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2011 chinese aat update


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2011 chinese aat update

  1. 1. Chinese AAT Update Sophy Chen, Shi Lin*, Chiao-Chen Kuo, Ya-Pei Yang, and DT Lee Research Center for IT Innovation *Computing Centre Academia Sinica, Taiwan TELDAP AAT-Taiwan team Multilingual Vocabulary Project Workshop Getty Research Institute Los Angeles, California 11/06~11/10/2010
  2. 2. AGENDA  From English to Chinese  From Chinese to English  Daily Update
  3. 3. From English to Chinese: A Summery of AAT Translation
  4. 4. Progress Update Terms in AAT 34,000 Translation 31,933 Scope note proofreading 17,612 Term verification 2788 Expert review 1,013 Value –added application 1,115
  5. 5. Six Modules of AAT-Taiwan Chinese Translation Translation Scope Note Term Proofreading Proofreading Verification disambiguation Translation Scope Note Expert Review Accuracy Accuracy Revision Value-Added Application Pinyin Picture Contribution
  6. 6. The Framework of AAT-Taiwan Translation Scope Note Term Proofreading Verification Expert Review
  7. 7. The Procedures of Scope Note Proofreading Pre- procedures Assign Re-assign Feedback More than 3 Inform the times Termination of Proofread original employment proofreader Feedback Poor quality Translators Check Proofreaders Term translation without reference Questionable scope note Term verification expert another proofreader (professional (general content) content)) Expert review Update the information 著錄
  8. 8. Proofreading P-0: Pre-procedures P-0-1:Recruitment Procedures : Profile review> Written test > Interview >Recruit>Training P-1:Assign Proofreading Translation documents. Term verification form. Chinese-English term list .Proofreading checklist Unify term P-2:Proofread by proofreaders translation and P-2-1: Check Chinese-English term list and term format verification form 英翻中 P-2-2: Check the fluency and accuracy of scope notes and the uncertain part. P-2-3: Check the proper terms in scope notes. Qualify control P-3 :Proofread by editors P-3-1: Check the content of proofreading checklist. P-3-2: Sample check P-3-3: Check term verification form P-3-4: Check Chinese-English term list. If the term does not match, update it. P-3-5: File translation problems and questions raised by proofreaders to working platform。
  9. 9. Proofreading P-1:Assign Translation documents. Term verification form. Chinese-English term list .Proofreading checklist Proofreading checklist Proofreading Translation document Term verification from Unify term Chinese-English term list translation and format 英翻中 Qualify control
  10. 10. Proofreading P-2:Proofread P-2-3Confirm proper terms in scope notes Searching reference for verifying proper nouns Proofreading Unify term translation and format 英翻中 Searching reference for revising proper Quality nouns control
  11. 11. Framework of Term Verification 1 Term translation GETTY Specialized TELDAP AAT AAT-Taiwan 2 references Database 3 11
  12. 12. The Procedure of Term Verification Translated Terms TELDAP Specialized AAT-Taiwan references Chinese database dictionary Textbooks General Google Catalogues Search Expert Review TELDAP AAT-Taiwan
  13. 13. Term verification Translation(T) T-1: Term translation and online reference search Translation T-2: Fill in the term verification form Translation (T) 1 Proofread (P) P-1: Online reference search with English terms P-2: Online reference search with Chinese terms P-3: Online reference search with English and Chinese terms P-4:Review by editors
  14. 14. Term translation- Orders of recommended references Specialized database and dictionary Common online dictionary Online search tool Online search tool
  15. 15. Term verification within the process of translation Most term translations are based on references.
  16. 16. Term verification in the process of translation --- using Chinese terms
  17. 17. Term verification in the process of translation – using Chinese and English terms at the same time
  18. 18. Term verification Specialized reference(S) S-1: Locate the hierarchy of translated terms and search for relevant Specialized reference resources specialized reference resources. Reference resources S-2: Try to map the terms from specialized search 2 Scope note and hierarchy mapping books to AAT-Taiwan database (according to term, scope note and Editor review hierarchy) S-3: Editors double check the accuracy of terms
  19. 19. Term verification-Specialized reference The types of resources Specialized Online reference books databases AAT-Taiwan Journals NPM metadata 19
  20. 20. The Proportion of different category references
  21. 21. Term verification How to verify preferred terms ?  The method of verification for preferred terms: the specialized reference books published by prestigious entities online databases
  22. 22. The procedures of term verification with specialized references Specialized References The Same Different Cannot find Check its Consult another TELDAP hierarchy and specialized book. term definition Verify preferred terms
  23. 23. Check scope notes and hierarchies of the selected terms Check if the term can match with the descriptions of scope note and hierarchy 23
  24. 24. The translation is different from the term on the book Select preferred term according to the most prestigious reference Prefer Term
  25. 25. Term verification Database(D) D-1:Sort out terms have not been database verified Collect terms without reference D-2: Match the terms according to their scope notes and hierarchies 3 Scope note and hierarchy mapping in AAT-Taiwan to the selected Editor review database D-3:Editors double check the accuracy of terms
  26. 26. Sort out terms have not been verified AAT-Taiwan technical personnel Team
  27. 27. The procedures of term verification with database database The same Different Cannot find Match Do not match Textbooks Google search catalogues Chinese dictionary TELDAP AAT-Taiwan
  28. 28. Examination E-0:Pre-procedures E-0-1:Collect documents and file terms in relevant and specialized fields E-0-2:Search for experts in relevant fields and ask if they would like to join our expert group E-1:Assign E-1-1:Mail the documents, the term verification 翻譯準確性 form, the guideline for revision and the expert review form E-2:Feedback 範圍註準確性 E-2-1:File those questions and feedback to translators and proofreaders For the For quickly convenience of 專家修訂 experts, so they understand the can review quality and the file in both problems in Chinese and each category English
  29. 29. Transfer into Chinese Pinyin System Click tool for transliteration 29
  30. 30. Transfer into Chinese Pinyin System  Create tree types of Chinese Pinyin Check The Online Chinese Dictionary made by The Ministry of Education Taiwan to make sure the pronunciation of the term transliterated transliterated Pinyin without Hanyu Pinyin tones Wade- Gils 30
  31. 31. Value-adding(pictures) Scope note translation and proofreading Term verification Pinyin System Reference (including pages)
  32. 32. Translation Revision with references Disambiguation Synchronization Proofreading by Experts Value addition Contribution
  33. 33. Disambiguation • Object • What is disambiguation? Qualifier • Executive Procedure
  34. 34. D-1 Demand Analysis • Why does AAT-Taiwan need disambiguation? – To prevent distortion • What kind of terms need to be Non- disambiguated? Chinese Term 1 Non- Same Non- Chinese Chinese Chinese Term … Term Term 2 Non- Chinese Term 3
  35. 35. D-1 Demand Analysis 199 Where do they appear? 200 172 180 160 V.PJ Components 140 112 M.MT Materials 120 88 86 85 F.FL Styles and Periods 100 80 V.TH Tools and Equipment 60 V.VW Information Forms 40 V.RK Single Built Works 20 0 The Number of disambiguation- needing Chinese Terms
  36. 36. D-1 Demand Analysis Five most frequently used qualifiers in AAT 81 Color D.DL 188 Order X 87 Pigment M.MT Genus X 93 Family X 97
  37. 37. D-2 Method Design • Background • Method: Localized qualifier – AAT existing qualifier rules • Translation (localized qualifier): – Thymeles= 祭壇(希臘劇場Greek theater) – Bomoi=祭壇(古希臘Ancient Greek) – Arae =祭壇(古羅馬Ancient Roman) – Compromised handling • nearest translation (the original term) – <球場運動 (field sports )> – <球場運動 (course sports)> • Teldap Note
  38. 38. D-3 Disambiguation • Benefits – usable to Ethnic Chinese – future expansion of Chinese terms • Issues – The non-existent-in-Chinese concepts • Compromised handling: nearest translation (the original term) – The disambiguation automatically done through translating • gold (metal) →金gold(金屬metal) • gold (color) →金色golden color(色彩color)
  39. 39. Parlors Drawing Living rooms Distortion rooms 客廳
  40. 40. Contribution (C) Scope Note • Object Term • Pinyin Sources and Contributors • Executive Procedure C-1 C-2 C-3 • Selection • Production • Contribution
  41. 41. C-1 Selection 1,013 Expert Checked Over 3,000 records for contribution 2,361 both Term Checked and Scope Note Checked
  42. 42. The information analysis of term verification 2500 2274 2000 1500 1180 1000 850 500 310 305 378 212 0 Associated Physical Styles and Agents Activities Materials Objects concepts attributes periods 42 The amount
  43. 43. The estimated schedule Terms in AAT 34,000 1,580 Translation 31,933 3,407 1,340 Scope note proofreading 17,612 1,000 8,000 8,000 Term verification 2,000 15,000 15,000 2788 Disambiguation 1000 2,361 Expert review 1,013 Value –added Current statue Dec. 2011 Jun. 2012 Dec. 2012 application 1,115 3,000 5,000 5,000
  44. 44. From Chinese to English: A Summary of NPM English Mapping Western Art Accessible to Chinese Users v.s. Chinese Art Accessible to Western Users
  45. 45. Technique: axe stroke
  46. 46. NPM (2,000 concepts) AAT (35,000 concepts) Antiquities Top of the AAT hierarchies Associated Concepts Facet -考古學文化 (Archaeological Culture) Associated Concepts 河姆渡文化(Hemudu) Physical Attributes Facet Attributes and Properties 仰韶文化 (Yangshao) Conditions and Effects 馬家窯文化(Majiayao) Design Elements 大汶口文化(Dawenkou) Color (Facet) 紅山文化(Hongshan) Styles and Periods Facet Styles and Periods -質材 (Material) Agents Facet 玫瑰水晶(芙蓉石)(rose quartz) People 珍珠(pearl) Organizations (Hierarchy Name) Living Organisms 琥珀(amber) Activities Facet Disciplines (facet) Paintings and Calligraphy Functions (Facet) Events -書體 (Chinese script) Physical and Mental Activities 楷書(standard script) Processes and Techniques 行書(running script) Materials Facet Materials (Hierarchy Name) 隸書(clerical script ) Objects Facet -技法 (Technique) Built Environment (Hierarchy Name) 白描(Bai miao ) Components (Hierarchy Name) Furnishings and Equipment (Hierarchy Name) 工筆(Fine brushwork painting) Object Genres (Hierarchy Name) 沒骨(boneless) Object Groupings and Systems (Hierarchy Name) 指畫(finger painting) Visual and Verbal Communication (Hierarchy Name) 46
  47. 47. How vocabularies in Chinese art are mapped into current thesaurus based on Western art? 47
  48. 48. To what extent are vocabularies between Chinese and Western arts semantically interoperable? Voc. Mapping Type Mapping Types % Samples Images BM 60% A03013 龍泉窯系(Longquan) Hierarchical mapping BM <Chinese ceramics styles> (narrower to broader) =EQ 25% P01002 繪畫(Painting) (Exact, simple =EQ equivalence) EQ〡 `8% A05008 手飾(Jewelry worn on hands) (Cumulative compound EQ bracelets (jewelry) l rings (jewelry) equivalence) EQ+ 3% P04005 孝子(filial sons) (Intersecting EQ sons + social ethics compound equivalence) ~EQ 2% P04003 后妃(empresses, female imperial ) (Inexact simple ~EQ empresses or (iperial concubines) equivalence) NM 1% 面 NM surfaces (object portions) (Hierarchical mapping 月 NM crescents (shapes) (broader to narrower)) RM 1% P19002 包子(Bun) (Associative mapping) RM bread 48
  49. 49. To what extent are vocabularies between Chinese and Western arts semantically interoperable? Voc. Facets Distribution FACETS % Samples Images OBJECT 60% P14008 寺廟(Temple) =EQ temples (buildings) AGENT 25% P04001 帝王(a monarch; an emperor) =EQ emperors PHYSICAL 8% A11192 鳳凰(Phoenix) ATTRIBUTES BM <figure- and animal-derived motifs> MATERIALS 3% A08029 青花(Blue-and-white) =EQ blue-and-white (ceramic glaze) ACTIVITIES 2% P02002 工筆(Fine brushwork painting) =EQ gongbi STYLES AND 1% A03003 汝窯(Ru) PERIODS =EQ Ru ASSOCIATE 1% P05002 菩薩(enlightening being D (Webster's Online Dictionary), CONCEPTS Bodhisattva) =EQ bodhisattva 49
  50. 50. How well the semantic interoperability can work smoothly? Cross Analysis of Voc. Mapping Types & Facet/Hierarchy Distribution BM(60%) Facets Hierarchies Vocs Samples Images AGENTS Living 342 A11198靈芝(Lin Zhi(an herb of immortality), Organisms glossy ganoderma) BM Fungi (kingdom) OBJECTS Components 275 A10009龜鈕(Turtle buttons) BM knobs (handles) PHYSICAL Design 271 A11467雲紋(cloud pattern) ATTRIBUTE Elements BM cloud bands S =EQ(25%) Facets Hierarchies Vocs Samples Images OBJECTS Components 275 A10040蓋(Cover, Top) =EQ covers (closures) MATERIALS Materials 97 A06048金(Gold) =EQ gold (metal) STYLES AND Styles and 75 A03003汝窯(Ru) PERIODS Periods =EQ Ru 50
  51. 51. What are the critical problems for bilingual semantic mapping between Chinese and English? 51
  52. 52. Problems of Structure and vocabulary Differences Structures Specific category in AAT No specific category in AAT A02 考古學文化Archaeological Complete Culture (13 Vocabularies) in AAT A17時代 Chinese Periods Vocabularies (66 Vocabularies) A08釉色 Chinese Ceramic Glazes Incomplete A03窯系 (69 Vocabularies) Chinese Ceramic Style P02 書畫技法 Techniques of Chinese in AAT (19 Vocabularies) Painting (34 Vocabularies) 52
  53. 53. No specific category in AAT, and the vocabularies from NPM can be only incompletely mapped into different categories MATERIALS FACET AAT NPM Materials(Hierarchy Name) materials(matter) A08 Chinese Ceramic Glaze by color <materials by function> coating(material) 單色釉(single color) <coating by location or context> 青瓷釉(=EQ) glaze ceramic glaze 透明釉(=EQ) <ceramic glaze by composition or origin> 紅釉 (=EQ) blue-and-white(ceramic glaze) celadon(glaze) 釉下彩繪(underslaze enamels) <ceramic glaze by form> 青花 (=EQ) clear glaze <ceramic glaze by technique> 墨彩 (=EQ) sang de boeuf 鐵繪 (BM) STYLES AND PERIODS FACET 釉裡紅(BM) Styles and Periods 彩瓷(painted china) <styles and periods by region> Asian 粉彩 (=EQ) East Asian 綠彩 (=EQ) Chinese 黃彩 (=EQ) <Chinese styles (style)> <Chinese ceramics styles> 五彩 (=EQ) Chinese export famille (keramiekstijl) NPM famille rose A03 Chinese Ceramic Style famille verte famille jaune 定窯系 (=EQ) famille noire 汝窯系 (=EQ) Wucai Ding(Chinese ceramics style) 樞府窯系(=EQ) Ru 邢窯系 (=EQ) Shufu 53 Xing
  54. 54. Subject: 春景(spring scene)
  55. 55. Generic problems in mapping process  Compound Concepts P03001 EQ+ ID: 300264666 春景 scenes (depictions) spring scene(C) (depictions (visual works), <visual works by form: image form>, ... Visual and Verbal Communication (Hierarchy Name)) ID: 300133097 spring (season) (seasons, <earth sciences concepts>, ... Associated Concepts) Objects Facet Objects Facet NPM Visual and Verbal Communication (Hierarchy Name) Visual and Verbal Communication (Hierarchy Name) landscapes Visual Works (Hierarchy Name) Visual Works (Hierarchy Name) <visual works (Guide Term)> <visual works (Guide Term)> <visual works by form> <visual works by subject type> 春景 (EQ+) <visual works by form: image form> landscapes (representations) 夏景 (EQ+) views (visual works) <landscapes by seasons or whether> depictions (visual works) spring scenes scenes (depictions) summer scenes landscapes (representations) rain scenes animal paintings drapery (representations) figures (representations) Associated Concepts Facet Associated Concepts <scientific concepts> <physical sciences concepts> <earth sciences concepts> seasons autumn spring (season) 55 summer (season) winter
  56. 56. Construct the methodological framework of mapping Chinese-English lexical semantics, thus to make the resources of Chinese art and culture more accessible to Western users Collecting 蒐集詞彙 Verification 對譯查證 Mapping 對應關係 Semanticization 建立語意 Reconciliation 調和結構 Creation 新增概念與結構 56
  57. 57. Objectives of AAT-Taiwan Western Art Chinese Art Western Getty’s AAT AAT-Taiwan users TELDAP Mapping AAT terms Make Western Art Make Chinese Art Accessible Accessible to Western Users to Western Users Chinese AAT-Taiwan AAT-Taiwan users AAT Chinese Translation TELDAP Mapping AAT terms Make Western Art Accessible Make Chinese Art Accessible to Chinese Users to Chinese Users
  58. 58. Issues  Term verification issues  The AAT Hierarchy issue  The hierarchical position issues- Color
  59. 59. Q2:Could Chinese terms in adjective form become non-preferred terms? Noun Adj.
  60. 60. What are the principles for AAT to choose terms in other forms as substitutive terms  The terms selected are supposed to be only in noun form, but sometimes terms in adjective form can be substitutive terms (e.g., Buddhist can substitute Buddhism; existentialist can substitute existentialism; humorous can substitute humor)
  61. 61. Q1:Can a non-preferred term in English become a preferred term in Chinese according to popularity? Cellular telephones (Prefer term) Xing dong dian hua Cell phone (non-preferred term) shou ji  If it is a professional term, it is better to make preferred term support by academic references; however, if it is a common term for daily usage, the most popular term could be preferred.
  62. 62.  Note: Scientific study of the material remains of past human life and activities, including human artifacts from the very earliest stone tools to the man-made objects that are buried or thrown away in the present day. Archaeological investigations are a principal source of knowledge of prehistoric, ancient, and extinct cultures. Archaeology There are many different kinds of archaeologies below this hierarchy position Exceptions: Archaeometallurgy Archaeobotany Zooarchaeology
  63. 63.  Could almonries(institution) be arranged under the hierarchy of health and welfare institution?
  64. 64. The scope note content error – Yellow color Additive color model Subtractive color model •Associate Professor, Department of Information The color expert in AAT Taiwan reminds and Communication, Chinese Culture University (Expertise:Image that the tree primary additive colors are Duplicate Technology, red/green /blue. However, yellow is one of Electronic Publishing, Digital Image Processing, the primary color in subtractive color Color Science) model. Hsu, Ming-ching 徐明景
  65. 65. How to define colors in AAT ISCC:Hue, value and chroma AAT:Hue, tone,intensity Kennedy, L.K.(1965) A universal color language. Color engineering 3(2),2- 7.