(Final) bilingual equivalence mapping methods and issues
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  • 鹿角圖片來源 : http://www.deer.idv.tw/index.php?o=32
  • 橄欖核雕刻 http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=1094815 桃核雕刻 http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=1197149
  • 清 乾隆 白地綠龍大蓋罐 :http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=3249987
  • 清 乾隆 玻璃胎琺瑯彩牡丹葫蘆盆景鼻煙壺 :http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=835192
  • 清 雍正 白青弦紋瓶 : http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=3204154
  • 清 銅胎琺瑯瓶 : http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=3204585
  • 唐 閻立本職貢圖 :http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=260657
  • 青花盤 :http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=3318590
  • 宋代帝半身像 宋徽宗 : http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=261046
  • 明文從簡禮佛圖 軸 : http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=539099

Transcript

  • 1. Bilingual Equivalence Mapping in AAT: Methods and Issues (Sophy) Shu-Jiun Chen, Diane Wu and (Sandra) Yung-Ting Chang Program Office, Taiwan e-Learning and Digital Archives Program September 21, 2009 @ Getty Research Institute
  • 2. The Task Forces of Chinese-language Art & Architecture Thesaurus Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調小組 (C) Equivalence Mapping (M) Methodology R&D Translation & Contribution (T) Localization & Creation of New Concepts Expert Group (E) Scope Note of New Concept (N) System Development (S)
  • 3. Equivalence Mapping (M) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) 等同關係對照 Equivalence Mapping (M) 確認中文詞彙 (M1) Identify Chinese terms 故宮器物 National Palace Museum 台灣古建築圖解事典 Traditional Architecture in Taiwan 中國工藝美術辭典 Dictionary of Chinese Arts and Crafts 確認詞彙類型 (M3) Identify Types of Equivalence Mapping 完全等同 (M3_EE) Exact Equivalence 不完全等同 (M3_IE) Inexact Equivalence 部分等同 (M3_PE) Partial Equivalence 中英對照 (M2) Mapping 確認詞彙來源 Identify Source 詞彙英譯 Identify the Eng term 參考資料 References 在 AAT 對照到的架構 Locate the term in AAT 知識網 Knowledge Web of Taiwan’s Diversity 人類學 / 科博館 Anthropology / NMNS Translation 翻譯 (T) 英翻中 (T2_EC) English to Chinese Translation 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation
    • mapped to a broader
    • or narrower term
    • determine the
    • importance of this
    • concept
    • pass on the concept
    • to (N)
    Scope Note 範圍註撰寫 (N) 撰寫範圍註 (N2) Create a new record with required fields 一對多 (M3_SM) Single to Multiple 不等同 (M3_NE) Non-Equivalence
  • 4.
    • There are 2 approaches to identify Chinese terms for equivalence mapping.
    • 1st approach : Equivalence mapping of the terms from specific institutes or organizations.
    Identify Chinese terms (M1) 確認中文詞彙 (M1) Identify Chinese terms 故宮器物 National Palace Museum 人類學 / 科博館 Anthropology / NMNS 知識網 Knowledge Web of Taiwan’s Diversity 台灣古建築圖解事典 Introduction to Traditional Architecture in Taiwan 中國工藝美術辭典畫 Dictionary of Chinese Arts and Crafts
  • 5. Identify Chinese terms (M1)
    • 2nd approach : Equivalence mapping of authoritative references, which may require content expert to select terms for mapping.
    確認中文詞彙 (M1) Identify Chinese terms 故宮器物 National Palace Museum 台灣古建築圖解事典 Introduction to Traditional Architecture in Taiwan 中國工藝美術辭典 Dictionary of Chinese Arts and Crafts 人類學 / 科博館 Anthropology / NMNS 知識網 Knowledge Web of Taiwan’s Diversity Dr. Feng-Tyan Lin , the professor  of  Graduate Institute Of Building And Planning, NTU
  • 6. Mapping (M2) Example: Metadata Specification of NPM - version 1.2 (p23) inscriptions > forms > calligraphy > clerical script 中英對照 (M2) Mapping 確認詞彙來源 Identify Source 確認詞彙英譯 Identify the English term 參考資料 References 在 AAT 對照到的架構 Locate the term in AAT
  • 7. Identify Types of Equivalence Mapping (M3_EE) 確認詞彙類型 (M3) Identify Types of Equivalence Mapping 完全等同 (M3_EE) Exact Equivalence 不完全等同 (M3_IE) Inexact Equivalence 部分等同 (M3_PE) Partial Equivalence 不等同 (M3_NE) Non-Equivalence 一對多 (M3_SM) Single to Multiple Translation 翻譯 (T) 英翻中 (T2_EC) English to Chinese Translation Example: Metadata Specification version 1.2 (p18) Objects > archaeological culture > Longshan
  • 8. Identify Types of Equivalence Mapping (M3_PE) 確認詞彙類型 (M3) Identify Types of Equivalence Mapping 完全等同 (M3_EE) Exact Equivalence 不完全等同 (M3_IE) Inexact Equivalence 部分等同 (M3_PE) Partial Equivalence 不等同 (M3_NE) Non-Equivalence
    • mapped to a broader
    • or narrower term
    • determine the
    • importance of this
    • concept
    • pass on the concept
    • to (N)
    Scope Note 範圍註 (N) 撰寫範圍註 (N2) Create a new record with required fields Translation 翻譯 (T) 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation 一對多 (M3_SM) Single to Multiple
  • 9. A Summary of Equivalence Mapping Issues - 1
    • How to ensure the accurate results of equivalence mapping
      • Problem of Insufficient Chinese references
      • need to determine the importance of this concept in relation to our culture.
      • It is a key to invite domain experts to participate in the process
    • Partial equivalence with cultural-specific concepts
      • Carefully evaluate and provide AAT with enhanced version of Asia-related art and cultural concepts.
    • Compound Terms
      • Some of Chinese terms are presented as compound terms, which need to be separated into individual concept before mapping to the appropriate term in AAT.
  • 10. A Summary of Equivalence Mapping Issues - 2
    • When the Chinese terms are from collection institutes
      • Every institution has its own classification method and terms, we need to re-examine and sometimes adapt to their logic in order to find the matching concept in AAT.
      • We need to determine when it is necessary for a Chinese term to become an individual concept, and whether to add a descriptor or be a none preferred term.
    • preferred term vs. non-preferred term
      • what should be the divide line between preferred and non-preferred term?
      • If the official name of a term is rarely used, is it still the preferred term?
  • 11. Mapping Issues Single-to-Multiple :埕 Cheng (1/2)
    • Hierarchical position :
    • Taiwan architectural element > cheng
    • 台灣建築術語 > 埕
    • Cheng usually refers to yard ( outer cheng )or courtyard ( inner cheng ), sometimes it is used to describe the square in front of a temple. It’s multiple meanings makes equivalence mapping difficult, and in the end we choose to transliterate the term instead.
    • 「埕」是指屋舍所圍成的空間〈內埕〉或是屋舍前的空間〈外埕〉,「內埕」在意義上比較接近英文的 courtyard ,「外埕」則比較接近 yard ,但「埕」也可指廟前的空地 ( 廣場 ) ,因為意思很多,所以難以確定一個對應的英文詞彙,造成對照上的困難,最後決定採用音譯 cheng 。
    Source : Introduction to Traditional Architecture in Taiwan 台灣古建築圖解事典 source Inner cheng
  • 12.
    • Possible match in AAT :
    • Objects Facet
    • ....  Built Environment (Hierarchy Name)
    • ........  Open Spaces and Site Elements
    • ............  open spaces
    • ................  <open spaces by location or context>
    • .................... cheng
    • or
    • Objects Facet ....  Built Environment (Hierarchy Name) ........  Open Spaces and Site Elements ............  open spaces ................  <open spaces by form>
    • .................... cheng
    Mapping Issues Single-to-Multiple :埕 Cheng (2/2) http://www.lukang.gov.tw/c/c_a01-1.htm Q : Should we try to map the term with existing AAT concept, such as yards or courtyards ? If not, when we contribute the concept cheng , should we contribute inner cheng and outter cheng as well?
  • 13. Mapping Issues Cultural-specific concepts :福 / 祿 / 壽 fu/lu/shou (1/4)
    • Hierarchical position :
    • motifs> characters > symbol > fu/lu/shou
    • 紋飾資料庫 > 文字 > 符號 > 福 / 祿 / 壽
    • Since most motifs from NPM Metadata Requirement Specifications are cultural specific, many terms cannot be found in AAT. We recommend to create a new guide term, so these cultural-specific terms may be added.
    • 因故宮後設資料需求規格書的詞彙有其文化特殊性,許多並不存在於 AAT ,可以獨立新增一個先導詞,在其下直接增列這些中華文化特有的詞彙
    Source : NPM Metadata Requirement Specifications (p. 22) 「故宮器物數位典藏子計畫 後設資料需求規格書 version 1.2 」 (p. 22)
  • 14. Mapping Issues Cultural-specific concepts :福 / 祿 / 壽 fu/lu/shou (2/4)
    • The motif shou is found in AAT under the following hierarchical position :
    • Physical Attributes Facet ....  Design Elements ........  <design elements> ............  motifs ................  shou
    • According to the Metadata Requirement Specifications, under Chinese characters > symbols ( 文字 > 符號 ), there are 9 cultural-specific terms, including:
    • bagua, wan, fu, lu, shou, xi, shuang xi, chun
    • ( 八卦 , 萬字 / 卍 , 福 , 祿 , 壽 , 喜 , 雙喜 , 春 )
  • 15. Mapping Issues Cultural-specific concepts :福 / 祿 / 壽 fu/lu/shou (3/4)
    • Possible match in AAT :
    • Physical Attributes Facet ....  Design Elements ........  <design elements> ............  motifs ................ Chinese characters (motifs)
    • .................... fu
    • .................... lu
    • .................... shou
    • or
    • Physical Attributes Facet ....  Design Elements ........  <design elements> ............  motifs ................ characters
    • .................... <Chinese characters>
    Q : Which option is better?
  • 16. Mapping Issues Preferred term vs. non-preferred term1 :玳瑁 dai mao (1/2)
    • Hierarchical position :
    • materials> animal materials > shell> tortoise shell
    • 質材 > 動物 > 甲 > 玳瑁
    • “ Dai mao” means two things in Chinese, it can refer to the animal tortoise or its shell. But “dai mao” is most commonly known as tortoise, where as the term “gui jia”( 龜甲 ) is more widely used in describing tortoise shell.
    • 在搜尋玳瑁時,多半找到的都是「動物的玳瑁」,而故宮提供的「玳瑁」則是指其身上的殼作成的質材,另一個中文同義詞「龜甲」相比之下則較為常用,對照到 tortoise shell 也比較容易。
    Source : NPM Metadata Requirement Specifications (p. 19) 「故宮器物數位典藏子計畫 後設資料需求規格書 version 1.2 」 (p. 19)
  • 17. Mapping Issues Preferred term vs. non-preferred term1 :玳瑁 dai mao (1/2)
    • Exact Match in AAT :
    • Materials Facet ....  Materials ........  materials ............  <materials by origin> ................  <biological material> ....................  animal material ........................  <keratinous material> ............................  tortoise shell
    Q : Through equivalence mapping, we have found some formal Chinese terms that are rarely used. Should the preferred term be the formal name, or the common name?
  • 18. Mapping Issues Preferred term vs. non-preferred term1 :藍地琺瑯彩 cloisonné enamel over blue ground (1/2)
    • Hierarchical position :
    • Objects> glaze > cloisonné> cloisonné enamel over blue ground
    • 器物資料庫 > 釉色 > 琺瑯彩 > 藍地琺瑯彩
    • 琺瑯彩 (fa lan cai) is mapped to cloisonné in AAT (exact equivalence)
    • According to the Metadata Requirement Specifications, there are at least 12 different color grounds, which are red, blue, purple, yellow, pink, white, bright red, green, black, light greenish blue, zhemo, gold.
    Source : NPM Metadata Requirement Specifications (p. 20) 「故宮器物數位典藏子計畫 後設資料需求規格書 version 1.2 」 (p. 20) cloisonné enamel over blue ground cloisonné enamel over light greenish blue ground Zhemo, or black cloisonné enamel
  • 19. Mapping Issues Preferred term vs. non-preferred term1 :藍地琺瑯彩 cloisonné enamel over blue ground (1/2) cloisonné enamel over red ground cloisonné enamel over purple ground cloisonné enamel over yellow ground cloisonné enamel over pink ground cloisonné enamel over white ground cloisonné enamel over bright red ground
  • 20. Mapping Issues Preferred term vs. non-preferred term1 藍地琺瑯彩 cloisonné enamel over blue ground (1/2)
    • Partial Match in AAT :
    • Activities Facet
    • ....  Processes and Techniques
    • ........  <processes and techniques>
    • ............  <processes and techniques by specific type>
    • ................  <additive and joining processes and techniques>
    • ....................  <surface covering processes and techniques>
    • ........................  coating (process)
    • ............................  enameling
    • ................................  cloisonné
    • .................................... cloisonné enamel over blue ground
    • or
    • Activities Facet
    • ....  Processes and Techniques
    • ........  <processes and techniques>
    • ............  <processes and techniques by specific type>
    • ................  <additive and joining processes and techniques>
    • ....................  <surface covering processes and techniques>
    • ........................  coating (process)
    • ............................  enameling
    • ................................  cloisonné
    • (as non-preferred term: cloisonné enamel over color ground )
    cloisonné enamel over green ground cloisonné enamel over black ground cloisonné enamel over gold ground Q : Do we need to contribute each color to AAT? Can we simply add each color as non-preferred term of cloisonne?
  • 21.
    • 鹿角 antler
    • Antlers are the usually large and complex bony appendages ( 附屬肢體 ) of most deer species.
    • The antlers of deer are not horns . Shed yearly, they are composed entirely of bone, though they bear a velvety epidermal ( 表皮 ) covering during the growth period.
    • Slices of antler
    • antler
    • 牛角 cattle’s horn
    • simple unbranched structures that are never shed—are found in cattle, sheep, goats, and antelopes.
    • They consist of a core of bone surrounded by a layer of horn (keratin 角質 ) that is in turn covered by keratinized epidermis.
    • - from Britannica 大英線上百科
    Structure Issues- Case 1 Differences between antler and horns Source : NPM Metadata Requirement Specifications (p. 19) 「故宮器物數位典藏子計畫 後設資料需求規格書 version 1.2 」 (p. 19)
  • 22. Structure Issues- Case 1 Differences between antler and horns
    • TELDAP
    • AAT
    • partial equivalence
    • exact equivalence
    ( 角質質材 ) C : Through equivalence mapping, we discover that antler should not be deemed as horn, but rather it should be categorized under bone. We would recommend this observation to NPM
  • 23. Structure Issues- Case 2 Specific Terms Source : NPM Metadata Requirement Specifications (p. 19) 「故宮器物數位典藏子計畫 後設資料需求規格書 version 1.2 」 (p. 19) ...................................add olive pit ......................................add peach pit ..........................add walnut kernel
  • 24. Structure Issues- Case 2 Specific Terms NPM Collections
    • 橄欖核 (olive pit)
    peach pit carved figure olive pit carved boat
    • 桃核 (peach pit)
    • Q : First, we need to confirm the quantity and significance of the collections related to these concepts. But take the olive pit carved boat for example, because it is a well-known collection, we suggest the following approaches:
    • We contribute a new concept (olive pit) to AAT
    • Or we can compromise by simply adding “ olive pit ” as non-preferred term of olive (fruit)
  • 25. Structure Issues- Case 3 Compound Term Issue Q : Since there is a noticeable structural difference, what is the reason to categorize jade, stone and gemstone under rock instead of mineral? Source : NPM Metadata Requirement Specifications (p. 19) 「故宮器物數位典藏子計畫 後設資料需求規格書 version 1.2 」 (p. 19)
    • Hierarchical position :
    • minerals > jade, stone, rock and gemstone
    • 礦物 > 玉石珠寶
    • In Chinese, there are a lot of compound terms, such us “ 玉石珠寶” including 3 parts: 玉 / 玉石 jade , 石 stone/ rock , 珠寶 gemstone
    • In AAT, jade, stone, rock and gemstone are all categorized under rock.
  • 26. Structure Issues- Case 3 Compound Term Issue agate Hence, “jade” in Chinese can be called 玉 (jade) or 玉石 (jade stone) In Chinese, 石 (shi) is a general term that usually refers to both stone and rock. Based on the structure above, rock should be referred to as “ 岩石” , while stone would be “ 石 or 石頭” . mineral Yu Shi zhu bao
  • 27. New Concept: Cultural Difference Case1 Chinese Ceramics Styles The terms with green underlines represent different Chinese ceramics styles that are missing from AAT, which are from various places in China. The mapping team finds the concepts under <Chinese ceramics styles> are not complete Q : Should we create a record for each of the styles, despite its popularity? Or should we just create records of the most popular styles (determined by the experts) ?
  • 28. New Concept: Case 2 Motif vs. Pattern motifs (<design elements>, Design Elements) 母題 Note: Distinct or separable design elements, usually decorative, whether occurring singly as individual shapes. patterns (design elements) 紋樣圖騰 (<design elements>, Design Elements) Note: Ornamental designs, usually on a flat surface or in relief and composed of repeated or combined motifs. Q4-1. Is “repetitiveness” the only and most crucial difference between motif and pattern ? Q4-2. Is it possible for AAT to elaborate on the scope note of motif, now that TELDAP is bringing the eastern perspective into the picture?
  • 29. New Concept: Case 2-1 Motif vs. Pattern Terms under blue dotted lines can be categorized under motifs Flames 清 乾隆 白地綠龍大蓋罐 flames (<natural element motifs>, motifs, ... Design Elements) Note: Motifs of a conventionalized depiction of flames, usually wavy, peaked forms. Q : Even though we find a match in AAT, but the note does not fully apply to the Chinese concept. Should we create a new term or edit the scope note (next page)?
  • 30. New Concept: Case 2-1 Motif vs. Pattern Terms under yellow lines can be categorized under <patterns by specific type.> cloud scrolls (scrollwork, <patterns by specific type>, ... Design Elements) 捲雲紋 Note: Characteristic Chinese motifs of the Han Dynasty consisting of long, convoluted, ribbonlike forms with deep curls and curves constantly changing direction, and at such points widening into grotesque shapes. 捲雲紋 cloud scrolls
  • 31. New Concept: Case 2-2 Motif vs. Pattern (Geometric) Terms under blue lines can be categorized under <geometric motifs> Cinquefoils 清 雍正 白青弦紋瓶 cinquefoils (<geometric motifs>, motifs, ... Design Elements) Note: Figures of five equal arcs or lobes, separated by cusps.
  • 32. New Concept: Case 2-2 Motif vs. Pattern(Geometric) Terms under orange lines can be categorized under <patterns by specific type.> Chinese frets (frets (patterns), geometric patterns, ... Design Elements) Note: Frets characterized by elongated, right-angled meanderlike elements, originating in Chinese art and adapted to Chinoiserie in Europe in the 18th century. 雷紋 Chinese frets
  • 33. New Concept: Cultural Difference Case 3: Motif of Chinese legend motifs (<design elements>, Design Elements) 母題 Note: Distinct or separable design elements, usually decorative, whether occurring singly as individual shapes. Terms under motifs focus on the element itself, such as air traps , cabochons (design motifs) , candelabrum (motifs) and so on, air traps (motifs, <design elements>, Design Elements) Note: Decoration of glass in the form of embedded air pockets, larger than usual air bubbles or tears, arranged in a decorative pattern, often in criss-crossed diagonal rows or spirals. Often seen in the stems of 18th-century and later wine glasses, particularly English. The mapping team find it is difficult to categorize some motif terms, as each of them is cultural-dependent, and has specific meaning. Q5 : Is it feasible to create a new concept under motif, for example: motif of Chinese figures ?
  • 34. The painting, traditionally attributed to Yen Li-Pen, depicts the arrival in the capital of Ch'ang-an of 27 tribute bearers from various countries in 631 A.D. Their plentiful gifts for the powerful T'ang court are carefully depicted. These visitors from foreign lands are represented with high foreheads, deep-set eyes, and exotic clothing. 職貢圖 (Illustration of Tribute) 唐 閻立本職貢圖 New Concept: Cultural Difference Case 3: Motif of Chinese legend 類別 (type)         第 1 層 第 2 層 第 3 層 母題 (motif)   敘事圖 (narrative illustration) 職貢圖 (Illustration of Tribute) 課子圖 (Illustration of disciplining the child) 狩獵圖|行孝圖|耕織圖|宴饗圖|博古圖|其他 吉祥圖 (auspicious illustration)   吉慶有餘|太平有象|壽山福海|海屋添壽 南山比壽 (Nan Shan Bi Shou) |年年有餘 (Nian nian you yu) 群仙祝壽|福在眼前|其他
  • 35. 南山比壽 (Nan Shan Bi Shou) This center of this white porcelain plate is decorated with Japan's Mt. Fuji, a pine tree, and a crane, capturing the auspicious message “May you live as long as the southern mountains.” 青花盤 New Concept: Cultural Difference Case 3: Motif of Chinese legend Q5 : Since the narrative and auspicious illustrations are outside of the generic concepts, should we exclude these terms? 類別 (type)         第 1 層 第 2 層 第 3 層 母題 (motif)   敘事圖 (narrative illustration) 職貢圖 (Illustration of Tribute) 課子圖 (Illustration of disciplining the child) 狩獵圖|行孝圖|耕織圖|宴饗圖|博古圖|其他 吉祥圖 (auspicious illustration)   吉慶有餘|太平有象|壽山福海|海屋添壽 南山比壽 (Nan Shan Bi Shou) |年年有餘 (Nian nian you yu) 群仙祝壽|福在眼前|其他
  • 36. New Concept: Cultural Difference Case 4: Chinese figures The mapping team finds that the figures above are bounded by the concepts motifs, and therefore can only be categorized into <figure- and animal-derived motifs> . However, sometimes a term can also be found in Agents Facet, for example “ 帝王 monarch” Q : We have tons of igures of Chinese characters, should we contribute all of them?
  • 37. Take the figure in the painting for example, this term can be found in Agents Facet ( 帝王 monarch), New Concept: Cultural Difference Case 4: Chinese figure 宋代帝半身像 宋徽宗 monarchs (rulers (people), <people in government and administration>, ... People) Note: Absolute rulers of sovereign states, usually by hereditary succession. The term is generally used as a substitute for the specific title of the sovereign, for example, &quot;king,&quot; &quot;queen,&quot; or &quot;emperor.&quot; Q6 . Which hierarchy position is more appropriate? Should it be categorized as a motif rather than an agent?
  • 38. New Concept: Cultural Difference Case 4: Chinese figure monks (religious (people), <people in religion>,... people) 明文從簡禮佛圖 軸
  • 39.