women , they should be positioned between the changing rooms and pool area , toilets are usually positioned in such a way that teh pool user has to re-enter the shower room before entering the pool area , direct acces to toilte from the pool area is not allowed , it is recommended that a direct route from the pool to the changing rooms be provided sports centers In swimming pools with 100-150 m water area , one separable shower room with five showers each for women and men is sufficient for larger pools , there should be at least ten showers for each shpwer room , basic toilet provision in the sanitary area is two toilets for women , one toilet and teo urinals for men. • Spectator facilities: Stands: 0.5 m seat space per square meter of water area used for sports sportsneeded for one seat 0.5 m including surrounding circulation areas cloakroom: space required is 0.025 m per square meter of water area used for sports . Toilets: in the entrance hall .two wcs for women and one plus one urinal for men will be sufficient for up to 200 spectators. for each further 100 spec- tators add on wc and urinal. preserving the ratio two wcs (women) one wc , two urinals (men) . • Working spaces for the press : good lines of sight to the start and finish are needed { i.e. raised location } : 5 to 20 spaces re- quired , each space 0.75 * 1.20 m . for television : four to six spaces are required , each space 1.20 * 1.50 m . • catering : space requirement for each vending machine , 0.5 to 0.8 m seating area { cafe/ restaurant } : at least 50 seating spaces , each space 1-2 m service and ancillary room area ( in addition ) : for cafes , about 60 % of the seating and clod rooms , 15-20% for empties stores , and the remainder for kitchen , servery , office and staff . • Plant area: Total plants area {without swell water stor- age, store rooms, transformer room and gas meter room}: up to 1 m square of planned water area: in the case of large indoor swimming pools, a reduc- tion to 30 % is possible. Fig A.S.25 Changing cubicles with clothes locker. Fig A.S.23 changing with supplementary bench. Fig A.S.22 changing cubicles with clothes lockers. Fig A.S.21 communal changing without supplementary. sports centers
  • 374 375 • General Planning Principles: (Auatic centers)large complexes that combine indoor and open air swimming polls, depending on the type of design, offer more flexibility than separate facilities and are ideal centers for family leisure activities,however the limitations imposed by the local seasonal weather patterns necessitate careful consideration of the allocation of indoor and outdoor water areas, the design must differentiate between the type of use during summer and winter times ,as well as the transition periods between. • The following types of use can be considered: * Inclusive use of all indoor and outdoor water areas at the same times, with unlimited bathing duration, for a standard admission charge. * Separate use of indoor and outdoor water ar- eas during differing opening times, perhaps withun- limited bathing time only in the outdoor pool, and different admission charges. * Seasonal single use for instance at times when one of the facilities (indoor or outdoor section) is Fig A.S.28 Shower and toilet area for disabled people. Fig A.S.27 shower and toilet area women’s shower and toilet area women.JPG Fig A.S.26 Shower and toilet areashower and toilet area divided shower room.JPG closed. • Consider the following when deciding on type of design: * The area of the indoor and outdoor pools ap- propriate to the size of the catchment area. * Additional water area in one or both of the sections which may be required to meet increased demand resulting from tourism. * Additional water area is one or both sections necessitated by special circumstances {e.g.in sports centers Fig A.S.31 Typical Concrete Pool Construction. Fig A.S.30 Example Swimming pool diagram. Fig A.S.30 Swimming pool skimmer. Fig A.S.29 Example sketch plan for wellenberg oberammergau center. Swimming Pools: typical details : - In order to prevent pool surrounds becoming damaged by seeping water from under the water level, PCI Apoten® is used as anti-capillary epoxy coating. 2- Ice sports: a- Ski jumping: Fig A.S.32.1 For construction of ski jumps Sketches. sports centers
  • 376 377 B-Curling: -  Is a sport in which players slide stones across a sheet of ice towards a target area which is segmented into four rings. It is related to- bowls, boule and shuffleboard. Two teams, each of four players, take turns sliding heavy, polished gran- ite stones, also called “rocks”, across the ice curling sheet towards the house, a circular target marked on the ice.[2] Each team has eight stones. The purpose is to accumulate the highest score for a game; points are scored for the stones resting closest to the centre of the house at the conclusion of each end, which is completed when both teams have thrown all of their stones. A game may consist of ten or eight ends. -Ice cold climates ,natural freezing of lakes and rivers provides suitable areas for ice skating , ice hockey and curling . Similarly, frozen lido pools (assuming the edges are strong enough to with- stand the pressure of ice ) may be used as tempo- rary rinks . By using sprayed ice skating rinks can be created on tennis courts roller skating rinks and other large flat spaces. A surrounding embankment or barrier approximately 100-150 mm high is needed and there must be suitable drainage for water run-off . water is sprayed on to the surface to a depth of 20 mm . In warm climates or for year-round use , arti- ficial ice rinks are the solution . these consist of a cooling pipe system in a screed floor through which a deep frozen salt solution or cold air ( usually a Fig A.S.33 B-Curling. Fig A.S.34 Detail of surface pipes. compressed ammonia system ) is pumped the pipes are roughly 25 mm below the screed surface . Standard race track: the track lenght is usually 400 m ( although some can be 300 m or 333.5 m ) and should have two lanes , the distance through the curves is mea- sured 500 mm from the edge of the inside of track . this gives the race distance of ( 2* 111.94 ) + ( 25.5 * 3.1416 ) + ( 35.5 * 3.1416 ) + 0.18 ( extra through the crossing ) = 400 m . Bobsleigh and toboggan runs: Situated on north-facing slopes these runs require tight curved embankment made from ice blocks . the lengths are 1500-2500 m , with slope of 15-25% and a minimum run width of 2 m , Specta- tor places should , if possible be on the inside of the curves or protected with mounds of snow or straw bales . • There are several types of curling and the lengths and width of the track vary according. in German curling the pitching and target areas require a low frame , which can easily be stepped over on three sides . The track in Scottish curling is 42 m long , with 38.35 m between the target cen- ters but this can be shortened to 29.26 m if the ice sports centers is in bad condition . c-Ice hockey : -The pitch area is 30 * 60 m and it has curved corners . the goals are 1.83 m wide 1.22 m high m and are positioned such that players can skate around the back of them , the pitch needs to be fully surrounded by a wood or plastic barrier 1.15 -1.22 m high . D-figure skating : -A rectangular ice rink between 56 * 26 and 60 * 30 m in size isa suitable for both figure skating and in-line skating , which is becoming increasingly popular . it is possible to create a multipurpose rink : roller skating from march to november and ice skating from december to february . this requires a cooling pipe system 25-50 mm below the rink sur- face ( note that this is not possible in terrazzo ) Fig A.S.37 Ice hockey.jpg Fig A.S.36 German carling Curling rinks Scottish culing rinks artificialice rinks. Fig A.S.38 figure skating.JPG standerd race track sports centers
  • 378 379 Construction: (1) Fibre reinforced cement sheets , 15 mm thick m laid on squared timber or on sand bedding. (2) Concrete tracks , 100-150 mm depending on condition of subsoil , if possible jointless if neces- sary cut in false joints 2-3 mm wide , space joint every 25-30 m with a gap width of 15 mm or more . (3) hard concrete screed m minimum of 8 mm thick on fresh concrete slab 20 mm of cement mortar is preferable to take up stress between the screed and the slab . (4) cement composite with additives 1-10 mm . (5) terrazzo , polished , 15 mm or more joint rails made from brass , metal alloy or plastic should be used only for indoor rinks. (6) cast asphalt rinks on a fixed base . Fig A.S.39 Artificial ice and roller skating rink. sports centers Similar projects Analysis: Competition Name: Architecture Design of the National Swimming Centre Project Name: National Swimming Centre, Beijing Olympic Green, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Architect: Herzog de Meuron Client: People’s Government of Beijing Munici- pality, Beijing State-owned Assets Management Co., Ltd. National Aquatics Center, the landmark building of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, is located inside the Beijing Olympic Green. It is axially related to the National Stadium on the north part of Beijing Central Axis and reinforces the historical and cultur- al features of Beijing city. The planning area of the NSC is 62950m², and the total floor area is 65,000 - 80,000m², in which the underground component is not less than 15,000 m².. Design Concept: - The design concept of the “water cube” com- bines the symbolisms of the architecture and the unique water bubble structure, and builds an ap- propriate complement to the National Stadium. The NSC functionally meets the requirement of 2008 Olympic Games and post-games operation. Structural system: Comprising a steel space frame, it is the largest ETFE clad structure in the world with over 100,000 m² of ETFE pillows that are only eight one-thou- sandths of an inch in total thickness. The ETFE cladding allows more light and heat penetration than traditional glass, resulting in a 30% decrease in energy costs. The outer wall is based on the Weaire-Phelan structure, a foam (structure formed by soap bubbles). The pattern is formed by taking a slice water cube sports centers
  • 380 381 through the foam, and it was chosen in preference to the Kelvin foam because the more complex Weaire- Phelan structure results in more irregular, organic patterns than slices through the regular Kelvin foam. The structure will have a capacity of 17,000 during the games that will be reduced to 6,000 afterwards. It also has a total land surface of 65,000 square metres and will cover a total of 7.8 acres. Fig A.A.40.3 Water Cube, National Aquativs Cen¬ter ,Beijin.Fig A.A.40.2 Water Cube, National Aquativs Cen¬ter ,Beijin. Fig A.A.41 Design Concept (water bubble). Fig A.A.42 Structural system (water bubble). sports centers Fig A.A.45 leisure pools.Fig A.A.44 Olympic pools. Fig A.A.43 Master plan Circulation. sports centers
  • 382 383 Fig A.A.47 competition pool.Fig A.A.46 Main Entrance shot. Fig A.A.43 Master plan zooning (Ground Floor). sports centers Health Club: What is health club? - A health club (also known as a fitness club, fit- ness center, and commonly referred to as a gym) is a place which houses exercise equipment for the purpose of physical exercise. Fig A.S.48 stretch Area. Fig A.S.47 Health club contains. Fig A.S.51 health clubs. Fig A.S.50 health clubs. Fig A.S.49 Spinning Room. • resistance area: - The resistance area has many different multi exercise machines, such as, cable cross-over, lat pull down, seated row, bicep curls……ect. in conjunc- tion with the free weights and cardio area you will sports centers
  • 384 385 achieve the perfect workout. • Cardio vascular area: - Cardio area has arrange of CV equipment including life fitness treadmills, upright and recumbent bikes and cross trainers. The cardio area is a great way to lose weight and get fitter. • Free weights area : Free Weight area includes dumbbells (all weights), along with various Olympic bars and smith ma- chines. The Free Weight area is a great place to complete any workout for anybody. Some health clubs offer sports facilities such as a swimming pools, squash courts or boxing areas. In some cases, additional fees are charged for the use of these facilities. • Newer health clubs generally include health-shops, snack bars, restaurants, child-care facilities, mem- ber lounges and cafes. It is not unusual for a sauna, steam shower, or wellness areas to be present. Health clubs generally charge a fee to allow visitors to use the equipment, courses, and other provided services. A fairly new trend is the advent of eco friendly health clubs which incorporate principles of “green living” in its fitness regimen. Type of Space Machine footprint range Circulation Resistance area 2m²/machine 1.75x machine footprint Cardio vascular area 1.5m²/machine 2.0m²/ma- chine 1.75 x machine footprint Free weights area 2.5m²/machine 3.5m²/ma- chine 2 x machine footprint Stretch Area 2.0m²/person 2.5 m²/person No./Area Spinning Room 1.0m²/machine 1.5m²/ma- chine 1.25 x machine footprint sports centers health clup layout sports centers
  • 386 387 Environmental Requirements: Fitness Gym Condition Recommendations Air tempera- ture • 16 -18ºC. A rise in temperature may be acceptable in summer, however, comfort cooling • will be essential in most cases as heat gain is likely to be significant and strict • Temperature control is needed. The controls must be capable of wide variation and have • the capacity to react swiftly. Humidity • Preferably below 60%. Humidity control is not essential provided good fresh air rates and • comfort cooling is provided. Ventilation • A minimum of 20 litres/sec/person fresh air based on peak occupancy. The sys- tem’s air • quantity will be determined by room loading and will include provision for free cooling. • The system must be able to cope with heat loads, body odours and humidity. Heat • recovery should be incorporated to reduce energy loads and running costs. Artificial lighting • 200-300 lux with a good uniformity ratio. Free weight areas require an overall minimum • average of 300 lux. Any signs, wall charts need to be clearly visible. Lighting can be • used to create mood, if required. Indirect or direct lighting schemes can create a softer • and warmer atmosphere. An emergency lighting system will be required Natural light- ing • Recommended with views to the outside. Windows may need blinds to filter light and • provide privacy. Glare from windows or roof lights should be controlled Noise levels • Noise rating of NR40 approximately Air tempera- ture • 18ºC. A rise in temperature may be acceptable in summer, however, comfort cooling • should be considered where heat gains are likely to be high or strict temperature control • is needed. The controls must be capable of wide variation and have the capacity to react • swiftly. Heating and ventilation systems should be acoustically damped so as not to • interfere with quiet uses, such as Yoga. sports centers Humidity • Preferably below 60%. Humidity control is not essential provided good fresh air rates and • comfort cooling is provided. The controls must be capable of wider variation than normal • and have the capacity to react swiftly. Ventilation • A minimum of 20 litres/sec/person fresh air based on peak occupancy. The sys- tem’s air • quantity will be determined by room loading and will include provision for free cooling. • The system must be able to cope with heat loads, body odours and humidity. Heat • recovery should be incorporated to reduce energy loads and running costs. Artificial lighting • 200-300 lux with a good uniformity ratio. Any signs, wall charts need to be clearly • visible. Lighting can be used to create moods if required. Indirect and direct light- ing • schemes can be designed to complement the space and create a feeling of well- being. • Lighting should be separated or zoned according to type or location, each zone • separately dimmable to create different effects appropriate for the use; high energy, low • impact and stretching routines. Natural light- ing • Preferable, with views to the outside. Windows may need blinds to filter light and provide • privacy. Glare from windows or roof lights should be controlled Noise levels • Noise rating of NR40 acceptable for dance activity, but NR35 recommended for Yoga • and similar use. sports centers
  • 388 389 Case Studies: (Sport city) Dubai Sport City: - The Dubai Sports City is a $4 billion, 50,000,000 square feet (4,600,000 m2) mixed- use sports city currently being constructed in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The city will consist of apartment buildings as well as several sports facilities. The first structures opened in late 2007. Dubai Properties is master developer of this project for infrastructure. The project is complete in 2011. • City Concept: -The primary goal of the construction of Dubai Sports City is providing its visitors and resi- dents with a unique and unmatched lifestyle. The concept of a city within a city, underpinned with leisure and sports activities with every possible world class amenity right at its door. Residential communities, shopping, dining and entertainment and even a dynamic commercial district, provides a unique opportunity to watch, play, learn, work, live and shop. A benchmark has been set very high by Dubai Sports City, that delivers an exceptional standard of the highest quality and that attracts top international brands, investors and sporting bodies. Estimated to accommodate 70,000 people in a day, once completed in 2010, Dubai Sports City is a vital part of Dubai land, the entertainment destination extended up to 3 billion square feet. Fig A.A.54 (Sport city) Dubai Sport City layout. sports centers Fig A.A.55 Master Plan zoning. Fig A.A.53 (Sport city) Dubai Sport City. sports centers
  • 390 391 Fig A.A.56 Master Plan zoning details. sports centers Resorts. history Users design standerds project analysis zoning history The beach resorts are actually the resorts that are located on the coast. In these resorts the beach is actually the primary focus to attract some tourists. The beach resorts are also known as seaside resorts. low carbon futurecity. The beach resorts are not a modern concept, in fact it has been around for centuries. The coast was always treated as a recreational place, how- ever until the mid-nineteenth century, this recre- ation option was a luxury reserved for the wealthy people only. In the Roman times, in the town of Baiae locat- ed in the Tyrrhenian Sea in Italy, a beach resort was made for people who were really prosperous. Then during the early nineteenth century, the Prince Regent promoted Brighton as a beach resort on the southern coast of England, as an alternative to the wealthy spa towns like, Cheltenham. Later on the Queen Victoria made a long-stand- ing patronage of the Isle of Wight and Broadstairs in Kent. This patronage made sure that the seaside residence became a highly fashionable possession old resorts in england for the people who had enough wealth to have a separate home for recreational activities. Resorts& residential
  • 392 393 Then in the middle of the nineteenth century, people form lesser earning segments of the soci- ety also came forward and started taking holidays at t he beach resorts or seaside resorts. With the improved transports during the industrial revolu- tion people were able to go on vacations at some- place away from their home. This paved way for the coastal towns as the potential places, for the development of seaside resorts or beach resorts. The biggest examples of this are places in England which are no more than 28 km away from sea beaches. Since then a large number of beach resorts have come up all over the world. They have now spread from USA through all the way to India Users West Brighton BeachIsland Hotel Resorts& residential Design standards Staff-Housing: • Multistory housing tyeps : • Blocks: A compact, layered building form that gives high occupancy densities. The external spaces within and around the building are clearly differentiated in relation to form and function. • Linear arrangement: A spacious building configuration, either groups of identical Block types or of buildings of complete- ly different designs. There is little or no differentation of the external spaces around the buildings • Slab-blocks: The building form is often used in an isolated configuration. It can be extended both in length and height but allows little scope for variety among The room layouts. Differentiation • Large-scale developments: By expanding and unterconnecting slab build- ings to create large forms stretching out over a wide area it is possible to develope large tracts. Differen- tiation between spaces defined by the buildings is almost impossible to achieve • Point-blocks: These are distinctive individual buildings, often standing isolated in open spaces. A ‘dominant element’ in town planning, this building type is Fig.R.S.1 Blocks. Fig.R.S.5 Point-blocks. Fig.R.S.4 Large-scale developments. Fig.R.S.3 Slab block. Fig.R.S.2 Liner arrangement. Resorts& residential
  • 394 395 frequently designed in combination with low-rise developments. • Height of blocks: The maximum walk-up to a flat to be four sto- reys. For five storeys and above, a lift is essential. • Planning: • Core: Provides a good balance between living qual- ity and economy, allowing a variety of plans with satisfactory solar orientation and flats with different numbers of rooms Fig.R.S.8 four dwellings per floor and staircase access. Fig.R.S.6 Two dwellings around a central staircase. Fig.R.S.9 Standard floor with five residental units. Fig.R.S.7 three dwellings per floor and staircase. Fig.R.S.10 High-rise block of flats. • Having three dwellings per floor and a central staircase : Offers a good mix of economy and living quality, and this form is suitable for building corner units. • roomed dwellings per floor and a shared stair- case: Requires appropriate planning to provide a satisfactory relationship between economy and liv- ing quality. Different types of flat on each floor are possible . • INTERIOR SPACES STANDERD : • PORCHES AND ENTRANCE HALLS: Porches playa crucial part in sheltering the entrance hall from inclement weather conditions. They should be designed as far as possible with the prevailing local wind direction taken into account. In addition, they should be visible from the street or garden gate. The key rooms with the highest levels of cir- culation, and, in particular, stairways, should be immediately accessible from the hall. For instance, an effective design could have the hall providing a direct connection betweenthe kitchen, stairs and Resorts& residential we galierieS • CORRIDORS: Where a long corridor is necessary, the width is established according to its position, whether the doors are on one or both sides, the arrangement of the doors, and the anticipated volume of circula- tion. Appropriate corridor widths are shown in If possible all doors should open into the rooms. • Rooms loppy: These figures show the arrangement and num- ber of doors to rooms that are 2 m wide or more for different sizes and shapes of landing and hall- way. The layouts giving the most economical use of space are shown in .The majority of these examples are based on an aisle width of 1m, which is suitable as a minimum because two members of a fam- ily can still pass one another. This width does not, however, leave enough space for built-it cupboards, which are often desirable .Enlargement of a land- ing orhallway at the expense of room size can allow better door arrangements and not make the rooms feel any less spacious. • STORAGE SPACE: Fig.R.S.16 Rooms loppy shaps. Fig.R.S.13 Doors open into these corridors. Fig.R.S.12 Corridor with doors opening into the rooms.jpg Fig.R.S.11 ENTRANCE HALLS different design. Fig.R.S.15 Rooms loppy shaps. Fig.R.S.14 Rooms loppy shaps. Corners behind doors and spaces under stairs and sloping roofs can all be used to provide stor- age space. The easiest space to exploit is under the staircase, where there is often room for large sliding cupboards or even a work space. Where cupboards are built into spaces under roof slopes it is important to ensure good insulation must be provided behind the units. Such cupboards should also have air holes at the top and bottom, or have louvre doors, so that there is constant ventila- tion. • UTILITY ROOMS : Resorts& residential
  • 396 397 Fig.R.S.20 UTILITY rooms contents standards. Fig.R.S.19 UTILITY rooms contents standards. jpg Fig.R.S.18 STORAGE standard. Fig.R.S.17 STORAGE standard. In utility rooms there must be adequate cup- board space for storing cleaning materials and equipment, tools and ladders . Each cupboard should, if possible, be no less than 60cm wide. In some circumstances, and particularly in multi- storey housing units, chutes made of stainless steel or galvanised steel sheet can be used for discharg- ing household waste or collecting laundry .They will require a ventilation shaft with a cross-sectional area of 30-35% of the waste chute. For safety, chute insertion points can have electrical doors so that • KITCHEN : Despite increasing standardisation, the dimen- sions and manufacturing ranges of kitchen fittings still vary considerably. Built-in units are generally available from 20-120cm (in 5cm steps), usually with a height of 85cm. In an architect-designed kitchen, the various elements are assembled in a way that cannot be altered, with worktops and storage surfaces, possibly including an electric oven (with cut-outs for hotplates) and a continuous cover plate. Resorts& residential Ladder rungs for room height (mm) side rail length (mm) 3 2400 1350 4 2600 1580 Up to 8 3500 2540 The materials used in kitchen units include, wood, plywood, chipboard and plastic. Exposed wood surfaces are varnished or laminated with plastic. Shelves are of wood or plastic-coated chipboard; metal shelves are best for pots and pans. Sliding or folding doors are useful if space is restricted because they require no additional space when opened. Floor units are for storing large, heavy or seldom-used kitchen equipment. Wall mounted cabinets have a small depth so that the worktops beneath them can be used without hindrance. They allow crockery to be reached without bending. Full-height cupboards can be used for storing cleaning materials, brooms etc. but are are also suitable for housing refrigerators, ovens, or microwaves at a convenient height. An extractor above the cooker is recommended and extractor hoods are most suitable for this task. There is a differentiation to be made between air extraction and recirculation systems. Extractor systems require a vent to the outside but are more effective than recirculation systems and so are the preferred type Fig.R.S.22 Relation between large kitchen and other areas. Resorts& residential
  • 398 399 Fig.R.S.25 kitchen standards. Resorts& residential Fig.R.S.27 kitchen standards. Resorts& residential
  • 400 401 Fig.R.S.21 Arrangement for utility rooms. • DINING AREAS : It is useful to be able to extend the dining room through wide doors or a folding wall for special occasions .To eat comfortably an individual needs a table area of 60 x 40cm. A strip of 20cm is needed in the centre of the table for dishes, pots and bowls. Lighting should not be dazzling: the ideal distance from lower edge of the light to the table top is around 60 em. • BEDROOMS: To ensure comfort while sleeping, the bed length should be 250 mm longer than the indi- vidual’s height. Based on average heights, beds are produced in a range of standard sizes: 900 x 1900 mm, 1000 x 1900 mm, 1000 x 2000 m m, 1600 x 2000 mm and 2000 x 2000 mm. The bedroom layout should give at least 600 mm, preferably 750 mm, around the bed. This is important to allow the bed to be made easily and also, if there is a cup- board standing parallel to the bed, to give enough space for movement even if the cupboard doors are open . There should always be a bedside cabinet to the left and right of double beds and a headboard, onto which one can fix clip lights for reading, is also useful Bedside lamps should be provided in ad- dition to general lighting. About 1m of cupboard length should be planned per person. If there is not enough room in the bedroom, then space can be found in the corridor . At least one mirror, in which one can see oneself from head to toe, should be fitted in a bedroom: mirrored cupboard fronts are even better. Fig.R.S.31 Bedrooms standards. Fig.R.S.29 Bedrooms standards. Fig.R.S.28 DINING AREAS. Fig.R.S.30 Bedrooms standards. Resorts& residential • BATHROOMS: 1. Wall-mounted units are preferable for hygiene reasons and for ease of cleaning. Deep-flush WCs reduce odours. 2. In contrast to showers, baths may be used medicinally (e.g. muscle relaxation) a well as for washing. 3. Bath tubs are usually installed as built-in units and may have convection heating inside 4. Urinals are often found in today’s households. 5. Wash-basins Should be of a suitable size and have ample surrounding flat storage surfaces. Flush-mounted fittings save space and are easy to clean. Mixer taps save water and energy. Note that 1.20 m wide Fig.R.S.35 Bathrooms standard. Fig.R.S.32 Bathrooms standards. double wash-basins do not really provide enough free arm movement when washing: better is a layout with two basins, towel rails in between and storage to the side. • BATHROOMS LOCATION: The most convenient location for the bathroom is adjacent to the bedrooms (and the we if it is not in- corporated in the bathroom itself). Although showers are compact and often preferred by younger people, baths are generally more suitable for the elderly. Resorts& residential
  • 402 403 Fig.R.S.34 Bathrooms standards. Fig.R.S.36 Spatial relationships with the bathroom. Resorts& residential If the house has no utility room and a small kitchen, spaces and connections can be provided in the bathroom for washing machines and laundry baskets. Villas: • FENCES: of wood boards for privacy should be located in rear yards and generally be no taller than six feet • FIRE ESCAPES. Should be located where they will not be visible from the street. Fig.R.S.37 Privacy fence placement. Fig.R.S.38 Should not be sited on primary facades. • HANDICAPPED ACCESS RAMPS: preferably should be located at the rear or sides of buildings. If a handicapped ramp must be placed on the front of a building it should be of wood con- struction rather than of brick, concrete, or metal. Brick, concrete, and metal ramps are more accept- able at rear and sides of buildings not visible from the street • SIDEWALKS AND WALKWAYS: Of brick pavers, aggregate or pebble-surfaced, or asphalt are less appropriate for the district. • LIGHTING: for security, such as flood lights, should be mounted on rear or sides of buildings rather than on the front. Floodlights mounted in the front yard Fig.R.S.39 HANDICAPPED ACCESS RAMPS. Resorts& residential
  • 404 405 to illuminate the front of the house is acceptable. for sidewalks and front yards should be of small footlights rather than post-mounted fixtures. Post- mounted fixtures are less appropriate but may be installed if desired. • SWIMMING POOLS: should be located in rear yards and screened from street view by fencing or landscaping: for security, such as flood lights, should be mounted on rear or sides of buildings rather than on the front. Floodlights mounted in the front yard to illuminate the front of the house is acceptable. for sidewalks and front yards should be of small footlights rather than post-mounted fixtures. Post- mounted fixtures are less appropriate but may be installed if desired. Fig.R.S.40 Should not be sited on primary facades. Fig.R.S.41 Swimming pools are appropriate as long as they are screened with privacy fences or landscaping. • SIGNS should not cover or obscure architectural fea- tures. -should not be illuminated with visible bulbs or luminous paints, but with remote sources. -should have no more than three colors and use colors that coordinate with the building colors. Resorts& residential Project analysis Alacati Resort Alacati Resort The topography and the nature of the region, scenery, angles of sun, winds, green- ery and slopes of the terrain guided the land use of the program housing hotel, bungalows, private villas and social areas which are constituents of the resort project at the Aegean cost of Turkey. Close to Izmir and being one of the major destinations for surfing the land is easily accessible from the sea and by land routes. Integrated with the nature tim- idly and aiming to welcome the sun and the breeze in a controlled attitude in the units, especially dur- ing hot summer days, a mixture of open, semi-open and closed areas are designed. Aegean stone walls starting at the garden as a part of the landscape become an integral of the interior in continuity. Similarly, the green roofs are designed to be an elongation of the natural topography benefiting the existing slope and terraces of the land. Modesty has been the core of the design decision with reference to the attitude of local architecture and respecting the existing nature, supported by the use of local building material; nevertheless it is not aimed to mimic the vernacular architecture of the Aegean. Local stone, wood and glass are the materials used in harmony with the existing greenery and the sea view. One storey bungalows scattered over the land supporting the holistic texture; using the advantage of the slope, the blocks are embedded in the terrain rising to the surface quietly to capture the sea view, giving the impression of a turtle peeping through its shell. In the same manner, the main hotel building consists of one basement and 2 floors above the ground, housing a conference center, a library, two restaurants and a spa, as well. The route of once- existing watercourse is enlivened by swimming and reflection pools that fit into the coves of the land. The verdant landscape enhanced on the rooftops of each residential element, between the units patios join the picturesque verdure as communicating nucleus creating synergy and opening passages. With respect to the zoning status of the seaside settlement, the shore is reserved for sun decks. Being one step away from the green and water surrounding the living space, even staying indoors, one feels part of the artless setting. The balances of light and shadow, vibration and tranquility, sub-rosa and communal have been practiced in the physical existence of the project. The principal of the project has been to establish the architectural tectonics of the buildings. Exterior_1 Resorts& residential
  • 406 407 resort layout. villa model exterior Resorts& residential sections villas diffrent models Resorts& residential
  • 408 409 villa model 2 plan villa model 1 plan Resorts& residential zoning layout Resorts& residential
  • 410 411 villa model 3 plan section 2 Resorts& residential The lagoons, dubai Competition for Omniyat Properties – Area 5 District 3 A. DESIGN DESCRIPTION A1. Design Background The site is situated on the Southwest- ern shoreline of one of the islands in the Lagoons. It commands spectacular views across the water to other areas of the Lagoons and to the North West to the Opera House and to Dubai itself. The site is extremely prominent from other areas of the Lagoons and as such the development will provide a focus and centre piece to the overall Lagoons development. The residential buildings on the site have a maximum height of 35 storeys or 175m. The hotel development has a height of 25 storeys or 100m. The overall width of the development is over 250m. The density of development is such that the buildings could form a significant wall effect un- less the designs are treated with great care. A2. The Design Metaphor Given its location immedi- ately on the shoreline of the Lagoons development, the similarity between the Lagoons developments to that area of Iraq known as the Mesopotamia Marshlands is striking. The ongoing rescue of the Mesopotamian Marshland is coincident with the La- goons developments. The design metaphor is thus taken from 2 features of these marshlands. The islands of the lagoons are similar to the reed beds of the marshlands whilst the gentle and elegant im- ages of reeds bending in the wind is translated into the curve and sway of the elevations. A3. The Islands The reintroduction of water to the drained Iraqi marshlands is simultaneous with the creation of the water body of the Lagoons. As the waters of the Tigris-Euphrates Marshlands return, so will the peoples, wild life and islands of natural reed beds that once inhabited these vast areas. It is from these marsh reeds that we draw the metaphor and design theme for these buildings in the Lagoons. A4. The Reeds The tall reeds of the Mesopota- mia Marshlands is used for boats, for houses, for all manner of buildings. They are a true symbol of sustainable architecture and a sustainable way of life. Images of these marshlands before their drain- ing are symbolic of an ancient and civilized way of life. The gentle undulating movement of the reeds as they are shaken by the wind is unforgettable. The images of the gently swaying tall reed beds are the essence of the design theme we are portraying here. A5. Planning Metaphor The metaphor of the reeds is translated into built form in a very sim- ple and direct manner. We have created apartment the lagoons exterior Resorts& residential
  • 412 413 plans and core plans which are simple, direct and maximize the views to the South West and West. These direct effective and efficient floor plans are then gently sloped to create the effect of the reeds bending in the wind. The cores serving the residen- tial apartments and hotels remains vertical and the bend of the apartments is taken up in a variable void space to the sides of the core. The cross wall construction maintains structural rigidity in a very simple and direct fashion. Pipe work of plumbing ducts can take up the very slight angular shifts in verticality without there being any need to transfer the risers. A6. Elevational Metaphor The external walls of the apartment towers and hotel are simi- larly treated in a very simple and direct fashion as a metaphor to the reeds. Balconies are placed across the entire front elevation of the apartments. These balconies provide an indoor outdoor space and a temperature modulating device from the hot southwestern sun. Half of each balcony frontage is covered with tinted frameless glazing which further protects the balcony from the hot rays of the sun whilst providing uninterrupted panoramic views from the apartment and the balconies. The gently curved glass emulates the elegant curve of reeds and softens the horizontality of the balconies into a vertical, shining element. The other half of each balcony is open with a glass balustrade to maintain continuous panoramic views. Each apartment has a projecting sun balcony. These narrow balconies thrust forward over the building to provide 270 de- gree views of the Lagoons. Just as reeds glisten and catch the sunlight so do these sun balconies form gently curved shining vertical lines. A7. Visual Corridors We have introduced 3 visual corridors through the towers. The main corridor is of course the central axis, the spinal axis defined by the master plan. This major visual axis is left completed unobstructed. The towers on each side undulates toward and away from this visual axis creating the illusion of a gap in the reed bed. To the North of the visual axis is yet another gap between the hotel and haute couture apartments. A8 Visual Axis On each side of the break formed by the main visual axis are food and beverage and retail outlets which open out onto small piazzas which will be shaded from the sun in the day and provide wonderful din- ing spots at night with views out over the Lagoons. The apartments are also broken by breezeways and a visual corridor at their centre. This alleviates the wall effect and the gentle curve of the frontage of Prêt-a-porter apartments leads the eye around to the South corner of the development. A9 Land- scape The landscaping of the residential decks, po- dium areas, and boardwalks, continues the theme of the reed beds. The landscape radiates from the base of the towers in delicate, undulating forms. These waving, reed-like gestures are expressed as parallel rows of clipped hedges, tree lines, water courses and linear light elements. A powerful cen- tral gesture composed of bridges, water features and light elements cuts through the site and rein- forces the linkage to the waterfront. The principal objectives guiding the design include introducing a clear hierarchy of open space, delineating areas of public, semi-public and private use and creating a unique character to enhance the sense of place. Emphasis has been placed on creating a contem- porary landscape environment which reinforces the architecture and helps unify the built form and landscape. apartment interiorview from abartments Resorts& residential Apartment model b Apartment model A Resorts& residential
  • 414 415 Apartment model c zoning the lagoons layout Resorts& residential Apartment model c zoning all models Apartment model b zoning Resorts& residential
  • 416 417 Apartment model A zoning the lagoons exterir 2 Resorts& residential Zonning Fig.R.Z.1 Relationships between rooms Resorts& residential
  • 418 419
  • 420 421 Dubai is a city built on a unique promise. It is a promise of development through the vision and fore- sight of our leadership, and of understanding our position in the world as an essential corridor linking East and West. As befits a city with global aspirations, Dubai has always demonstrated a commitment to invest in its future. Our leadership has time and time again demonstrated remarkable acuity in predicting the city’s growth and infrastructural requirements, and has taken proactive action to stay ahead of the curve . Jabal Ali. intro developments in jabal ali Jabal ali services jabal ali free zone dubai world trade center SHEIKH AHMED BIN SAEED AL MAKTOUM CHAIRMAN THE EMIRATE OF DUBAI IS STRATEGICALLY LOCATED TO BE THE BEST-POSITIONED AVIATION, LOGISTICS, SHIPPING AND TRADE HUB. intro Jebel Ali is the flagship entity of Economic Zones World, posted robust growth in 2010, generating trade worth over US$60 billion and attracting fresh investments in diverse sectors. The performance reaffirms Jafza’s position as the region’s leading business hub. Jafza accounts for more than a quarter of Dubai’s total trade, in line with its performance since 2001 as a consistent contributor to the emir- ate’s economy. Last year’s robust performance testifies to the anchor role played by Jafza as a growth catalyst that contributes to Dubai and the UAE’s economic growth and recovery. Jafza offers advanced multimodal connectivity enabled by its ideal location between sea port and airport. It is built around Jebel Ali Port, one of the world’s top ten container ports, served by 150 shipping lines, offering 90 weekly services as well as feeder services that provide connection to regional markets. Jafza is further connected by air to more than 200 destinations worldwide. It is also linked regionally through an extensive road network and hosts over 50 of the world’s top logistics companies, all totalling to the fastest lead times for the movement of goods. Jabal Ali Jabal Ali
  • 422 423 Developments of Jebel Ali In 1985, the Jebel Ali Free Zone (JAFZ) was established. JAFZ, an industrial area surrounding the port, al- lows the international companies who relocate there to enjoy the special privileges of the free zone. These include exemption from corporate tax for fifteen years, no personal income tax, no import or export duties, no restriction on currency, and easy labor recruitment. Al Maktoum International Airport is being constructed just outside of the port area Jebel Ali has be- come the port most frequently visited by ships of the United States Navy outside the United States. Virtu- ally all sailors who have completed shipboard tours have visited the port at least once. Dubai Location Map Time to reach Dubai Jabal Ali Jabal Ali
  • 424 425 Dubai Map Landmarks of Dubai Jebel Ali Location Map Jabal Ali Jabal Ali
  • 426 427 Seaport Palm Jebel Ali Canal District Industrial Zone Jebel Ali Freezone Dubai World Central Jabal Ali Jabal Ali
  • 428 429 • History Port Jebel Ali was constructed in the late 1970s to supplement the facilities at Port Rashid. The village of Jebel Ali was constructed for port workers, and it has a population of 300 people. Covering over 134 square kilometers (52 sq mi), Port Jebel Ali is the biggest man-made harbor in the world and the biggest Middle East port. It is home to over five thousand companies from 120 countries of the world .With 67 berths and a size of 134.68-square-kilometer (52.00 sq mi), Jebel Ali is the world’s largest man-made har- bour and the biggest port in the Middle East. The port of Jebel Ali has become the port most frequently visited by ships of the United States Navy outside the United States. Virtually all sailors who have complet- ed shipboard tours have visited the port at least once. Due to the depth of the harbor and size of the port facilities. Jebel Ali port is located thirty-five kilometres southwest of Dubai, in the Persian Gulf. • Jebel Ali is the largest container port between Rotterdam and Singapore. • World’s 8th largest container port in 2009. • 14m TEU capacity • A unique, world-class, state-of-the-art port facility. • Jebel Ali can accommodate any vessel size in existence or on order. Operations Port Jebel Ali encompass over one million square meters of container yard. It also contains space for medium- and long-term general cargo storage, including seven Dutch barns with a total of almost 19 thou- sand square meters and 12 covered sheds covering with 90.5 square meters. In addition, Port Jebel Ali also consist of 960 thousand square meters of open storage. Port Jebel Ali is linked to Dubai’s expressway system and to the Dubai International Airport Cargo Vil- lage. The Cargo Village facilities capable of handling cargoes, making four-hour transit from ship to aircraft possible. The DPA’s commercial trucking service transport container and general cargo transport between Port Jebel Ali, Port Rashid, and the rest of UAE every day. Jebel Ali port is one of DP World’s flagship facilities and have been ranked as 9th in Top Container Port Worldwide having handled 7.62 million TEUs in 2005, which represents a 19% increase in throughput, over 2004. Jebel Ali Port was ranked 7th in the worlds largest ports in 2007. Jebel Ali port is managed by state- owned Dubai Ports World. Expansion The expansion of Jebel Ali port commenced in 2001, which is the master plan of the port. The project comprises 15 stages, which will be completed over the decade. The stage one was completed in 2007, which has increased the storage and handling capacity by 2.2 million TEUs and a Quay length of 1,200m. The entire project includes 2.4 kilometers of new berths, the container yard behind the berths and the supporting infrastructure and buildings necessary for a fully functioning terminal. The new port will be on reclaimed land extending seaward from the existing port and situated to the west of the Jumeirah Palm Island complex. The expansion of Jebel Ali port is expected to be complete in 2030, raising the total annual capacity to 55m TEUs. The current plan will multiply the total capacity of Jebel Ali port by more than seven, making it the world’s biggest container port, surpassing the ports of Shanghai and Singapore. Jabal Ali Jabal Ali
  • 430 431 Strengths: • Dubai –location of choice -Mid way between Asia & Europe. Logistics hub for Arabian Gulf. • Centre of trade for GCC, Indian Subcontinent, CIS & Africa. • Dubai –cosmopolitan city state –Commerce, Tourism, Trade, Entertainment. • Dubai and the ease of trading across borders. • Populations access of over 2 billion –including the fastest developing countries / regions. Landuse: Jebel Ali Industrial Area was established in 1979 to aid the diversification of the UAE economy by adding value to the coun- try’s oil-rich mineral resources. The companies, widely regarded as the industrial flagship of the UAE and one of the largest non-oil contributors to Dubai’s economy. Working under very tough physi- cal conditions in the desert and salt flats of Jebel Ali, it took four years to complete the arduous task. At the time, it was the biggest basic industry devel- opment project in the world. Modern industrial and warehouse facilities have led many large multinational companies to choose Jebel Ali Industrial Area fortheir Middle East head- quarters. Warehouses now stretch as far as the eye can see. Jebel Ali Industrial Area has a huge power and desalination plant that helps to supply the needs of Dubai’s growing population. A diverse range of businesses have decided to locate in the Jebel Ali Industrial Area, which offers facilities that equal the best in the world. Jebel Ali Industries includes: • Large self-contained office building. • Grit blasting wheelabrator. • Paint Shop with dry filter extraction. • Steel fabrication shop with overhead gantry crane. • Carpentry shop with two hot presses. • Carpentry paint shop with water filter extrac- tion. • Polyurethane injection machine. • GRP shop. • Aluminium fabrication shop. • •Covered stores with computerised inventory control. • Covered erection area with overhead gantry. Commercial production of aluminium at DUBAL began in January 1980, the entire planned produc- tion volume of 135,000 metric tonnes per annum having been pre-sold to two companies in North America. Through a series of successive expan- sion projects in the intervening years, DUBAL has evolved into the world’s largest modern aluminium smelter with a captive power station.  MARKET VIEW • An increase in the number of enquiries re- ceived during 2011 and road based courier compa- nies indicate possible activity in the near future. • Occupiers continue to drive the market and are able to demand flexible lease terms and longer rent free inducements. • Activity in the Jebel Ali Free Zone (JAFZA) mar- ket increased during 2011 as numerous contracts were renewed and tendered, improving occupier confidence. factories at jabal ali Jabal Ali Jabal Ali
  • 432 433 Jebel Ali Industrial Area Landuse: the flagship entity of Economic Zones World, posted robust growth in 2010, generating trade worth over US $60 billion and attracting fresh investments in diverse sectors. The performance reaffirms JAFZA’s position as the region’s leading business hub. JAFZA accounts for more than a quarter of Dubai’s total trade, in line with its performance since 2001 as a consistent contributor to the emir- ate’s economy. Jebel Ali Freezone Authority (JAFZA) Surrounding the port is Jebel Ali Free Zone, which was set up in 1985 offering business and tax incentives to companies located within it. The free zone is now home to a thriving business community offering among other things world class warehousing and distribution facilities. The business side of things is thriving, with more than 5000 companies active in Jebel Ali Free Zone, making it the world’s third largest free zone. Jafza offers advanced multimodal connectivity enabled by its ideal location between sea port and airport. It is built around Jebel Ali Port, one of the world’s top ten container ports, served by 150 shipping lines, offering 90 weekly services as well as feeder services that provide connection to regional markets. Jafza is further connected by air to more than 200 destinations worldwide. It is also linked regionally through an extensive road network and hosts over 50 of the world’s top logistics companies, all totalling to the fastest lead times for the movement of goods. Jabal Ali Jabal Ali
  • 434 435 Benefits • Customs free zone. • 100% foreign ownership of companies. • 0 personal income tax. • 100% profit and capital repatriation. • 0 corporate tax (up to 50 years renew). • Simple and transparent rules & regulations. • Simple Export-Import process. • Fast approval of permits (regist. and licenses). • Access to international workforce. • Safe & secure zone. • Availability of services online. • Wide range of product offering. JAFZA includes: • Leasing facilities (Office, LIU’s. land & others ) • Issuing licenses. • Full administrative support. • Community residence & staff accommodation. • Restaurants, Recreation Centers, Health Club, Banks & Retail shops. • On-site Customs, Hospital, Etisalat, Post, RTA (The Roads and Transport Authority),DEWA (Dubai Electricity and Water Authority). JAFZA Landuse: Jabal Ali Jabal Ali
  • 436 437 JAFZA Landmarks : JAZFA Showrooms and Warehouses Warehouses facility is structured into eight blocks comprising 68 Showroom-cum-Ware- house altogether. Each unit contains a ware- house at the rear with a glass façade showroom frontage. The showroom features a mezzanine floor, which is used as office space. The units are designed for the product display as well as stor- age and distribution. JAFZA View • A 30 floor office complex, has added 34,000 sq meter of prime commercial space to Jafza’s facilities. • The office complex is located along Sheikh Zayed Road in Jafza South. • With conference rooms, business centers, retail shops, a food court and coffee shops, it is Jafza’s first high-rise office complex. Commercial Community Centre • A top-class Food Court and a Shopping Centre is the first of its kind facility in the South Zone. • Located next to 18 seven storey buildings staff accommodation complex • 28 food court outlet and a comprehen- sive retail space consisting of money exchange, supermarket, car rental outlet, pharmacy, an electronic shop and a bank. Dubai World Central (DWC) it’s the areas around the airport to absorb employment, housing and supporting services. And that is how the concept of an Airport City, devel- oped around the airport platform, became an inte- gral part of the Master Planning process. The new airport city, “Dubai World Central” or DWC, extends over an area of 80 km2 around the airport platform, which itself occupies an area of 60 km2, bringing the total site area of Dubai World Central (DWC) to 140 km2. The amount and scale of development in DWC is enormous; comprising a site area of around 140 km2, a resident population of 950,000 and employment for some 750,000 (including airport). DWC further cements Dubai’s leading position as a logistics and trade hub. It takes advantage of Jebel Ali Port (the larg- est container port between Singapore and Rotterdam) and seamlessly connects it to Al Maktoum Inter- national Airport through the dedicated Dubai Logistics Corridor. This forms a single custom-bonded zone, reducing time on the ground and accelerating the flow of sea-to-air/ air-to-sea cargo. With direct access to the major trans-emirate road networks, DWC is a true multimodal logistics platform providing unprec- edented levels of connectivity, speed and efficiency. A strategic initiative of the Government of Dubai, DWC is an aerotropolis master planned to serve Dubai and the world that connects to it. The development is purpose-built to be the center of commerce. The currently operational Al Maktoum International Airport is the centerpiece of DWC and is seamlessly integrated with the surrounding dedicated zones catering to the specific needs of the aviation, logistics and exhibition sectors. Covering 140 square kilometers, DWC was envisioned from the inception with the future in mind. It has an unmatched capacity and scalability to meet any growth or expansion plans of local, regional and inter- national businesses. The components of DWC are: 1- Al Maktoum International Airport. 2- Aviation City. 3- Dubai Logistics City(DLC). 4- Residential City. 5- Golf City. 6- Commercial City. 7- Exhibition City. 8- Humanitarian City (IHC). Jabal Ali Jabal Ali
  • 438 439 DWC Landuse: it was opened on 27 June 2010. Previous work- ing names have included «Jebel Ali International Airport», «Jebel Ali Airport City», and «Dubai World Central International Airport». planned as the world›s largest passenger and cargo hub, ten times larger than Dubai International Airport and Dubai Cargo Village combined. the airport will have an annual cargo capacity of 12 million tonnes, and a passenger capacity of up to 160 million people per year. 1- Al Maktoum International Airport: The airport includes: • Five parallel runways, 4.5 kilometres in length, each separated by a distance of 800 metres (2,600 ft). • Three passenger terminals, including two luxury facilities; one dedicated to airlines of The Emirates Group, the second to other carriers, and the third dedicated to low-cost carriers. • 16 cargo terminals with a 12-million tonne capacity • Executive and royal jet centres • Hotels and shopping malls • Support and maintenance facilities. • Over 100,000 parking spaces (probably underground) for airport staff and passengers • Al Maktoum International Airport will also be served by the Dubai Metro and a dedicated Dubai World Central light railway. 2- Aviation City: • The Aviation City (405 ha excluding the airside). • It is divided into the land side non-bonded zone and the airside zone. • Major Land-uses Light Industrial Units, Warehousing (bonded zone), Academic and Training, Office Park and Commercial and Mixed Use (non-bonded zone). • Maintenance, repair and facilities with access to a regional maintenance hub with capabilities to con- duct all types of checks for all types of aircraft. • Hospitality Areas. • The city targets primarily airport operations and its sub-activities. Jabal Ali Jabal Ali
  • 440 441 Dubai Aviation City is a prime business zone under Dubai World Central that brings together at one place the best of companies, professionals and skill sets from around the world to cater to the growing aviation demands of the Middle East and the world at large. 3- Dubai Logistics City (DLC): • 19 million square meters site of mainly free-zone bonded areas. • Designed to ultimately handle 12 million tones of air cargo annually. • It shall include a staff village, for 50,000 workers. • Sites shall be created for state-of the-art office buildings, dedicated industrial business, trading com- panies, distributors, logistics service providers and forwarders, and shared facilities, such as warehouses and modern air-side cargo handling facilities. Dubai Logistics City is part of the Dubai Government’s 2015 strategy to develop the emirate’s transport and logistics services and capitalise on its geographical location to make Dubai a regional hub for logistics. 4- Residential City: • DWC Residential City covers approximately 715 hectares of land providing high quality accommoda- tion for middle-income households working within the giant urban aviation community. To be developed in 5 phases. • freehold land plots in Residential City will be offered to developers on the open market who will then build residential property projects in accordance with master plan guidelines. Up to 250,000 people are expected to live in Residential City and a further 20,000 will work there. •Several 3-5 star hotels, shopping malls and commercial strips will be developed. • Houses shall be a mix of luxurious apartments in blocks up to 10 stories in height. • A full range of civic amenities including mosques, health care centers, libraries and schools shall be provided. 5- Golf City: • The Golf city is spread over 15 million square meters. • Three 18-hole golf courses shall be designed. • The golf experience shall include extensive practice facilities, driving ranges and putting greens as well as a luxury clubhouse with restaurants and a pro-shop. • 2,500 freehold homes, ranging from 2 storey villas to 24 storey apartment blocks will overlook the golf courses • High-end boutique hotels complete with a spa resorts This city will enhance Dubai’s status as an interna- tionalgolfing destination as well as catering to pent-up local demand for tee-times. 6- Commercial City: • Spreads over 13.5 million square meters site. • Designed as Dubai World Central’s business and finance hub. • Will feature more than 850 towers, reaching 45 stories in height. • Expected to employ around 225,000 people. and expected to accommodate around 4,500,000 residents • It shall include a clusters of luxury villas. • Several hotels, ranging from 3 to 5 star deluxe. • Land plots shall be sold to leading developers, who shall build in accordance with the approved Dubai World Central master plan and design requirements. Jabal Ali Jabal Ali
  • 442 443 7- Exhibition City: • To be developed over an approximately 4 million square meters site. • Designed around a world class exhibition precinct (200,000m2) with expected transient visitors 12,000 at peak events. • The city shall have a large land area dedicated to Residential and Mixed Use development. • There are 3 major precincts around the exhibition area: the Office Park/Light Industry precinct, the commercial precinct and the Hotels/Serviced Apartments Precinct 8- International Humanitarian City (IHC).: • The Humanitarian Cities include two parts; the first is strategically located at within the DLC and close to airport and seaport operations (Humanitarian-DLC), while the second within the Golf City, containing a number mixed-use and residential buildings (Humanitarian-Golf). • Humanitarian-DLC is master planned to be the first true humanitarian hub amounting to an area of around 1 million square meters, dedicated mainly for warehousing and administration offices. • Humanitarian-DLC is designed as operational platform for humanitarian non-profit organizations (60% of site) as well as commercial warehouses (35% of site) • Humanitarian-Golf is mixed commercial/residential in nature, aimed at generating revenue to support humanitarian activities. Palm Jebel Ali is an artificial archipelago in Dubai,  which began construction in October 2002, was originally planned to be completed by mid 2008 and has been on hold since. The project, which is 50 per- cent larger than the Palm Jumeirah, is proposed to include six marinas, a water theme park, ‹Sea Village›, homes built on stilts above the water, and boardwalks that circle the “fronds” of the “palm” and spell out an Arabic poem by Sheikh Moham- med bin Rashid Al Maktoum: “ Take wisdom from the wise It takes a man of vision to write on water Not everyone who rides a horse is a jockey Great men rise to greater challenges”. History The breakwater was completed in December 2006, and infrastructure work began in April 2007. Major construction will not begin until most of the infrastructure work is complete. Following the financial crisis of 2008 work has been suspended and the developers, Nakheel, have confirmed no work would take place on the development in the near future. Jabal Ali Jabal Ali
  • 444 445 Palm Jebel Ali Zone: Palm Jebel Ali Landuse: is a new man made island district within the project that is designated as the CBD district of this premium waterfront ‘city within a city’ develop- ment launched in 2002. Although fully self sufficient it will be a vital sup- port city for the nearby Dubai World Central Air- port expected to be fully operational as the Middle East’s largest air hub by 2020. Dubai Waterfront It is today the world’s largest waterfront devel- opment and with a total land area of 140sqkm, it covers an area bigger than the whole of Manhattan, NY city, and Beirut, Lebanon, and is twice the size of Hong Kong Island. Upon completion The Waterfront will extend the Dubai coastline by 82 kilometres and have a residential population of 1.5 -2 million people within its 14000 hectares; double the population of Dubai today. Vision • The vision for the development is to provide a sustainable world-class corporate, leisure and living destination, adopting pioneering architectural designs, attracting global talent and intellectual capital. The project is expected to create one million new jobs. • Dubai Waterfront is bisected by Sheik Zayed Road, the main artery of Dubai, and it is adjacent to the Jebel Ali Port and Free Zone and the new Al Maktoum International Airport, providing strategic access on a local and international scale – and is the closest part of Dubai city to Abu Dhabi the UAE capital. The com- bination of these three locations – especially the new airport – underwrites the economics of this project. Jabal Ali Jabal Ali
  • 446 447 the Dubai Waterfront master plan includes: • Beachfront resorts and hotel districts. • A central business district. • Canal-front housing. • A range of affordable housing. • Major retail centres. • Golf courses. • Entertainment districts. • Educational facilities. • Hospitals. • Sports centres. • Civic and community amenities. Landuse Al Ras Corniche The Peninsula Riviera The Exchange Palm Boulevard Dubai Waterfront Islands is a massive mix- used reclamation project along the border of Dubai and Abu Dhabi. The project actually en- compasses the entire Palm Jebel Ali project. Dubai Waterfront Islands A PHASE 1 mixed- use hotels and beachfront leisure community. Waterfront City (the CBD of the new city )a new Dubai central business district, built on an almost square man made island. The beachside district of Madinat Al Arab is located above the square island across the canal. Jebel Ali Go Karting Dubai has the middle east’s fully equipped 40,000 sq.ft of air-condi- tioned indoor go-kart facility at formula one. Outdoors, an active go-karting fraternity races at the track beside the Jebel Ali Hotel. Jabal Ali Jabal Ali
  • 448 Jebel Ali Golf Resort & Spa is actually 2 resorts in 1, the beautiful Palm Tree Court & Spa and the original 5-star Jebel Ali Hotel Guests can use the facilities of both resorts add- ing up to an incredible range of amenities! Jebel Ali Golf Resort & Spa offers Dubai’s first and exclusive All Inclusive including a complete dine around in 15 restaurants and bars as well as a range of activities. Room info 260 rooms and suites on 5 floors. All with small balcony, air-conditioning, TV, free WiFi Internet access, tea/coffee maker, mini-bar, safe, bathrobes and hairdryer. Facilities of Palm Tree Court & Spa Aqua Gym Wind Surfing Water Ski- ing Shooting Volleyball Football Tennis Golf Academy Fishing Trips Diving Seaplane Flight Horse Riding Camel Rides Bio Garden Several res- taurants Painting Jabal Ali
  • 449 Busan international industrial logistics complex in south Korea. South Korea is located in Northeast Asia be- tween China, which has been growing not only as a major base for manufacturing, but also the world’s largest market, The country has also built up the world’s best logistics information systems, thereby providing speedy. intro Busan logistics complex Busan, located in the southeast of the Korean peninsula, It is currently undergoing consistent improvements in terms of its economy, tourism and culture as “an advanced first class city opening to the world.” Busan With a population of 3.75 million inhabit- ants, Busan stands as the second economic centre in Korea after the capital area of Seoul and one of the regional poles in Northeast Asia. After signifi- cant investments in its long-established industries (shipbuilding, logistics, footwear, textile). Busan confronts the challenge of a restructuring phase. Busan played a role of the stronghold of economic growth that led Korean economy until the middle of 1970s (21% of national export). Busan serves as a critical link between the Pacific and the Eurasian Continent. Busan is also highly competitive in transportation, port logis- tics, distribution, tourism, high technology, human resources and communications, which creates the right setting to lure foreign investment. Busan city intro the city the city services the city landmarks Nam-sik Hur the Mayor of Busan City Gateway to Northeast Asia Korea is located at the crossroads of this critical economic sphere, and Busan is the gateway to one of the most dynamic economic regions in the world and onto the Eurasian Continent. As the starting and ending point of the trans-continental railway that will connect Korea, China, Russia, and Europe, Busan plays a central role, both geographically and economically, in transforming Korea into the nexus of Northeast Asia. The advantages of the location: • Busan has vantage conditions of location that can combine marine and inland transport system such as a port, a railroad and an airport because it is located to the gateway to the Pacific rim area and the economic area in Northeastern Asia. Busan logistic city
  • 450 451 Site Location: busan location Busan logistic city • Busan has great growth potentialities as a port logistics city because trade services proportionate to a hub port in the international route are intensi- fied through the constructionof Busan New Harbor and preparation of logistics complex. • Busan tries to create comfortable urban space through preserving and using rich natural environ- ment, and to make itself international tourist and resort area through the developmentin the eastern part of the city. The urban character of Busan in the 21st century • The city taking the lead in port logistics func- tion as the gateway to the northeastern area in Asia. • The city doing shared accomplishment of eco- nomic, informational and financial function central- ized upon the National Capital region. • The city taking the lead in tourism function in the southern coastal area. Busan city • The city performing the central management in the southeastern economic region in Korea. The relationship between zones 3 The relationship between zones 1 The relationship between zones 2 Busan logistic city
  • 452 453 location landuse busan city nowbusan city vision Busan logistic city How to reach the Location: Rail transportland transport location map busan map Busan logistic city
  • 454 455 Gimhae Airport Landuse:  Gimhae international airport exteriorGimhae international airport interior Busan logistic city Gimhae International Airport Gimhae Airport is at Coast of Gadeok Island, Gangseo District, Busan: two runways, terminal. To develop the southeastern region as a bigger mega- region, an international hub airport is absolutely necessary. Gimhae Int’l Airport cannot function as a 24/7 international hub airport due to safety and noise issues. Therefore, the plan is to move the airport to Gadeok Island to establish a logistics hub complex connecting the port, the railway network and airport and to become an Asian gateway to which people and capital will want to flock from around the world. This will also expedite the ongo- ing globalization of Busan, reinforcing its national competitiveness. Gimhae international airport Planning to construct a new airport in Busan region in order to establish the connecting system of shipping railroad and airway for the international logistics. Gimhae Airport is the gateway to the Busan and Gyeongnam regions, the second largest economic zone in Korea. It possesses various international air routes (second to Incheon International Airport), and has flights to more than 20 cities in eight countries throughout Asia and Europe (Japan, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Hong Kong, Russia, and Germany), and flight time between Seoul and Busan is only 40 minutes. Gimhae Airport upgraded its facilities to accommodate large cargo aircraft by open- ing its modern international cargo terminal with a total area of 18,338 m² as of January 2009. It is expected that more active air logistics business opportunities will be created in addition to the growth of the regional economy in the future. Information:  There is an information centre on the ground floor of the International Terminal and the first and sec- ond floors of the Domestic Terminal. In addition, touch screen information stands are located on the first floor of each terminal. For visitors wishing to book accommodation, there is a hotel information and bookings desk on the ground floor of the International Terminal. A tourist information office can be found close to the entrance of the Domestic Terminal. Driving directions:  Busan Gimhae International Airport is directly linked to major routes, with the Gyeongbu Expressway (Route 1) leading to the airport from the north and the Namhae Expressway (Route 6) leading in from the west. The airport is situated off the Dongseo elevated road and is clearly signposted. Busan logistic city
  • 456 457 Busan port and FEZ Zoning : Busan port and FEZ Landuse: Busan logistic city Busan New Port The Port of Busan was designated on a 5.415 million m² in January 2002 to add value to the Port of Busan, which ranks fifth in container traffic in the world, and to facilitate foreign investment. In 2007, the port was expanded to 5.505 million m² site to establish an international shipping supplies distribution center. When the logistics complex in the hinterland is completed, the creation of added value will be accelerated due to facilitated foreign investment. Busan is Korea’s No.1 port city and an interna- tional port with 130-year history. Container throughputs have consistently grown, placing Busan among the world’s top five container ports since 1995. With the opening of 6 berths at Busan New Port in 2006, Busan. In addition to this, Busan New Port will feature with a total of 30 berths by 2011. The port city offers a business friendly environment fully equipped with globally competitive, state-of-the art logistics facilities, and world-class living conditions. Foreign logistics companies are invited to move into the distripark and take advantage of the state-of- the-art port logistics infrastructure and services that Busan New Port can offer. In addition, tenant busi- nesses can enjoy various incentives including tax benefits and streamlined administration services. •Total area : 11.1km2 (Terminal & Support Areas) •Water depth : 16m •Scale : 30 berths by 2015 (18 berths in operation) •Free Trade Zone : 8.08 km2 busan new port Busan international new port Busan international new port Busan international new port Busan logistic city
  • 458 459 Northern Terminal logistics park Landuse: Busan logistic city Busan-Jinhae Free Economic Zone FEZ is a A logistics hub acts as a stronghold where multinational companies may establish regional headquarters or centers in the hinterlands near well-established regional airports or seaports. Companies can provide value-added logistics services like manufacturing, assembly, processing, packing, and labeling using raw materials, compo- nents, and assembled goods throughout Northeast Asia. North Container Terminal and the logistics district measuring approximately 4 million square meters (960 acres) have been designated as a Free Trade Zone in 2004. In addition, Busan New Port is part of the Free Economic Zone. Companies can benefit from the special status of this area and maximize the efficiency of their business operation by using all the incentives available under the Free Trade Zone Act and the Free Economic Zone Act. Busan-Jinhae FEZ is located at the economic center for and door to the Northeast Asian region. This FEZ provides the very best industrial, managerial and residential environment for foreign investors. It is de- signed to be an outpost for international business in Korea and to provide the best environment for unlim- ited economic activities The Port of Busan FTZ (Free Trade Zone) has completed its second stage and companies have moved in. The first stage commenced successful operations in 2006. The Busan New Port hinterland (FTZ, 419,000 m²) in the first and second stages housed nine companies. The Dongbang Logistics Center (37,000 m²) is now into full operation. Advantage of Busan Newport free economic zone: • strong position geographically to serve as the gateway hub of northeast Asia. • procedure - free foe import and export upon non-duty area. • strong economy with safe vessel load to China, Japan, Russia and all over the world. • Build prior notice system for import customs inspection for the cargo into free trade zone. • notify inspection methods and schedules for faster processing of inspection and cost cutting by electronic custom system. • extend detention date for import shipment. • omissions of bounded trucking in between new port terminal and distribution area. • no occurrence of cost and delay upon bonded transportation procedure. Busan-Jinhae Free Economic Zone Busan logistic city
  • 460 461 Hwajeon Industrial Complex Landuse: industerial complex zoning for startegic industeries industerial complex landuse industerial complex bird view Busan logistic city International industrial and logistics complex Busan had seen a magnificent economic growth until late 1970s with light industries like shoe, textile and plywood fields leading the growth. Since then, the city has been continuously trying to reor- ganize its industry. A good example would be the selection of and intensive investment on the ten strategic industries with great potential of growth and of leading the economy of Busan. These are parts of broader vision of the port city, which is to develop into a central nexus of the global exchanges serving as a major hub of logis- tics, information, finance and tourism in the Pacific Rim. As a result of these enormous efforts, the city became one of the ten best cities in the Asia Pacific region to do business. factories at busan Busan City can provide a new market, advanced technology acquisition, production/logistics cost reduc- tions, and an advanced qualify of life to companies investing in Busan. Infrastructure • The Integrated Logistics Complex, with fully integrated sea, air, land and river transport links as well as a second-to-none cutting-edge logistics terminal and infrastructure, will support high value-added logis- tics activities. • The Metropolitan Industrial Complex will be developed as a global parts and materials supply base for the automobile, airline and machinery industries, etc. • The Knowledge-based Industrial Complex has a high concentration of environmentally-friendly R&D centers and will be served by a newly-constructed world-class residential district nearby. Strategic Industries: • Marine Industry. • Parts and Materials Industry. • Tourism and Convention Industry. • Multi-media and IT Industry. • Medical Industry. • Textile and Fashion Industry. • Green Energy. Overview: Location: Gangseo District, Busan Area: 33.0 km2 Cost: about USD 9.3 billion Period: 2008 ~ 2020 Busan logistic city
  • 462 463 Located on the extension of the exquisite coastline of Haeundae Beach, East Busan Tourist Complex (EBTC) that will feature a world-famous theme park and other resort elements, will be developed into a major international destination for tourists from neighboring countries including China and Japan as well as from other parts of Korea. Busan Tourist Complex zone: touristic zoning tourism in busan now tourism in busan now Busan logistic city Building the East Busan Tourist Complex Busan Tourist Complex magnificent natural beauty of the Haeundae and Gijang areas of the city will see them being developed into Asian tour- ism hubs by building world-class tourist attractions and through continued expansion of the city’s con- vention facilities. Busan City will establish the East Busan Tour- ist Complex with a world-class theme park and year-round tourist attractions in the Gijang region. A massive tourist resort complex will be built at Haeundae Beach, the nation’s leading tourist desti- nation and a specially designated tourist zone. The Complex will be a comprehensive tourist and leisure zone situated near the downtown areas touristic zone at busan of the East Busan region, which are emerging as the new downtown areas of the city. The Urban Leisure Zone and Theme Park Zone, located right by Haeundae, will be home to entertain- ment, shopping and other facilities closely related to city life, while the Beach Zone and Leisure Sports Zone will fulfill customers› needs for revitalization, relaxation and refreshment.  Contents: Theme Park, Leisure/Multi-purpose/Tourism Culture, Health, Business, Lodging, Marine sports facility, etc (All facilities fall under the tourism development law.) The Urban Zones: • Urban Leisure Zone: shopping mall, wa- ter park, hotel, etc. (leisure and entertainment zone enhancing the quality of city life) • Theme Park Zone: cinema theme park, nation- al science museum, etc. (realization of the zone’s core themes) • Beach Zone: Medical town, silver town, etc. (fulfillment of citizens’ revitalization / relaxation needs, set in superb coastal scenery) •Leisure Sports Zone golf range, sports center, recreational facilities, condominium, etc. (reflecting the need for high-end sports facilities). Location: tourism district bird view Busan logistic city
  • 464 Munhyeon Financial Complex Busan International Financeis a project of great symbolism, as it reflects Busan’s spirations to become a regional hub for international finance markets. Designated as a Center of Finance by the central government in January 2009, Munhyeon Financial Complex is expected to reinforce the international finance and business capabilities and functions of Busan, which is rapidly emerging as a leading marine capital of Northeast Asia, by estab- lishing a financial cluster with customized niche financial functions for port logistics, shipping and fishery industries as well as functions as a financial hub.The nation›s largest financial complex, com- bined with advanced business facilities and com- mercial and cultural spaces. Busan, a city of marine finance where 10 of the world›s top shipyards are concentrated and home to the global leader in derivatives trading volumes, is now emerging as the global center for marine finance and derivatives with mid-term and long-term support from the central and local governments and through the establishment of related infrastructure. Busan International Finance Center will accommodate the major financial institutions in Busan, the public financial agencies which will move to Busan, and other facilities such as hotels and shopping cen- ters. Major facilities: International business, Convention center, Foreign educational institution, Foreign medical institution, R&D center, Hotels, Residential complex Munhyeon Financial Complex 1- Landmark Tower 2- Town Center 3- Culture & Experience Zone 4- Entertainment Center 5- Business & Cultural/ Commercial Facilities 6- KTGC (Korea Technology Guarantee Corpora- tion)  7- The Busan Branch of the Bank of Korea 8- Busan Bank commercial and bussines district zoning Busan logistic city
  • 465 Jazan city intro the city Jazan city services Jazan city landmarks intro Jizan, or more properly Jazan, was known in ancient times as Almikhlaf Alsulimani. Jizan area consists of fertile plains, forests and mountains. The fertile plains, which extend behind the coastal swampland, have been created by the alluvial deposits brought down from Jizan is one of the Kingdom’s richest agricultural regions, remark- able for both the quality and variety of its agricul- tural produce. It is notable for its production of coffee beans, grain crops and fruit. is currently witnessing tremendous economic, educational, cultural and healthcare development. It is famous for its scholars, poets and men of let- ters and is the headquarters of the Governor, local councils and branches of governmental depart- ments. Jazan city Jazan Economic city is one of the most impor- tant economic cities currently under development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Within the next twenty years the total investment into the city is ex- pected to exceed one hundred billion Saudi Riyals. The strategic location of the economic city is considered one of the most significant factors in at- tracting global investors, together with competitive energy rates in the city. Jazan Economic City» is located in a strategic location, along an important sea route connect- ing major continents; it overlooks the traffic of Abdullah bin Abdulaziz The king of saudi arabia maritime transport on the red sea, which connects Europe, East Africa, and Asia, thus benefiting from this strategic location. JEC›s Master Plan includes the construction of an international industrial seaport that is prepared to receive huge carrier ships and oil tankers, which will provide vast opportunities in ship building industry and other supporting logistic services. This would also provide investors in the city with conve- nient and quick access of movement of raw materi- als and finished products. • Jazan Economic City's Area is 108 km2. • The designated space area for main and heavy industries is 32 km2. • The designated space area for secondary industries is 28 km2. Jazan city
  • 466 467 jazan city New Economic centers in sudia arabia jazan city in the sudian west coast Jazan city • The designated space area for residential, commercial and recreational areas is 32 km2. • The Economic City is prepared for the 200,000 residents. • The City aims to provide more than 150,000 direct job opportunities. • The City is located 30 km north of King Abdullah's International Airport, due for operation by 2015. • The distance between Jazan Economic City & Jeddah is 670 km. Geography & Location West of Abha on the tropical Red Sea coast is the town of Jizan, located in southwestern Saudi Arabia. Jizan covers an area of 40,000 square kilometers, including some 5,000 villages and cities. Attached to it are 100 islands, including the important island of Farasan. Jizan is the third most important seaport on the Red Sea. The Jizan region runs along the Red Sea coast for almost 200 miles (300 km) and includes some 100 islands. jazan city streets Jazan city
  • 468 469 Site Zoning POWER PLANT In collaboration with the Saudi Electricity Company, Jazan Economic City’s master plan includes con- struction of a power plan with a production capacity reaching 2680 Megawatts. The power plant benefits from the existence of Saudi ARAMCO, which will supply fuel to the power plant.Commercial operation of the power plant is expected in 2015. The plant design has taken into account utilizing the latest systems and technologies to fulfill all power demands of residential, industrial and public facilities within JEC. Jazan city Jazan City Districts Jazan city
  • 470 471 This would greatly contribute in pushing the development Wheel and will create distinct job opportunities for the citizens Of Jazan. The refinery will be a catalyst to attract secondary Downstream industries to Jazan Economic City. MAIN ATTRACTIONS The area’s tourist landmarks include: Buqaat Al Farar, Buqaat Marouh, Buqaat Heran, Al Meriah and Al Makhafa in addition to the Al Absiyah Fortress antiquities and the agricultural plateaus of Shat Al Sabaya. A visit to the Jazan region must include the Far- asan islands in the Red Sea, which forms an archi- pelago with nearby pearl-rich islands. These islands are situated in the southeastern part of the Red Sea and to the southwest of Jazan city. INTEGRATED ECONOMIC HUB Jazan Economic City has been divided into four main sectors, forming an integrated economic city . The city will have a Primary and heavy industries area, Secondary industries area, Human Capital & Business Development area and residential & com- mercial area, supported with a world class indus- trial sea port. HEAVY INDUSTRIES ZONE The objective for Jazan region is focused on ex- ploiting available energies and relative features, to establish “Local Industry with Global Standards”, • Oil Refinery. • Industrial Sea Port . • Power Plant. • Integrated Steel Complex. • Ship Building & Maintenance Complex. • Copper Processing. • Silica Processing. SECONDARY INDUSTRIAL ZONE Jazan Economic City’s Master Plan was designed to create adequate opportunities for establishing new secondary and downstream industries that depend on the heavy industries within the city for their raw material, thereby reducing transportation jazan heavy industeries jazan secondary industerial zone and overall production costs. This enables the end product to be competitively priced to compete in the global market. • Chemicals & Plastics. • Metal Fabrication. • Silica Downstreem Industries. • Electronics Industry and appliances. • Food Processing Industries. Jazan city WATER DISTRIBUTION PLANT The construction work has started in JEC water network to receive and distribute desalinated water after linking it with ALSHIGAIG Desalination Plant which is developed by the Saline Water Conversion Corporation. The plant will be prepared to receive and distribute 10,000 m3 daily, with an expansion plan in 2015 to receive 30,000 m3 daily. jazan power plantjazan power plant jazan water distriution plant SAUDI ARAMCO REFINERY The Refinery Project is one of the most signifi- cant projects in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for its economic contribution to the region of Jazan. The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Abdul- lah Bin Abdul Aziz, has given his approval to Saudi ARAMCO to build a petroleum refinery in Jazan Economic City with capacity of 400,000 bpd. Aramce refinary Jazan city
  • 472 473 New King Abdullah Airport New King Abdullah Airport - Jazan, Saudi Arabia The new King Abdullah Airport in Jazan is going to be the landmark of Jazan province, the tangible in- dicator for the province’s development, and invest- ments capital attractor. A Greenfield development, It will serve as the first regional airport in the southern area of the Kingdom serving up to 3.6million passengers an- nually operating both domestic and international flights. The General Authority of Civil Aviation in Saudi Arabia -the client- has located the new airport on the shores of the Red Sea and the design is inspired by the region’s marine life and highlights the impor- tance of the Red Sea for Jazan province in particular and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in general. 45% of the Kingdom’s fisheries production comes from this region only. Thus, the Red sea and marine life forms the life-line of Jazan’s residents life. They celebrate the sea annually in a fishing festival called the “Ha- reed Festival”, one of the major cultural events in the country, sponsored by the government. New King Abdullah Airport layout The main design challenge for the terminal building was to achieve complexity out of simplicity and economy. A simple sweeping parabolic “bridge” separates the terminal’s Landside from Airside and takes the load of the flying ribs covering the two main halls of the terminal and transfers it to the ground. This allowed the creation of voluminous spaces, and clear self-directing environments for passengers, leading them throughout the terminal spaces from Check-in counters towards holding and concession lounges and aircraft stands gates. Jazan city • Pharmaceutical Industries. • Construction Material. • Photovoltaics Industry. Human Capital Devlopment & Business District Zone To achieve a successful industrial plan of the Economic City, we aim to create highly productive and competent manpower to lead the development processes in the region. • Technical Training Area, with space of a Million Square Meters. • Institutes & Colleges. • Commercial Business District. • Business Center Island. • Researches & Studies Centers. • Conventions & Exhibitions Halls. RESIDENTIAL& LIFESTYLE ZONE • Water Front District. • International Hotels. • Corniche. • Green Landscaping • Urban Center. • Schools & Hospitals. • Shopping Centers & Parks. • Resorts & Spas. jazan residential zones jazan bussiness district Jazan city
  • 474 475 Airport section New King Abdullah Airport elevations New King Abdullah Airport exterior New King Abdullah Airport exteriorNew King Abdullah Airport exterior Jazan city New King Abdullah Airport plans New King Abdullah Airport exteriorNew King Abdullah Airport exterior Jazan city
  • 476 477 INVESTMENT INTENSIVES AND ATTRACTIVENESS Investment Intensives: • Allowing Foreign Companies to own 100% of Projects. • Financing facilities to fund projects by the Saudi governmental programs and funds. • 50% exemptions in taxes for national man- power payrolls and training expenses. • Tax Credit of 15% of industrial projects capital. Investment Attractiveness: • Competitive Energy Rates, that reduce produc- tion costs and increase competitiveness of finished products in international markets. • Ease of Access to raw material and resources. investment ambisious of jazan • Strategic Location. • Abundance of Trained National Manpower. • World Class infrastructure according to the latest intelligent technologies and standards. The Education Area To create a comprehensive residential area , schools comprising all education levels have been inte- grated , alongside to colleges and training academies that will assist in the development of powerful local cadres Jazan University • History Jazan University was established by a royal decree in 2006 by King Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz and other distinguished citizens of Jazan Province. The main idea behind the emergence of JazanU was to provide the people of Saudi Arabia and the local community of Jazan with unique educational op- portunities, up-to-date programs and higher edu- cation degrees using state-of the- art technologies to further contribute to growth and development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Jazan University is should be established long time ago. Many people from Jazan went to study in some diferent cities like Riyadh, Jeddah, and Abha. If we looking for the majority of the student from Jazan who graduated from these different cities, we will Find that they have more successful on their fields. we can say that from how many students attended to it since it was opened. 28 thousand students in seven years is really big number for a new university. jazan university Jazan city Jazan Port Jazan Port is one of the seven ports of the King- dom. Jazan is one of the main agricultural regions in the Arabian Peninsula. The coastal plain (called Tihama) forms the principal agricultural zone. Though a coastal prov- ince, Jazan’s highest elevation reaches 2,484 meter (8,150 ft) above sea level. The city of Jazan, the capital of the province, is 200 km south of Abha and approximately 700 km southeast of Jeddah Boats anchored at the port of Jizan. Comparatively small in the Kingdom, Jizan Port is not a busy harbor even though it is the main port of the southern Saudi Arabia. A cargo ship crossing the red sea. The picture was shot on the way to Farasan Island. The province of Jizan spans almost 300 km along the Red Sea coast. Jizan Port serves free travel to the Island of Far- asan twice daily.  A ship to Farasan Island waiting for passengers  at the Port jazan port jazan port jazan port jazan port Jazan city
  • 478 479 Around 9.6 km2. The design focused on infra- structure and the use of latest technologies The region will include the following:- • Residential units (Villas, flats) of different spaces. • 8000 residential units will be supplied by 2015 • Public utilities and integral recreational ser- vices   • 1 km2 land area for Health facilities • 3.2 km2 land area for sport and recreation facilities • 1.4 km2 land area for education centers • 0.2 km2 land area for social facilities • 5.5 km2 land area for commercial centers • Around 0.8 km2 land area as green spaces Seafront District: Due to the overlooking of JEC towards the Red Sea, 6.6 km2 has been allocated as a seafront dis- trict. It will host about 7 thousand various units of villas and chalets extending into water. The resident in this area enjoys an attractive and calm life. Each beautiful seafront villa occupies its own marina. The seafront district will also contain world-class hotels, resorts and marina. The Marine Frontage This area is distinct due to its activities and provisions complementing the residential area , and characterizing it with a luxurious ambiance , as well as attracting investors to this promising residential hub . residential district at jazan sea front of jazan Al- Cornish A large portion of the residential area lies on the periphery of the gulf coast , and we have designed a residential marina housing near the yacht clubs , which will contribute to providing opportunities for the development of the residential and real estate in jazan city al kornish of jazan Jazan city • Campus The university’s main central campus is located on the beach in the northern outskirts of the city of Jazan, covering an area of 15 million square meters, thus becoming the second largest university com- plex in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The complex will house two campuses for males and females; consisting of 14 colleges for males and females respectively, with an overall capacity of 50,000 students. The university campus will also house a university hospital, library, hotel, research center, sport and entertainment arenas, student dorms and housing accommodation for faculty and staff. It has the 350 International English Teaching Staff member in the(ELC) English Language Center in different Campuses jazan university The Health services Area This is a specialized area containing all the health facilities required for the residents in the jazan city. It also opens the opportunity for the con- struction of infirmaries and private hospitals Residential Areas and Seafront District Within an economical structure based on pri- mary industries, around 12.6 km2 have been allo- cated as a residential zone which offer Comfort and Extra-Life-Stylist of the resident It has been divided into two zones : • Residential Area • Seafront District Residential Areas: jazan international hosbital residential areas Jazan city
  • 480 481 Al sahan city intro landuse and structure Al- sahan city Qatar landmarks Al-sahan city studies al sahan city landmarks intro Qatar is Emirates flies to Doha, capital of Qatar and the country’s main city, located towards the north of the Qatari peninsula. Explore this fast- growing and increasingly ambitious nation, famous not only for its reserves of oil and natural gas, but also for its world-renowned Museum of Islamic Art. Learn more about Doha and Qatar below, or see all our destinations on the Route Map. THE EMIRATE OF Qatar IS STRATEGICALLY LOCATED TO BE THE BEST- POSITIONED AVIATION, LOGISTICS, SHIPPING AND TRADE HUB. Al Sahan City Located south of Doha on the 1400-ha current airport site (to be decommissioned by 2012), Al Sahan City is expected to initiate the revitalization of an area which has remained under utilised due to the lack of readily available land for such significant urban renewal projects in the past. Al Sahan City is identified as one of the best conceptual master plan proposals for Doha Airport City- Qatar. Taking its inspiration from the traditional ‘sahan’, or the Arabic courtyard house, Al Sahan City pos- sesses an identity and role that is unique from other megaprojects in Qatar. Land Use and Structure Ushering this socio-cultural renewal is a creative mix of land use that redefines the way of doing business, provides convenient living and lifestyle choices, and a variety of commercial, cultural and institutional facilities. Positioned to capitalize on the site’s location, land value, accessibility to and synergies with Doha and the New Doha Internation- al Airport (NDIA), Al Sahan City will feature develop- ments that not only complement airport activities, but offer choice lifestyle alternatives to those found in Doha This is the wonderful city natural extension and talk to North Qatari capital Doha, where spanning over 35 square kilometers and waterfront nature picturesque It represents a new way to preserve the environment, and live its about 200 thousand people, also will operate 170 thousand workers ,and 80 thousand visitors will visit Developments of Al Sahan City There are 4 main development districts in Al Sahan City, each framing the grand courtyard and providing an interface to the surrounding area. The north is a business and entertainment district for regional branch and IT offices, traditional souqs, shopping malls, hotels, MICE, and leisure facilities that capitalize on the site’s prime airport address, waterfront location, and proximity to the West Bay CBD. The west Leveraging on the highly-trafficked Al Matar Road in the west is a mixed-use district which will initiate the redevelopment of the exist- ing commercial street. The Eastern boundaries is a hi-tech business park district connecting with the proposed logistics zone in the NDIA. The Southern a range of housing typologies are found in the southern residential district which include villa housing to attract Qatari families, as well as multi-family dwellings for professionals and airport staf Qatar Location Map (fig2). Al Sahan City (fig1). Al-Sahan city Al-Sahan city
  • 482 483 Qatar Map (fig3). Landmarks of Qatar Al sahan city Concept A “City Inspired by Tradition”, Al Sahan City pres- ents a contemporary take on the traditional Arabic courtyard house by broadening its functional, socio- cultural, and environmental significance. Al Sahan City shapes its urban form, programs its land uses, and designs its meaningful public and private spaces in the same manner traditional courtyard houses provide common venues for inter- action under the shade, comfort and privacy given by its surrounding rooms. By reintroducing court- yards in Qatar’s modern urban setting, Al Sahan City will offer a bold and fresh planning and design approach that strongly responds to aspirations of reviving the lost courtyard spaces and the values it represents: hospitality, community, privacy, and respect for the environment. qatar landmarks Al-Sahan city Al-Sahan city
  • 484 485 Road Network of the site This design consists of two roads main and sub Road Network of the site (fig15). landuse Courtyard Flats. Courtyard Family. Al Sahan city Land use (fig16). Al-Sahan bird view Al-sahan city center Al-Sahan city Al-Sahan city
  • 486 487 Hamad International Airport formerly known as New Doha International Air- port (NDIA) is an international airport currently un- der construction in Doha, capital of Qatar. Hamad International Airport was originally slated to replace the old Doha International Airport as Qatar’s only international airport in 2009, but after a series of costly delays, the opening is set for mid-2013. It has been built 5 kilometers east of the current airport . The new airport is spread over an area of 8,640 acres (3,500 ha). Due to the delays, the airport is currently scheduled to open on 1 April 2013 and will initially serve airlines that do not require lounge access. National carrier Qatar Airways is due to move into the new airport once all the lounges are completed with the move slated to take place from June to September 2013. Abdul Aziz Al No- aimi, chairman of the Qatar Civil Aviation Authority as well as a spokesperson from Qatar Airways, the operator of the airport and main customer, have indicated that the airport will be renamed Hamad International Airport when the hub opens History The current airport has witnessed high growth in passenger and cargo levels in recent years, and its terminal suffers from over-crowding. This rapid growth was mainly brought by the fast expansion of Qatar’s state airline, Qatar Airways. Other growth came from the booming economy of Qatar. Plan- ning took place in 2003 and construction began in 2006 and after a series of delays, the first two phases and a part of the third phase are scheduled to open mid 2013 while the third and final phase is scheduled for 2015. The airport is built over 22 square kilometers, half of which is on reclaimed land The airport is going through tests and the Qatar Airways’ CEO Akbar Al Baker, has announced in an interview in August 2012 that the New Doha Inter- national Airport (NDIA) will be open in under 12 months. NDIA was designed primarily to deal with the growing volume of traffic at the airport. The airport will be able to handle 29 million annual passen- Hamad International Airport fig18. Hamad International Airport fig18 (2). gers at its opening, three times the current airport capacity. Upon completion, it will be able to handle 50 million passengers per year, although some estimates suggest the airport could handle up to 93 million per year, making it the second largest capac- ity holder in the region after Dubai Runways The airport has two parallel runways, located 2 kilometers from each other, which are designed for simultaneous take-offs and landings . The first is 5,500 m (18,000 ft) and is considered to be the longest runway in Western Asia, and also one of the longest runways in the world. The second runway, is 4,900 m (16,100 ft). Grand Hayatt Doha resort & spa Hotel would like to inform all guests that the Rocca swimming pool would be under maintenance until the 28th of February, 2013 and the Infin- ity swimming pool until the 10th of March, 2013. Guests can use the indoor and the Residence swim- ming pools. Celebrate unparalleled luxury in Qatar at Grand Hyatt Doha. Our 5-Star hotel in Doha is within convenient reach of Doha International Airport, and steps away from the city’s financial and commercial centre Being one of the most sought-after hotels in Doha and located on the shoreline of the new West Bay Lagoon district, Grand Hyatt Doha features Grand Hyatt Doha(fig20) Grand Hyatt Doha(fig19). room fig22 room fig21. balconies or terraces in most of its luxury suites & rooms showcasing breath-taking views of the Ara- bian Gulf Guests enjoy a broad selection of international cuisine and local flavours at our gulf hotel’s innova- tive restaurants. Contact us for more information, or reserve a table via our dedicated Grand Hyatt Doha Restaurants & Lounges website. Room A 40-sq.-meter room is decorated with contem- porary Arabian touches that complement one king- sized bed, work desk and marble bath with walk-in rain shower and separate tub. Modern amenities include LCD TV and wireless Internet access. Bal- cony or terrace features lounge furniture, offering the perfect place to unwind Activites Delight in the many activities offered at Grand Hyatt Doha. Jaula Spa & Club, an Arabian-inspired spa in Qatar is set up with an elegant garden with indoor tranquility pools. Built to emulate a small village, Jaula features six spacious treatment rooms for ladies, four for men, and two couples’ treatment rooms Our 5-star Qatar beach hotel also provides a 400-metre luxury private beach, outdoor swimming pool and a fully equipped fitness centre to keep you occupied among the many activities in Qatar. Al-Sahan city Al-Sahan city
  • 488 489 Refrences chapter 1&2 • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panama_Canal • Y. Folkman and R. Assael, Aeromagnetic map for Sinai Ministry of Energy and infrastructure, Adminis- tration for research in Earth sciences,Egypt • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suez, last accessed 23/2/2011 • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suez_Canal, last accessed 23/2/2011 • http://www.alwafd.org/%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%88%D9%85-%D9%88%D9%86%D9%83%D9%86 %D9%88%D9%84%D9%88%D8%AC%D9%8A%D8%A7/35-%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%88%D9%85/291937- %D9%85%D8%B5%D8%B1-%D8%AA%D9%8F%D8%B4%D8%BA%D9%91%D9%84- %D9%88%D8%A7%D8%AF%D9%8A-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%83%D9%86%D9%88%D9%84%D9% 88%D8%AC%D9%8A%D8%A7-%D8%A8%D8%B9%D8%AF-%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8F%D9%81-16- %D8%B9%D8%A7%D9%85 • http://egyptian-gods.org/eye-of-horus/ • http://www.maat.sofiatopia.org/eyes.htm standards • Ernst and Peter Neufert , Architects’ Data, 3rd Edition 2006, Blackwell science publishers • Ben Vickery, Geraint John, and Rod Sheard, STADIA: A Design and Development Guide,4th Edition 2004 ,Elsevier Publishing • Quentin Pickard, The Architects’ Handbook, 1st Edition 2005 Wiley-Blackwell Publishers • FIFA Safety Guide lines, FIFA Annual report • Christopher R. Lamberth ,Implications on Stadium design trends, A Newsletter by InformeDesign. A Web site for design and human behavior research.vol.4 issue 6, www.informedesign.umn.edu • PCI Swimming Pool Guide, Scott Cohen Pool & Spa Perspectives (Volume 1) • Walter A. Rutes, Richard H Pannar, and Lawrence Adams Hotel design Planning and development • Joseph De Chiara, John Callender Time-saver Standards for building types Second Edition • CLEVELAND RESIDENTIAL- DESIGN GUIDELINE- MANUAL CLEVELAND, TENNESSEE PREPARED FOR THE CITY OF CLEVELAND, TENNESSEE • Mike Biddulph INTRODUCTION TO RESIDENTIAL LAYOUT • (HOSPITAL-BASED PSYCHIATRIC EMERGENCY SERVICES) OBSERVATION UNITS book • http://openbuildings.com/buildings/al-sahan-city-profile-4673 • http://openbuildings.com/buildings/mountain-eco-resort-profile-40446 • http://openbuildings.com/buildings/sheraton-dameisha-resort-profile-3882 • http://inhabitat.com/tianjin-eco-city-is-a-futuristic-green-landscape-for-350000-residents/ • http://openbuildings.com/buildings/huadong-huan-qiu-commerce-and-logistics-city-profile-5432 • http://openbuildings.com/buildings/cairo-expo-city-profile-1674 • http://www.archdaily.com/102085/yjp-administrative-center-hhd_fun/ • -New embassies for the 21st Century- the American Institute of Architects • FORM FOLLOWS VALUES. Explaining Embassy Architecture by Natasha Dimitrova Guenova • http://www.archdaily.com/40560/spa-golfer-hotel-studio-sangrad/ • http://www.sekuledunes.com/residential-area/ • http://www.brandonlandscape.com/ • http://www.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fdesignexcellence.state.gov%2F&h=GAQGjFaed • http://www.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FList_of_diplomatic_ missions_of_Egypt%23Europe&h=hAQEFhuLj • http://designexcellence.state.gov/ • Design guildline for modern Thai architecture in resort contexts. • http://www.visitmyphilippines.com • http://www.searchandgo.com • http://en.wikipedia.org • All season resorts guideline by Brent Harley (chapter1) • All season resorts guideline by Brent Harley (chapter2) • The Resort Municipality of Whistler • CLASSIFICATION MANUAL HOTELS – Abu Dhabi Tourism Authority • HOTEL OPERATIONS AND MANAGEMENT - DIALOGS BETWEEN A TRAINER AND A TRAINEE • TOURISM DESTINATION PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT by school of travel industry management. • http://cstres.com/TimeShareCondo.aspx • http://www.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fiml.jou.ufl.edu%2F&h=qAQGBoW7K • STANLY RANCH RESORT MASTER PLAN- Prepared by SWA Group • The Fitzwilliam Hotel design standard • http://zeospot.com/villas-with-pools-greece-the-wide-open-villa-by-klab-architects/ • http://www.urbanoasislandscaping.com/ • http://www.visitmyphilippines.com/ • http://www.arch2o.com/ • • http://www.brasiliabsb.com/photo_lago_norte_1.htm • http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1439230102?ie=UTF8&tag=fetcasket20&linkCode=as2&camp= 1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=1439230102#reader_1439230102 • http://www.garrycohn.com/royal-insurance-building-10003819.htm • http://www.palfx.info./view.php?id=205 • http://tafanin.net/showthread.php?t=22 • http://www.ta-arab.com/2010/07/blog-post_8028.html • http://www.cu.edu.eg/conferances%20Center/index.htm • http://www.m3mare.com/vb/showthread.php?17360 • http://www.koray.com/ar/Dogan_Media_Center.asp • http://thomasmayerarchive.de/categories.php?cat_id=1542&l=english • http://thomasmayerarchive.de/categories.php?cat_id=1541&l=english • http://www.worldstadiums.com/middle_east/countries/egypt.shtml • http://www.uscollegesearch.org/physical-education-teaching-and-coaching-colleges.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/School
  • 490 • http://www.sports-centre.com.au/ • http://www.google.com.eg/images?hl=ar&biw=963&bih=396&q=sports+halls&wrapid=tlif129855404 016911&um=1&ie=UTF-8&source=univ&sa=X&ei=ulxmTYidAoSBhQfpj5GtDQ&ved=0CEEQsAQ • http://www.artisport.it/sport-equipment/mini-soccer/balls/five-a-side-indoor-pitch.htm • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sports_school • http://www.youthsporttrust.org/page/specialist-sport/index.html • http://www.m3mare.com/vb/showthread.php?17360 • http://www.arab-eng.org/vb/t181904.html casestudies • DCT Logistics Emirates LLC • Jafza bi-monthly newsletter Emirates LLC • Air transport and logistics in Dubai by Juha Wilén • Planning Regulations & Development Guidelines by dar ah-handsa • Global Ports connecting Global Markets • Economic Contribution of Jebel Ali Free Zone • Economic Contribution of Jebel Ali Free Zone by Al Tamimi & Company • The Isis Palm Jebel Ali Dubai by Globle Investment Opportunities • Busan References: BJFEZ Busan Jinhea free Economic Zone- • HIERARCHICAL STATUS OF BUSAN & CHANGES OF SPATIAL STRUCTURE FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF URBAN BASIC PLANNING by Jung-Chul SHIN • Vision and strategies of Busan: Development of the city into a ocean capital in the 21th century or the area era of the northeast Asia by Young LEE • OECD Territorial Reviews Busan, Korea by OECD Territorial Reviews • Overview of Korea’s Industries (Promising, Investmen,t Opportunities) by Invest Korea • Logistics in Korea, Emerging Investment Opportunities by Dien dan Hang Hai-Logistics http://vietma- rine.net • Free Economic Zones in Korea: The Future of Northeast Asia by Ministry of Finance and Economy Republic of Korea • Busan City’s Strategies and Cooperation in Logistics by LEE Ki-Woo, Vice for Economic Affairs • http://www.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fenglish.busan.go.kr%2F00main%2Fmain. jsp&h=IAQHa6_lX • http://www.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.investkorea.org%2Fikwork%2Freg%2Feng %2Findex.jsp%3Fl_unit%3D90202%26m_unit%3D90301%26code%3D10604&h=kAQGOinqm