Denture base resin


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Denture base resin

  1. 1. All through the history of the making of dentures,we find aconstant struggle of the dentist to find a suitable denturebase material
  2. 2. COMPLETE DENTURE: “ A Removable Dental Prosthesis That Replaces the Entire Dentition andAssociated Structures of the Maxilla or Mandible ”Composed of Artificial teeth Denture baseSupport Contact with with underlying oral tissues Teeth Implants
  3. 3. Denture base materials Metallic Alloys Denture base resins Advantages of denture base resins Denture should be Comfort esthetics FUNCTIONRETENTION Efficiency
  4. 4. GENERAL TECHNIQUEClinical steps laboratory steps
  5. 5. TEETH ARRANGEMENT PROCESSING ( acrylization )
  6. 6.  Definition : According to GPT - VI, Denture Base is defined as the part of Denture that rests on the foundation tissue and to which teeth are attached. Denture Base Material is any substance of which denture base may be made
  7. 7.  Skillfully designed dentures were made as early as 700 BC.and Talmud a collection of books of hebrews in 352-407 AD mentioned that teeth were made of gold ,silver,and wood. Egypt was the medical center of ancient world, the first dental prosthesis is believed to have been constructed in egypt about 2500 BC. Hesi-Re Egyptian dentist of about 3000 BC
  8. 8. Front and back views of mandibular fixed bridge, four natural incisor teeth and two carved ivory teethBound With gold wire found in Sidon-ancient Phoenicia about fifth and fourth century BC.
  9. 9.  During medieval times dentures were seldom considered ,when installed they were hand carved and and tied in place with silk threads. Those wearing full denture had to remove them before eating. Upper and lower teeth fit poorly and were held together by steel springs. Earlier pictures of dental prosthesis are delivered to us by ABUL-CASIM an Arab born in Cordova Spain. Persian dentist of late eighteen Indian surgeon of mid century nineteenth century
  10. 10. WOOD For years, dentures were fashioned from wood . Wood was chosen -readily available -relatively inexpensive -can be carved to desired shape Disadvantages -warped and cracked in moisture -esthetic and hygienic challenges -degradation in oral environment
  11. 11. Wooden denture believed to be carved out of box wood in 1538 by Nakoka Tei a Buddist priestess Wooden dentures
  12. 12. Bone Bone was chosen due to its availability, reasonable cost and carvability . It is reported that Fauchard fabricated dentures by measuring individual arches with a compass and cutting bone to fit the arches . It had better dimensional stability than wood, esthetic and hygienic concerns remained.
  13. 13. IVORY Denture bases and prosthetic teeth were fashioned by carving this material to desired shape Ivory was not available readily and was relatively expensive. Denture bases fashioned from ivory were relatively stable in the oral environment They offered esthetic and hygienic advantage in comparison with denture bases carved from wood or bone. Carved ivory upper denture retained in the mouth by springs with natural human teeth cut off at the Neck and riveted at the base.
  14. 14.  Since ancient times the most common material for false teeth were animal bone or ivory,especially from elephants or hippopotomus. Human teeth were also used,pulled from the deceased or sold by poor people from their own mouths. Waterloo dentures G.Fonzi an italian dentist in Paris invented the Porcelain teeth that revolutionized the 1788 A.D. Improvement and construction development of porcelain dentures by Of dentures.Picture shows partial denture of DeChemant. about 1830,porcelain teeth of fonzi’s design have been Soldered to a gold backing.
  15. 15. CERAMICS Porcelain denture bases were relatively expensive During subsequent years secrets of porcelain denture became known and it became common and inexpensive. ADVANTAGES over wood, bone , ivory were -Could be shaped using additive technique rather than subtractive (carving). -Additive technique facilitated correction of denture base surface. -this permitted more intimate contact with underlying soft tissues. -Could be tinted to simulate the colors of teeth and oral soft tissues. -stable in oral environment. -Minimal water sorption, porosity, and solubility. -Smooth surface provided hygienic properties. Among the drawbacks BRITTLENESS was most significant, fractures were common, often irreparable.
  16. 16. One piece porcelain upper denture crafted by Dr JohnScarborough,Lambertville,New Jersey 1868.
  17. 17.  In 1794 John Greenwood began to swage gold bases for dentures. Made George Washingtons dentures.George washington’s last dental prosthesis. The palate was swaged from a sheet of gold and ivory teeth rivetedTo it.The lower denture consists of a single carved block of ivory. The two dentures were held togther by steelSprings.
  18. 18.  In 1839 an important development took place CHARLES GOODYEAR discovered VULCANIZATION of natural rubber with sulphur(30%) and was patented by Hancock in england in 1843. NELSON GOODYEAR (brother of charles goodyear) got the patent for vulcanite dentures in 1864. . They proceeded to license dentists who used their material, and charged a royalty for all dentures made. Dentists who would not comply were sued. The Goodyear patents expired in 1881, and the company did not again seek to license dentists or dental products. Vulcanite dentures were very popular until the 1940s, when acrylic denture bases replaced them.
  19. 19. A set of vulcanite dentures worn byGen. John J. (Blackjack) Pershing,commander of the AmericanExpeditionary Forces in France duringthe First World War Set of complete dentures having palate of swaged Gold and porcelain teeth set in vulcanite.
  20. 20.  In 1868 John Hyatt, A US Printer, discovered the first plastic molding compound, called celluloid. He made it by dissolving nitrocellulose under pressure In 1909, another promising organic compound was found. This was phenol formaldehyde resin discovered by Dr. Leo Backeland . Celluloid upper denture 1880,celluloid as a Substitute for vulcanite was unsuccessful as It absorbs stains and odors in the mouth, Gradually turns black and was flammable.
  21. 21.  In 1937 Dr. Walter Wright gave dentistry its very useful resin. It was polymethyl methacrylate which proved to be much satisfactory material tested until now. Dentures made of polymethyl methacrylate
  22. 22.  1. Vulcanite : In 1839 Vulcanized rubber was discovered and introduced as a Vulcanite and Ebonite. For the next 75 years Vulcanite rubber was the principal Denture base Material. But failed because of following reasons :Disadvantages It absorbs Saliva and becomes unhygienic due to bacterial proliferation. Esthetics were poor. Dimensionally unstable. Objectionable taste and odor
  23. 23. 2. Celluloid Although it was having tissue like color but having principal disadvantages like Disadvantages Lack of stability Unpleasant taste Unpleasant odor Stainability Flammable
  24. 24. 3. Bakelite It was formed by heating and compressing a mixture of phenol and formaldehyde.Disadvantages Lack of uniform quality Variable strength Variable color Dimensional unstability.
  25. 25. Chronology of events Charles Goodyear discovery of vulcanized rubber in 1839. John hyatt discovered celluloid in 1868 Dr Leo Bakeland discovered phenol-formaldehyde resin (Bakelite). In the 1930’s Dr Walter Wright and the Vernon brothers working at the Rohn and Haas company in Philadelphia developed Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), a hard plastic. Although other materials were used for dental prosthesis, none could come close to PMMA and by the 1940;s 95% of all dentures were made from this acrylic polymer.
  26. 26.  Natural polymers include: Proteins (polyamides or polypeptides) containing the chemical group (-Co-NH-); this is known as an amide or peptide link. Polyesoprenes such as rubber and gutta percha. Polysaccharides, such as starch, cellulose, agar and alginates. Polynucleic acids, such as deoxyribonuclei acids (DNA) and ribonucleic acids (RNA). Synthetic polymers are produced industrially or in the laboratory, by chemical reaction.Synthetic polymer : Defined as a non metallic compoundsynthetically produced (usually from organic compounds) whichcan be molded into various useful forms and then hardened foruse.
  29. 29.  Dimer - Polymer from two different mers Terpolymer - Polymer from three different mers
  30. 30. CH3 CH3CH2 C CH2 C C O C O O O CH3 C2H5 m Methyl Ethyl
  32. 32.  Linear Branched Cross-linked
  33. 33. HomopolymerCopolymer (random)Copolymer (block)
  34. 34. Homopolymer Copolymer (random)
  35. 35. PLASTICIZER(dibutyl phthalate) O C O C4H9 C O C4H9 O
  36. 36. DEFINITION: A polymer is a long chain organic molecule .It is produced by the reaction of many smaller molecules called monomers,or mers. If reaction occurs between two different but compatible monomers the polymeric product is called a COPOLYMER. Resin : A broad term used to describe natural or synthetic substances that form plastic materials after polymerization (GPT-7th edition). USES IN DENTISTRY Denture bases and artificial teeth. Denture liners and tissue conditioners. composite restorative and pit and fissure sealent. Impression materials Custom trays for impression Temporary restoratives. Mouth-guards. Maxillofacial prosthesis. Space maintainers. Veneers. Cements and adhesives.
  37. 37. CHEMISTRY OF POLYMERIZATION Monomers react to form polymer by a chemical reaction called polymerization. The most common polymerization reaction for polymers used in dentistry is addition polymerization. ADDITION POLYMERIZATION INDUCTION PROPOGATION CHAIN TRANSFER TERMINATIONINDUCTION 1)ACTIVATION 2)INITIATION
  38. 38. ACTIVATION Free radicals can be generated by activation of radical producing molecule using. Second chemical Heat Visible light Ultraviolet light Energy transfer from another compound that acts as a free radical.
  39. 39.  Commonly employed initiator is Benzoyl peroxide which is activated rapidly between 50 degree and 100 degree C to release two free radicals per benzoyl peroxide molecule. Second type is chemically activated ,consists of two reactants when mixed undergo reaction eg tertiary amine (the activator) and benzoyl peroxide (the initiator). Amine forms a complex with benzoyl peroxide which reduces the thermal energy (and thus the temperature) needed to split it into free radicals. Third type is light activated .The visible light light cured dental restoratives,camphorquinone and an organic amine (dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate) generate free radicals when irradiated by light in the blue to violet region. Light with a wavelength of about 470nm is needed to trigger this reaction.
  41. 41. CHAIN TRANSFER The active free radical of a growing chain is transferred to another molecule (eg monomer or inactivated polymer chain) and a new free radical for further growth is created termination occurs in the latter.
  42. 42. Reaction terminates when insufficient free radicals exist.Reaction also may be stopped by any material that will react with free radical, decreasing the rateof initiation, or increasing rate of termination.
  43. 43. TERMINATION Can occur from chain transfer. Addition polymerization reaction is terminated by -Direct coupling of two free radical chains ends -Exchange of hydrogen atom from one growing chain to another.
  44. 44. INHIBITION OF ADDITION REACTION Addition of small amount of Hydroquinone to the monomer inhibits spontaneous polymerization if no initiator is present and retards the polymerization in the presence of an initiator. Amount added is 0.006% or less Methyl ether of hydroquinone is generally present.COPOLYMERIZATION When two or more chemically different monomers each with desirable properties can be combined to yield specific physical property of a polymer .eg small amount of ethyl acrylate may be co- polymerized with methyl methacrylate to alter the flexibility and fracture resistance of a denture.
  45. 45. METHYL METHACRYLATE The acrylic resins are derivative of ethylene and contains a vinyl group (-c=c-) Polyacids tends to imbibe water, due to polarity related to carboxyl group. Water tends to separate the chain and cause softening and loss of strength. Methyl methacrylate is a transparent liquid at room temp. Physical properties -Molecular wt=100 -Melting point=-48 C -Boiling point=100 C -Density=0.945g/ml at 20 C -Heat of polymerization=12.9 Kcal/mol Methyl methacrylate molecule
  46. 46. POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE Transparent resin, transmits light in uv range to a wavelength of 250 nm. it has got remarkable clarity. Hard resin ,knoop hardness no of 18 to 20. Tensile strength is 60 MPa Density is 1.19 g/cm cube. Modulus of elasticity 2.4 GPa(2400 MPa) It is chemically stable and softens at 1250C It can be molded as a thermoplastic material between 125 and 200 C Depolarization takes place at approx 450 C . Absorbs water by imbibition Non crystalline structure possess high internal energy. Polar carboxyl group can form hydrogen bridge to a limited extent with water.
  47. 47.  Conventional heat cure acrylic resins Conventional cold cure acrylic resins High impact resistant acrylic resin Injection moulding resin Rapid heat polymerizing resin Light activated resin
  48. 48. COMPOSITION OF MONOMERMethyl methacrylate Main chemical which will polymerizeHydroquinone (o.Oo3-o.1%) Inhibitor while storageDibutyl phthalate PlastisizerGlycol dimethacrylate (1-2%) Cross linking agentStyrene vinyl acetate or ethyl methacrylate As copolymers
  49. 49.  Typical smell of its own Clear, transparent liquid Boiling point 100.3*c Good organic solvent Can get evaporated Inflammable Stored in dark colored bottle Light weight Volumetric shrinkage of 21% It is a known allergen
  50. 50. LIQUID Methyl methacrylate monomer Cross linking agent Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate(5-15%).they are added to avoid crack or craze produced by stresses during drying. Inhibitor Hydroquinone (trace) to avoid premature polymerization and enhance shelf life. When MMA polymerizes it shrinks 21% by volume. Using a 3:1 powder liquid ratio it could be minimized to 6%. A correctly heat processed denture base could have as little as 0.3% to 2% residual monomer.
  51. 51.  Cyanide method Acetone and hydrocynic acid Phosgene method Petroleum propylene and phosgene
  52. 52. Polymethyl methacrylate main ingredientBenzoil peroxide 0.5-1.5%, initiatorDibutyl phthalate 8-10%, plasticizerZinc or tetanium oxide opacifier
  53. 53. Mercuric sulfide or iron oxide or titanium oxide - pigments and dyesGlass fibres or beads or zirconium sulfate - to increase stiffnessNylon or acrylic fibres - in veined type - capillaries of gum
  55. 55. Normal pink -which resembles the normal pink color of gumClear polymer - no coloring agents are added - indicated in palatal areaTranslucentVeined or deep veined
  56. 56. Stable at room temperature - has long shelf lifeSoftening temperature - 125 * c - 125*-200*c depolymerization occurs - 450 *c converted back to monomerAbsorbs water and soluble in chloroform
  57. 57. Tensile strength - 600 kg/sq cmAppearance - shiny - transparent - slipperyProduced in two shapes - spherical - granular
  58. 58. Control of particle size - no.52 sieve mesh - 300 micrometerIf particle size is smaller - softening will be quicker - granular shape softens faster
  59. 59. Spherical particlesBy suspension polymerization - monomer and water are mixed with an emulsifieri.e, powder talc. - then the mixture is heated and stirred - at the end talc is washed off to get polymerized polymer particlesGranular particles - solid block - then it is grinded or milled
  60. 60. CURING CYLES EMPLOYED IN THE STUDYA Recommended curing cycles overnight water-bath cures: 1) 7hr at 70 C 2) 14hr at 70 C 3) 7hr at 70 C +1hr at 100C 4) 14hr at 70C + 1hr at 100CShort and reverse cures: 5) Boil water,insert flask , remove heat for 20 min return to boil for 10 min. 6) Boil water ,insert flask ,return to boil, boil for 10 min.Dry heat cure: 7)temp in excess of 100C using dry heat systemB Short curing cycles 8) 7hr at 60C 9) 7hr at 60C +1 hr at 90C 10) Boil water, insert flask remove heat for 20 min return to 90 C hold at 90C for 5 min11) Boil water insert flask return to 90C hold at 90C for 5min.
  61. 61. (II)PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Should possess adequate strength and resiliency and resistance to biting and chewing forces impact forces and excessive wear in oral cavity. Should be dimensionally stable under all conditions of service including thermal changes and variations in loading.I) Specific gravity: It should have low value of specific gravity in order that dentures should be as light as possible.II) Thermal conductivity: It is defined as the number of calories per second flowing through an area of 1cm2 in which the temperature drop along the length of the specimen is 1 C/cm. It should have high value of thermal conductivity Radiopacity: It is the inhibition of passage of radiant energy. It should be ideally radiopaque
  62. 62.  Glass transition temperature:  It is the temperature at which molecular motions become such that whole chains are able to move. It is close to softening temperature. At this temperature sudden change in elastic modulus occurs.  Amorphous polymer below Tg behave as rigid solids while above Tg they behave as viscous liquids, flexible solids or rubbers.  Increased chain branching  Decreased Tg. Increased number of cross links  Increased Tg Effect of molecular weight on properties In many polymers the chains are held together by secondary, orVander Waals forces and molecular entanglement. Materials of highmolecular weight have a greater degree of molecular entanglement,and have greater rigidity and strength and higher values of Tg andmelting temperature than low molecular weight polymers.
  63. 63. Effect of plasticizers Plasticizers penetrate between the randomly oriented chains of polymer as a result of which molecules are further apart and forces between them are less. They soften the material and make it more flexible by lowering its Tg. They lubricate the movements of polymer chains and are sometimes added to help molding characteristics. This principle is used in producing acrylic soft lining materials. Effect of fillers Modulus of elasticity and strength are generally increased. A degree of anisotropy exist, that is the strength depends on the orientation of fibres in the polymers. Viscoelasticity : Polymers show viscoelastic behavior. Elastic behavior is caused by uncoiling of polymer molecules. Plastic behavior is caused by breaking of intermolecular Vander Waals forces
  64. 64. (III) MANIPULATION Should not produce toxic fumes or dust Easy to mix, insert, shape and cure and short setting time Oxygen inhibition, saliva and blood contamination should have little or no effect. Final product should be easy to polish and easy to repair in case of breakage.(IV) AESTHETIC PROPERTIES Should be translucent to match oral tissues Capable of pigmentation No change in color after fabrication.(v)ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION Cost should be low Processing should not require complex and expensive instruments.
  65. 65. (VI) CHEMICAL STABILITY Conditions in mouth are demanding and only the most chemically stable and inert materials can withstand such conditions without deterioration. “No resin has yet met all of these ideal criteria”. Methacrylate polymers fulfill the aforementioned requirement reasonably well.
  66. 66. 2)AUTOPOLYMERIZING/COLD CURE POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE (POUR RESIN) Composition same as the heat cure version with following differences1)The powder contains beads of polymer that have a lower molecular wt. and benzoyl proxide (initiator)2) The liquid contains a chemical activator ,tertiary amine such as dimethyl-para-toluidine. Upon mixing tertiary amine causes decomposition of benzoyl peroxide. Dentures processed have more residual monomer (1-4%),but lower dimensional change. Decreased transverse strength (residual monomer act as plastisizer). Compromised biocompatibility (residual monomer) Color stability inferior (teriaty amine susceptible to oxidation), stabilizing agents should be added
  67. 67.  Fluid resin and compression molding technique can be employed for the fabrication of denture. Also used as repair material
  68. 68. 3)HIGH IMPACT RESISTANT ACRYLIC  Similar to heat cured material but less likely to be broken if dropped.  Produced by substituting the PMMA in the powder with a copolymer.  Copolymer of butadiene with styrene or methyl methacrylate are incorporated into the beads.  Phase inversion resulting in dispersion throughout the beads of tiny islands of rubber containing small inclusions of rubber/PMMA graft polymer.Electron micrograph of high impact dentureBase showing size and shape of polystyrene-butadieneRubber inversion phase.
  69. 69. 4) Injection molded polymers These are made of Nylon or Polycarbonate. The material is supplied as a gel in the form of a putty . It has to be heated and injected into a mold Equipment is expensive. Craze resistance is low . The SR-Ivocap system uses specialized flasks and clamping presses to keep the molds under a constant pressure of 3000 lbs
  70. 70. 5) RAPID HEAT POLYMERIZED POLYMER Same as conventional material except that they contain altered initiation system. These initiator allow them to be processed in boiling water for 20 min. A problem with these is that areas of the base thicker than approx.6mm have a high level of porosity. Short duration of heating also leaves a higher level of residual monomer,3-7 times greater than conventional heat cured denture base.
  71. 71. 6) MICROWAVE POLYMERIZED POLYMERS Resins are the same as used with conventional material and are processed in a microwave. Denture base cures well in Special polycarbonate flask (instead of metal). The properties and the accuracy of these materials have been shown to be as good or better than those of the conventional heat cured material. Processing time is much shorter (4-5 min). Microwave resin and non metallic microwave flask
  72. 72. 7)Light activated denture base resins This material is a composite having a matrix of urethane dimethacrylate, microfine silica and high molecular wt acrylic resin monomers Acrylic resin beads are included as organic fillers. Visible light is the activator, whereas camphorquinone serves as the initiator for polymerization. Can be used as repair material and as custom tray material. Single component denture base is supplied as sheet and rope form in light proof pouches. Light curing unit for polymerizing Dimethacrylate
  73. 73. 8) FIBER –REINFORCED POLYMER Glass, carbon/graphite, aramid and ultrahigh molecular wt polyethylene have been used as fiber reinforcing agents. Metal wires like graphite has minimal esthetic qualities. Fibers are stronger than matrix polymer thus their inclusion strengthens the composite structure. The reinforcing agent can be in the form of unidirectional, straight fiber or multidirectional weaves.
  75. 75. Primary impressionsSecondary impressionsJaw relationsTry in stage acrylization flasking dewaxing packing- under pressure curing
  76. 76.  Acceptance before demounting Proper finishing Periphery is sealed Petroleum jelly inner surface of the flask Casts Adjustment of the plaster model Plaster molels are wetted Wax dentures with casts are soaked with slurry water
  77. 77. “ The Art of Investing in a Flask ” - GPT 99“ The Process of Investing the Cast With the Waxed Denture in a Flask to Make a Sectional Mold Used to Form the Acrylic Resin Denture Base ” - HEARTWELL“ The process of investing the cast and a wax replica of the desired form in a flask preparatory to molding the restorative material into the desired product ”
  78. 78. Flask surround or invest “ a metal case or tube used in investingprocedure” - metal - brass-3 or 4 parts
  80. 80.  Selection of flask Petroleum jelly lubrication Demounting done Preparation of the waxed denture with the stone cast Soaking of the cast – slurry water Artificial stone is mixed Stone mix is placed in flask and wax denture and casts are settled in to the mix
  81. 81.  Periphery of flask should be in level with the rim of the flask Occlusal plane – parallel to the base of the flask
  82. 82. Tilting of the castsRetromolar pads andtuberosity- should beprotectedDevoid of undercutShaping of the stone –blade or knife
  83. 83.  Providing taper Undercuts – removed or corrected Distance from top lid – 6 mm Stone is smoothened
  84. 84. Checking the seating of flaskmembersInvestedflask & cast iswashed in clear slurry waterSurface tension reducingagent is applied to the exposedwaxSeparating medium is applied
  85. 85.  Second mix is mixed Hand spatulation Mechanical spatulation -Under reduced atmospheric pressure -Minimum air inclusion -Reduces finishing time Stone is coated in occlusal & inter- Proximal areas with stiff brush
  86. 86.  Stone is poured in flask Vibrator can be used In absence of vibrator Flask is filled till approximately ¼ of the flask Stone is removed in incisal & occlusal surfaces Stone is allowed to set
  87. 87.  After the stone is set separating medium is coated Occlusal & incisal surfaces shouldn’t be coated with the separating medium Clear slurry is poured till the stone is mixed Slurry is poured off, flask is filled with the stone
  88. 88. Lid is closedFlask is clamped
  89. 89. A. Flasks cannot be separated after dewaxing Cause Undercuts in flasking and casts Improper application of separating medium Solution Examining the casts Remove undercuts Proper application of separating mediumB. Heel broken on mandibular cast Cause Undercut not blocked out Solution Blocking and protecting the heel area
  90. 90. C. Denture with acrylic blubs Cause -Investing stone not painted Properly on waxed denture During flasking - Improper investing stone mix Solution - Paint investing stone on teeth With brush - Use of mechanical spatulator
  91. 91.  The denture is taken out from the flask. It is then trimed Finally wet and dry polishing is done.
  92. 92.  Porosity Crazing Warpage Fracture
  93. 93.  Presence of voids within structure of resin Porosity can be of two types ◦ Internal ◦ External Internal porosity is due to voids within the structure usually at thicker portion Cause – due to vaporization of the monomer (100.8C) Solution- long low temperature curing cycle is recommended.
  94. 94.  External porosity is due porosities which occur near the surface of denture. Cause ◦ Lack of homogeneity of dough. ◦ Lack of adequate pressure. Prevention – use proper monomer – powder ratio, packing in dough stage.
  95. 95.  Crazing is formation of surface cracks on denture base resin. Causes – ◦ Incorportion of stress ◦ Attack by solvent (alcohol) ◦ Incorporation of water during processing. Prevention ◦ Avoidance of solvent ◦ Proper use of separating media ◦ Metal moulds ◦ Use of cross linked acrylic
  96. 96.  Denture warpage is change in shape or fit of denture. Cause is incorporation of stress in deture ◦ Packing in late dough or rubbery stage. ◦ Stress induced during curing ◦ Improper deflasking ◦ Rise in temp while polishing ◦ Immersion of processed denture in hot water.
  97. 97. Denture warpage
  98. 98.  Improper deflasking Denture base excessively thin Accidental dropping at time of polishing
  99. 99.  Care to taken at time of dewaxing procedure Rearticulation to be done after processing the denture to check of occllusal discrepancy.