Koyana report

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Koyana report

  1. 1. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.History of the company – To meet the demand of milk in urban area and to provide thecomplementary and joint business to farmer. The Koyana Co-Operative Dudhsangh was established by late Raghunathrao Daulatrao Patil and his colleagueson 1 oct. 1957. That was first Co-Operative dairy Maharashtra established wasduring second five years plan finance was made available of about 1 lakh from 5years plan by State Govt. at first dairy was starting working in hired trend inshaniwar peth Karad. The plant was built on the land of 16 acres i.e. donated by KhodshiGrampanchyat and 6 acres purchased from private owners.The machinery and mechanical devices was made available by Alfalaval and thebuilding constructed to M/S New Triyo Builders. The plant was completed in the end of years 1964 milk co-operativesocieties and 84 persons together with share capital Rs. 5370 was only theKoyana Dairy.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 1
  2. 2. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.1. Infrastructure for procurement of milk. In rural areas of Maharashtra & to ensure on assured market for milk producers throughout the year, as well as the best remunerative prices.2. Fulfill the growing needs for milk & milk products of the consumers in the Maharashtra & elsewhere.3. Organize the co-operative structure of milk at the villages level.4. Supplement of programme extension input, with particular reference to feed & fodder production & implements an intensive breeding programme for milchy animal to increase milk production.5. Imparting training for developing human recourses at rural level for effective leadership, management skills & improvement of services to rural milk producers.6. The Koyana sahakari dudh utpadak prakriya sangh Ltd. Karad. Are aim to get the ISO 9001:2008 Certified company in this year.7. Running co-operative development cell to increase awareness & active women participation for better management & their positive role.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 2
  3. 3. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.PRODUCT OF THE COMPANY:- 1. MILK:- Pasteurized Full Cream Milk Pasteurized Homogenized cow milk Pasteurized Toned Milk Pasteurized Double Toned Milk Flavoured Milk ( Sugandhi Dudh) 2. PEDHA 3. DAHI 4. LASSIE 5. BASUNDI 6. SHRIKHAND 7. AMRAKHANDMokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 3
  4. 4. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.INTRODUCTION:- The RMRD is the section where unloading, weighing, testing of raw milktakes place. RMRD at Koyana dairy is well equipped with the advanced equipmentlike computers and electronic weighing system, milk testing machinates. There isspacious area in front of the dock to park the vehicles. The dock having two ranreception lines, so has two units of each equipment like can opener, weighing tankDump Tank, can washer, and crate washer. In Koyana dairy raw milk is received by cans & tankers from varioussocieties and chilling centers. Tankers from chilling centers generally receive themilk which is away from 150 K.M. It has already weighed sampled and cooled.This raw milk is again tested for SNF, Protein, C.O.B., Acidity & adulteration test. The process on RMRD starts from unloading the tempos. The cans areconveyed on chain conveyer. The cow milk and buffalo milk is collected separatelyon RMRD. On the way to tilting point lid opener to opens the can lids andorganoleptic tests are conducted. If anything wrong with can then it is detectedand such can is taken out form conveyer. Then these cans are unloaded / emptiedin dump tank manually at tilting point. The suspected / sour milk is not allowed tomix with good / fresh milk. It is diverted from that line and conveyed to sour milkis collected separately on RMRD. A lab person or chemist analyses the sample forplatform tests such as Fat, SNF, CLR, Acidity, Heat stability of Milk, etc. After preliminary testing Milk is poured into the weight scale and note downon the computer as the using society number codes for simple for create data.Here the two parameters like quantitative and qualitative parameters of incomingmilk from the societies. These parameters are Fat, CLR and quantity of milk.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 4
  5. 5. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.These parameters are used to calculate the price of milk per liter. The same timeagitate milk for 1 to 2 stroke of plunger for well mix milk and correct sample fortesting is taken from the weigh tank. Milk is then transferred to the two dump tankof 1000 Liter capacity. Nylon filters do filtration at weigh tank and dump tank.The two 5 HP centrifugal pumps are transferred the milk dump tank to processingsection.The cans, which are not properly cleaned, are taken to can scrubber andagain loaded to can washing for reclining.TANKER RECEPTION:- The milk from the various chilling centers as 1} Dabane Milk dairy,(Kasegaon), Tal.- Walawa, Dist.- Sangali. 2} Jagtap Milk dairy Vai, Dist.- Satara.3} Gyaneshwari dairy Parkhandi. 4} M/S Dhaphalapure dairy & Agro productsAt.- Mugalkhod, Tal.- Raibag, Dist.- Belgaon. 6} Prithviraj Milk & FoodProcessing, Banpuri Tal.- Khatav, Dist.- Satara. Etc. is transported by roadtankers. These tankers are on hire basis as add when required subjected toprocurement of milk. As soon as the tanker arrives at the dock containing processed or chilled milkit is being tested for organoleptic tests and labtests. After analyzing its quality, it isaccepted for further processiong and production. The reception starts from 9.00 a.m. during morning and 6.00 p.m. at eveningand continues till all the expected milk is received. The milk handling capacity ofKOYANA dairy is around 1.5 lakh Lit. / day.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 5
  6. 6. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.MILK RECEPTION FLOW LINE:- Reception of cans on platform Can conveyor Manual can Opening Organoleptic Testing (If doubt then COB testing) Tilting of Cans Sour Milk Weighing Sample (Testing CLR and Fat ) Processing Dump tank Reception of milk Empty can from tankers Milk Draining Can Washer Can Scrubbing DispatchMokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 6
  7. 7. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.RMRD EQUIPMENT DETAILS: - 1. Can : - Material of construction = Aluminium & Fibers Capacity = 40 Liters. 2. Can Conveyor :- Type = Chain conveyor 3. Organoloeptic Testing :- At first, milk is well mixed with the help of plunger and followingtestes are carried out by experienced persons. a) Colour b) Smell c) Taste d ) Temperature by touch to cans. 4. Tilting of cans :- Mode of operation - Manual 5. Weighing :- Weighing Balance Operation - Electricity operated 6. Milk Samplers :- Amount of sample drawn from each lot - 100 ml 7. RMRD Lab :- Tests are conducted by advanced machines (EKO MILK). These tests arefor Fat, SNF, Protein, which are conducted on the platform.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 7
  8. 8. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report. 8. Screens & Filters :- Small Pore Size Screens are used to efficiently remove the sediments fromthe milk. These are present at weighing tank and dump tank. 9. Can Washer :- Can Washing by manually by using hot water. 10. Can Scrubber:- Shape = Semi cylindrical open Brushes = Nylon hairs No. of Brushes = 2CLEANING OF CANS:- The empty cans are washed in a straight through can washer daily. Oncein a week the cans should be washed manually with schedule programme.Can Washing Programme: =1. First washing using can scrubber with solution of hot water and detergent and pass to this cans to manually washing.2. Then can washing by using iron strip brush and detergent and then wash to clean by using hot water.3. Drain down the water and used to next operation.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 8
  9. 9. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.CRATE RECEPTION DOCK: - The crates returned from distributors are received here and washed out incrate washer. This section is located at side to the RMRD. Crates washing by using hot steam and hot water.Crate Washing Programme:-1. Pre-rinse with normal water at 40˚C.2. Drain.3. Jetting with caustic solution at 75°C, of strength 0.6=0.8% NaOH, pressure = 0.75 kg/cm square and drain.4. Hot water heated by steam at 80°C & drain water.TANKER CLEANING:-After every Emptying & before every filling.1. Pre-rinse with water.2. Manual cleaning with hot water, detergent & pads.3. Final rinse with hot water.4. Sterilization with chlorine 150-220 ppm i. e. 150ml in 40 liters of watersolution.5. Man whole cover, gaskets, air vents: Brushing with liquid detergent,flushing.6. with hot water & sterilization with chlorine.7. Valve box steam union Open valve body, union & clean them with detergent &hot water.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 9
  10. 10. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.Organoloeptic Test:-The milk is tested organoloeptically for smell, colour appearance,taste & temperature by touching after mixing with plunger, If themilk is suspected then C. O. B. (clot in boiling) is carried out.Dock Lab Test:-1} Clot in Boiling:-This test is carried out for checking the heat stability of milk.Procedure:-1. Pipette out 2ml milk sample in test tube.2. Kept the test tube on burner for boiling of milk.3. After boiling of test tube is washed with water & checked for clots on bottom of test tube.4. If clots are is observed this milk is not suitable for further processing a so makes as it may spoil the entire batch of milk.2} Acidity Test for milk :-Procedure :-1. Pipette out 10ml of milk sample in beaker.2. Add 30 ml of distilled water in it.3. Add 3-4 drops of phenolphthalein indicator.4. Titrate against 0.1 N. NaOH solution.5. End point is colorless to faint pink.Calculation : - B.R. X 0.09The acidity of milk should not more than 0.14 in terms of lactic acid.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 10
  11. 11. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.3} Fat Test of Milk (Gerber Method) :-Procedure :-1. Take 10 ml Gerber sulphuric acid in milk butyrometer by tilt measure.2. Add 10.75 ml milk in it using 10.75 ml pipette by sanding manner.3. Add 1 ml of amyl alcohol in butyrometer.4. Lock the butyrometer by lock stopper.5. Shake the butyrometer at 45° angle for dissolve the curd.6. Centrifuge for 5 min. at 1100=1200 R.P.M.7. Read the reading on fat column & not down fat % in milk.Detection of Adulteration in Milk :-1} Detection of Suger :-Procedure :-1. Pipette out 10 ml milk sample in test tube.2. Add 1 ml conc. Hydrochloric acid.3. Add 1 gm resorcinol powder in it.4. Properly mix the content in test tube.5. Keep the test tube in water bath for 5 min.Observation: - Red color indicate the test is positive. And sugar is present in milk sample.2} Detection of Starch :-Procedure :-1. Take 5ml milk in test tube.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 11
  12. 12. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.2. Boil the sample on hot plate.3. Immediately cool the sample.4. Add 2 drops of Iodine solution & Shake the test tube properly.Obeservation :- Sky blue color indicates starch is test positive.3} Detection of Urea :=Procedure :=1. Take 5ml milk in test tube.2. Add 5ml of 1.6% of DMAB solution and observe color.Observation := Yellow color indicate presence of urea, while yellowish white color gives negative test.4} Detection of Common Salt :=Procedure :=1. Take 5ml of 0.1341% AgNO3.2. Add 2 drops of 10% potassium chromate.3. Which gives brick red color.4. Add 1.0ml of milk and mix, and observe the color.Observation := Yellow color obtained indicates presence of salt. Brick red color remains indicates negative test.5} Detection of Soda ( Neutralizer test ) :=Procedure :=1. Take 5ml milk sample in test tube.2. Add 5ml pure ethyl alcohol in it.3. Add 4 drop rosalic acid, and observe the color.Observation :=Rose red color gives +ve & Light brownish color –ve test.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 12
  13. 13. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.6} Detection of Phosphatase :=Procedure:-1. Take 5ml Phosphatase sodium salt buffer sub substrate solution in test tube.2. Add 1ml milk sample in it.3. Shake well & incubate at 37±0.5°C for ½ hour.4. Compare yellow color on standard disc & determine efficiency of pasteurization.Observation: - Yellow color gives +ve test.7} Detection of Maltose :=Procedure :=1. Take 25ml of milk in beaker.2. Add 1ml HCL in beaker.3. Filter the sample.4. Take 5ml sample in test tube.5. Add 2 drops of Iodine solution.Observation := Brown color gives +ve & Yellow color gives =ve test.8} Detection of Cellulose ( CMC ) :=Procedure :=1. Take 10 ml of milk in 100ml beaker.2. Add 50ml hot water & stir for 2 minutes.3. Filter through a fine mesh nylon cloth.4. Wash residue on cloth with 50ml hot water twice.5. Scrap the residue with a spatula & place it in a spotting plate.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 13
  14. 14. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.6. Stain a part of residue with iodine – zinc chlorides reagent and another part with iodine solution and observe the colour.Observation: = Development of blue color with iodine=zinc chloride reagent and absence of blue color with iodine solution confirms presence of cellulose.9} Detection of Skim Milk Powder :=Procedure:-1. Centrifuge about 50ml of milk at 3000rpm for 30 min.2. Decant the supernatant liquid carefully.3. Dissolve the residue in 2.5ml conc. HNO3.4. Dilute the solution with 5ml distilled water.5. Add 2.5ml liquid ammonia and observe the color.Observation: = Development of orange or yellow color indicates addition of SMP in sample.10} Detection of Added Natural Water & Pond Water: =Procedure: =1. Take 5ml of milk in test tube.2. Add 6 to 7 drops of 10% lactic acid and shake for 2min.3. Take 2ml of diphenylamine reagent in another test tube.4. Filter the content of the sample tube.5. Collect about 1ml of filtrate over diphenylamine reagent & observe the color.Observation: = Development of blue color indicates presence of nitrate in milk and thus of added natural water.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 14
  15. 15. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.INTRODUCTION: = Milk Processing Section is the heart of dairy industry. The milk receivedfrom the RMRD cannot the instantly processed. So it is first chilled and storedin silo tanks. Consequently processing is carried out in this section are,pasteurization, cream separation, filtration, clarification, homogenization,standardization, reconstitution, chilling storage.Milk Process: = The equipment in this section is HTST Pasteurizers, Duplex filters, Clarifiercum separators, Homogenizer, Balance tank, Cream separator, Chillers &Storage tank.Processes carried out in this section are as below: =Pasteurization:- Pasteurization is critical control point in processing of milk. Such heattreatment destroys nearly all pathogenic micro-organism including most heatresistance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, E=monocytogens without seriouslyaffecting composition & properties of milk. First the milk is pumped out from dump tank & tankers by using 5HP pumpsto the pasteurizer. The four section of the milk pasteurizer are first the Heatingsection, second is holding section, third is Regeneration section & fourth isCooling section. The first raw milk in to the heating section and the holdingsection for the holding purpose at temperature of 78 +/- 2°C for 15 sec. And passthe hot milk in regeneration section in this section temp. Increased in steps as35°C, 47°C, 65°C, 80°C hence milk can be sent to separation, homogenizationbetween the regeneration sections. Pasteurizers are connected to Duplex filter,Cream separator and Homogenizer. Flow diversion valve is attached after theholding section. After pasteurization of milk is instantly cooled to 3°= 5°C andstored in storage tanks.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 15
  16. 16. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.Cream separation:- Centrifugal cream separator used for cream separation. Which functionbased on the centrifugal force.Basic Principle of cream separator: - Separation of cream from milk is possible because of a difference in specificgravity between the fat & liquid portion. Whether separation is accomplishedby gravity or centrifugal method. The result is depending upon this difference.The skimmed milk possesses on average a specific gravity is 1.032 while that ofmilk is about 0.93. Cream is separated for several purpose. The most important is to obtained aproduct from which butter may be changed more economically than from wholemilk. Cream also provides a richer product than milk for certainmanufacturing purposes, more especially for ice-cream making and milkstandardization.Homogenization: = A three stage homogenizer is installed in processing section, which is usedhomogenizing whole milk and it is connected in between regeneration 1 & 2heating section. The main principle of homogenization is the milk fat in milk isdispersed in the milk for small size for 0.1-2 µ for the purpose of good flavor formilk and increase the quality of milk.Chilling of Milk: = After milk has been subjected to the temperature of pasteurization theproduct is chilled by the using chilled water to temp. of 3°-5°C. And the chilledmilk is passing to storage tank.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 16
  17. 17. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.FLOW CHART OF MILK PASTEURIZATION: = Milk from dump tank`s & Tanker`sFilter Regeneration 1 (Milk inlet temp 10-15°C) (Milk outlet temp. 45°C)Cream SeparatorCream Skim milk Regeneration 2 (Milk inlet temp.45°C) (Milk outlet temp. 55=60°C) Homogenizer Regeneration 3 (Milk inlet temp. 60°C) (Milk outlet temp. 65°C)Hot Water (85°C) Heating Section (Milk inlet temp. 65°c) (Milk outlet temp. 78±2°C) Holding tubes or Holding plates (for 15 seconds) Regeneration 3 (Milk inlet temp.) 78±2°C) (Milk outlet temp. 65°C) Regeneration 2 (Milk inlet temp.) 65°C) (Milk outlet temp. 45°C) Regeneration 1 (Milk inlet temp.) 45°C)Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 17
  18. 18. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report. (Milk outlet temp. 25°C)Chilled Water (1=2°C) Chilling section (Milk inlet temp.) 25°C) (Milk outlet temp. 3=5°C) Pasteurized Chilled Milk Storage TankMokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 18
  19. 19. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report. Standardization is an important procedure for the adjustment of fat and SNFas per the specified standard. The standardization is done by Skim milk orReconstituted milk for buffalo milk while buffalo milk for cow milk. Thetanks are provided agitators inside for through mixing continuously. There aredifferent ratios for standardized milk whole milk.Operating parameters for Standardization: - Product Fat (%) SNF (%) Standardized Milk 4.5 8.5 Whole Milk 6 9 Cow Milk 4 8.5Flow Diagram of Reconstituted Milk: - Skim milk powder Hopper Addition of water Mixing in tank Agitator (for well mixing) Pasteurization & Homogenization Reconstituted MilkMokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 19
  20. 20. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report. BULK MILK DISPATCH THROUGH TANKER Daily near about 60,000 lit. Processed milk is sent to Washi & Amul dairyfor packaging. Before the milk is dispatched through tankers, the tankers arecleaned properly as per schedule given previously in the RMRD section. ThePasteurized Whole Milk and Standardized milk is chilled at 1.5=2°C and filledin tankers and after filling, the sample is given for analysis. After satisfactoryanalysis report, the tankers are permitted for transportation to Washi & Amulfor packaging. This is carried out with Glycol chiller. The cooling mediumused in this chilling is Glycol.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 20
  21. 21. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.INTRODUCTION: = This section is very important as it gives the protection to the product andimproves its attractiveness i.e. contributing for enhancing the acceptance. This section is located just behind the RMRD. It is in between RMRD &process section. The washed creates are received in pre=pack, section for placingthe pouch of milk and then shifted to cold storage. In this section, there are fivefill=pack machines. This section is laterally connected with cold storage. The milk, which is pasteurized, homogenized or standardized, is receivedfrom storage tanks in overhead balance tank of fill=pack machine at 4°C. Thisflows from overhead balance tank into the pouch by gravity. Machine operatesone electronic and pneumatic principle. Laboratory takes sample for each sizesample for each of pack and after clearance regarding chemical analysis, weightand length of pouch, from quality control laboratory; machine is run for regularproduction.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 21
  22. 22. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.Flow Diagram of Pouch Filling: = Milk from storage tank (4°C) Over head balance tank Filling cylinder Vertical sealing and pouch formation Filling of milk and Horizontal sealing Milk pouch Weighing & leakage testing of pouch Filling in crates Crate convey to cold storage Cold storage (0.5=1°C) DispatchMokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 22
  23. 23. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.DETAILS OF PACKING MACHINE: - In this section, three packaging machines are working. Packagingmaterial is polythene film. Roll is fixed on the backside of the machine and itis carried out to the top of front side mechanically by the nib rollers. Verticaledges of material are sealed to each other by vertical Teflon coated electrode rodat a temperature of 60°C. Then the material comes down and sealed by horizontalelectrode rod at 90°C. The horizontal rod seals first lower end of pouchhorizontally and after filling adjusted amount of milk with the help ofpneumatically operated pistons having adjustable stroke volume, the pouch slipsdown a specified distance and the its upper edge is sealed. Horizontal sealing ofupper side of one pouch and lower side of next pouch & horizontally cutting offilled pouch is carried out in single stroke of horizontal sealer. Packagingmachine and quantity of milk to be packed without leakage.Parameters of Packaging Machines: = No. of Units 1. Power saver (Nichrome) 2. Nichrome The milk, which is collected from leaked pouches, is sent for reprocessing.Average milk loss during adjustment & due to leakage is around 6 liters perhour. Air is used as lubricant in pulling cylinder.Storage of film: = 1. At dry cool & dust free area. 2. Keep wrapped until taken for use. 3. Stacking on wooden pallets/racks.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 23
  24. 24. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.PRODUCT LINE: - 1. PEDHA 2. DAHI 3. LASSIE 4. BASUNDI 5. SHRIKHAND & AMRAKHAND 6. FLAVOURED MILK1. PEDHA: - Raw milk Filtration Pasteurization (78°C for 15 sec.) Homogenization Standardization (6% Fat & 9% SNF)Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 24
  25. 25. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report. Chilling Fill milk in Khoa machine bowl (80 lit.) Heating of milk Semisolid Mass (Khoa stage occurred) Addition of (Sugar 6.4 kg &) (Spices 60gm/20kg of Khoa) Spread on table for cooling Make desired shape ball Prepared Pedha Spices = Nutmeg 100gm + Cardamom 100gm & it grind well Packaging & mix well. StorageMokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 25
  26. 26. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.2. DAHI: - Take raw milk Pasteurization 78±2°C for 15sec. Homogenization Batch Pasteurization 80-85°C for 20 min. Drop temp. 38-40°C Addition of 1% lactic culture Storage of milk in inoculation tank Packaging in PET Storage in Incubation chamber (8 hrs. 40±2°C & Acidity 0.7-0.8%) Take to Deep Freezer for Blast cooling Storage in cold roomMokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 26
  27. 27. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.LASSI: - Take raw milk Pasteurization 78±2°C for 15sec. Homogenization Batch Pasteurization 80-85°C for 20 min. Drop temp. 38-40°C Addition of 1% lactic culture Storage of milk in inoculation tank Storage in Incubation chamber (8 hrs. 40±2°C & Acidity 0.7-0.8%) Addition of same quantity of water Addition of Sugar (16.5 kg for 100lit.) Grinding for well mixingMokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 27
  28. 28. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report. Batch Pasteurization Addition Iodized Salt (150gm/100lit. during heating) Addition of Cardamom (110gm /100lit.) Chilling Packaging in PET Storage (2-4°)4. BASUNDI: - Raw milk Filtration Pasteurization (78°C for 15 sec.) HomogenizationMokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 28
  29. 29. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report. Standardization (6% Fat & 9% SNF) Chilling Fill milk in Khoa machine bowl (80 lit.) Heating of milk Semi Liquid Mass (Basundi stage occurred) Addition of (Sugar 4.6 kg &) (Spices 60mg/40kg of Basundi) Open Outlet Valve Transfer Basundi for Chilling (4-5 °C ) Packaging in PET Storage (0-2°C)Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 29
  30. 30. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.5. SHRIKHAND & AMRAKHAND: - Take raw milk Pasteurization 78±2°C for 15sec. Homogenization Batch Pasteurization 80-85°C for 20 min. Drop temp. 38-40°C Addition of 1% lactic culture Storage of milk in inoculation tank Storage in Incubation chamber (8 hrs. 40±2°C & Acidity 0.7-0.8%) Hanging of Dahi in muslin cloth (10-12hrs.) Chakka (Acidity max. 1.4%)Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 30
  31. 31. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report. Addition of sugar (80%) ShreddingKesher (0.001) Jaiphal, Elaichi Mango pulpJaiphal (0.02%) (0.o2%) (0.1%) (Mixing (13%)Elaichi (0.1%) (Amrakhand) Mixing Cup Filling Packaging Cold Storage (below 0°C)Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 31
  32. 32. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.6. FLAVOURED MILK: - Raw milk Filtration Pasteurization (78°C for 15 sec.) Homogenization Standardization (3% Fat & 9% SNF) Addition of Sugar (8%) Flavor mixing (0.02%) Packaging in PET Storage (2-4°C)Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 32
  33. 33. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report. After manufacturing of the pasteurized milk & By products the chemical& microbial analysis is very important in dairy industry. Various test is carriedout in quality control department under ISO & PFA (Maharashtra)certification.A} Analysis of Milk: -1} Detection of protein in Milk: -Procedure: -1. Pipette out 10ml of milk in beaker.2. Add 0.4ml of potassium oxalate in it.3. Add 4-5 drops of phenolphthalein indicator.4. Titrate the sample 0.1N NaOH solution till faint pink color is reaches.5. Add 2ml of formaldehyde solution in above sample.6. Keep stand for 5 min.7. Titrate the sample against 0.1N NaOH solution till faint pink color is observed.Calculation: - Second B.R. x 1.7Standard: - Protein contain in cow milk is not less than 3% & B/M is not less than 4.5%.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 33
  34. 34. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.2} MBR Test (Mythylene blue reduction test): -Procedure of MBR Test: -1. Take 10ml milk in sterile test tube.2. Add 1ml of Mythylene blue working solution in test tube.3. Work the test tube & mix the content.4. Keep the test tube in water bath at 37°C for 30min to 6hrs.5. Observe the change in color of the test tube. Interpretation: - Sample Quality Reduction time. 1 Excellent Above 6 hrs. 2 Good 4-3 hrs. 3 Fair 2-½ hrs. 4 Poor Less than ½ hrs.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 34
  35. 35. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.Analysis of by product’s: -1} Acidity of a Product: -Procedure: -1. Weight accurately 1gm of sample in beaker.2. Add 10ml distilled water in it.3. Add 3=4 drops of phenolphthalein indicator4. Titrate the sample against 0.1N NaOH solution till faint pink color Observed.5. Take the reading & calculate the acidity of product Calculation: = 0.9 x A x N Where, A= Burrete reading. W N = Normality W= Wt. of sample2} Determination of fat of the milk product products by Gerber Method: =Procedure: -1. Take 10ml sulphuric acid in butyrometer by tilt measure.2. Add 5gm product sample & add 5ml distilled water in it.3. Add 1ml of iso-amyl alcohol in butyrometer.4. Lock the butyrometer by lock stopper.5. Shake the butyrometer at 45° angle for dissolve the curd.6. Centrifuge for 5 min. at 1100=1200 R.P.M.7. Read the reading on fat column & not down fat % in milk product.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 35
  36. 36. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.3} Moisture of milk product:-Procedure: -1. Weight accurately empty aluminum dish & record the weight.2. Weight 2.5gm of milk sample in above aluminum dish.3. Spread the sample evenly on bottom of dish by using glass rod.4. Place the dish in to hot air oven for 3hrs. At 100°C.5. after 3hrs. Weight of dish after heating.Calculation: -1) W1- weight of empty dish. 2) W2- weight of dish with sample. 3) W3- weight of dish after heating.Formula: - W2 – W3 Moisture of milk product = x 100 W2 – W14} Determination of protein of the milk product: -Procedure: -1. Take 3gm of product sample in beaker.2. Add 10ml of distilled water in beaker.3. Add 0.4ml of potassium oxalate in it.4. Add 4-5 drops of phenolphthalein indicator.5. Titrate the sample 0.1N NaOH solution until faint pink color is observed.6. Add 2ml of neutral formaldehyde solution in above sample.7. Keep stand for 5min.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 36
  37. 37. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.8. Titrate the sample against 0.1N NaOH solution till faint pink color is observed.Calculation: - Formula = Second B. R. x 1.7.5} Determination of Total Solid Content of the Milk Product: -Procedure: -1. Weight accurately empty aluminum dish & record the weight of dish (W1).2. Weight 2.5gm of milk product in above aluminum dish & note down the weight (W2).3. Spread the sample evenly on bottom of dish by using glass rod.4. After 3hrs. Weight of dish after heating. W2 – W3Moisture of milk products = x 100. W2 – W1T.S.S. = 100 – moisture.6} Phosphatase Test for Milk: - Phosphatase test is carried out for to check the milk properly pasteurized or un pasteurized.Procedure: -1. Take 5ml of Phosphatase solution in test tube.2. Add 1ml of milk sample in test tube (solution A).3. Pipette out 1ml of milk in test tube & add 5ml Phosphatase solution.4. Mark it as solution.5. Cork the tube and mix the content well.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 37
  38. 38. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.6. Keep both test tubes in hot water bath at 37°C for 2hrs.7. Compare the change in color in test tube (A) with test tube (B) after 2hrs.Result – Yellow color indicates test is positive & White color indicates test is negative.PFA standard for milk & milk products: -A) Raw Milk in Can: - Tests Buffalo Cow Milk CHEMICAL Fat 6.0 % (Min.) 3.8 % (Min.) SNF 9.0 % (Min.) 8.5 % (Min.) COB Negative Negative PHYSICAL Smell Satisfactory (Min.) Satisfactory (Min.)B) Pasteurized Milk: - Tests Parameters BIOCHEMICAL M.B.R. 4 hrs. (Min.) BACTERIOLOGICAL SPC 30,000 (Max.) Coli form. Absent. C) Buffalo Milk and Cow Milk: - Tests Buffalo Milk Cow MilkMokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 38
  39. 39. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report. CHEMICAL Fat 6.5 – 6.8 % 3.8 – 4.2 % SNF 9.0 – 9.3 % 8.5 – 8.7 % (For standardized Milk Fat % = 4.5 – 4.7 & SNF % = 8.5 – 8.7 %) Acidity. 0.1 – 0.15 % L.A. 0.1 – 0.15 % L.A.BIOCHEMICAL MBR. 4hrs. (Min) 4hrs. (Min)D) Milk for LASSI: - Tests Parameters CHEMICAL Fat 4.9 % (Min.) SNF. 8. 6 % (Min.)E) Milk for CHAKKA: - Tests Parameters CHEMICAL Fat 3.5 % (Min.) SNF. 9.3 % (Min.)Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 39
  40. 40. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report. Milk is an excellent growth medium for variety organism. To judge the extentof contamination can be minimized by exercising proper practices.1. Standard Plate Count: -This method is used to estimate the total viable bacterial no. in milk & milkproducts & other respective samples.Procedure: =1. Collect the sample form different places in aseptic condition.2. Carry out their serial dilution.3. 1ml of each dilution is transfer to a sterile Petri plate.4. 15 – 20ml of sterile molten & cooled plate count agar is poured in each Petri plate.5. Mix the content by rotating the plates.6. Place the plate in incubator at inverted position in incubator at 37±0.5°C for 24hrs.7. after 24hrs. The visible colonies appearing on agar plate are counted.Result: -SPC =No. of colonies x dilution factorInterpretation: - SPC count not more than (30,000) /ml for pasteurized milk.2} Presumptive Coli form Test: -Media: - Red bite AgarMokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 40
  41. 41. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.Procedure: -1. Take 10ml saline water.2. Add 1ml of sample of pasteurized milk in saline water and mark it as to 10 ¹ to 10¹ dilutions.3. Transfer 1ml of sample from 10 ¹ dilution in another 9ml saline water & mark it as 10` also prepare 10 dilution.4. Pour molten and cooled red bile agar (12 to 15ml) in each Petri dish.5. Mix the content well by rotation the plates.6. Incubate the plate in inverted position 37±0.5°C in incubate for 24hrs.7. After the incubation period count the pink colony & note down the Coli form count.Coli form count: - No. of colonies x Dilution factor.For bacteriology of milk of milk product weight accurately 10 gm. Of sample and transfer into 90ml peptone water. 10 dilution used for bacteriological analysis.Sr. No. Particular SPC count Coli form count 1. Shrikhand/Chakka NMT 50,000/gm NMT 10/gm 2. Khoa NMT 50,000/gm NMT 90/gm 3. Flavoured Milk Nil Absent in 0.1 gm 4. SMP NMT 50,000/gm Absent in 0.1 gm 5. Dahi NMT 50,000/gm NMT 10/gm 6. Cream NMT 50,000/gm NMT 10/gmMokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 41
  42. 42. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report. CIP system is located at right hand of processing section of RMRD. It ishaving three CIP tanks for storing different cleaning and sanitizing solutions ofvarious temperatures. These tanks are connected to processing section throughpipeline for cleaning various milk processing equipment and systems.Cleaning In Place applied to milk lines. Only cream separator & filters arecleaned manually after each shift.CIP of Processing Section: - To maintain the hygienic condition of plant proper cleaning, ventilationand CIP of milk processing equipment is necessary. For CIP Nitric acid andCaustic Soda are use in the required proportion. The pasteurizers are cleanedwith CIP, while cleaning of Cream separator and Duplex Filters is donemanually after the 6Hrs. in each shift.Flow chart for CIP of Processing Section:- Pre-rinse with hot water (45°C for 10min.) Caustic + Syndet powder circulation (70°C for 30min.) Hot water rinse (80°C for 10min.) Nitric acid circulationMokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 42
  43. 43. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report. (60-70°C for 10min) Hot water rinse (80°C for 10min. / till removal of acid) Caustic + Syndet powder circulation (70°C for 30 min) Hot water rinse (80°C for 10min. /till removal of acid) Hot water + Byosin (80°C for 10min.)CIP programme for Milk Pasteurizers: =1. Rinse with warm water for about 8 min.2. Circulate alkali detergent solution (NaOH Solution). For about 20min. at 75°C.3. Rinse alkaline detergent with hot water at 80°C for 10min.4. Circulation of Nitric acid (HNO3) solution about 15min. at 70°C.5. Flushing with hot water at 75°C for about 6min.6. Disinfections by circulation hot water at 90°C for about 8min.7. Gradual cooling either cold water for about 8min.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 43
  44. 44. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.The general process of refrigeration system is takes place as follows –1. Compressor.2. Condenser.3. Receiver.4. Expansion valve.5. Evaporator. 4 EV 3 Receivers 5Evaporator 2 Condensers 1 CompressorMokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 44
  45. 45. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.INTRODUCTION: - The main function of boiler is to produce steam. Steam is the used insection of plant in cleaning, production, sterilization of dairy equipment. Softwater is used in boiler to avoid s align over the tubes Hardness of water ismaintained at 0 to 5 PPM.Generally two types of boilers are used: -1. Water tube boiler: - In this the water is circulated inside the tube & smoke is present outsidethe tube.2. Smoke tube boiler: - In this smoke is present inside the tube & water is circulated outside thetube.In Koyana dairy used is smoke tube boiler is used for the heating of water &produce the steam Hot Water Boiler : =Temperature: -90 to 95°C.Pressure: - 4 kg/cm2.Energy: - 2.5 lakh kcal.Pump: - 10 HP.Capacity of boiler 60,000 – 80,000 lit. / Day & use timber as a fuel and it use 2tons/day.Return Water Temperature is 88 - 90°C.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 45
  46. 46. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.Schematic flow diagram of ETP Plant: - Raw Effluent Volumetric capacities 200m3 Tank By pump Fat Removal Unit 80m3 x 2 By Gravity Equalization tank 300m3 x 2 Floating Agitator Effluent Recirculation UASB 500m3 By GravityMokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 46
  47. 47. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.615m3 Aeration tank (Fixed Aerators)SludgeRecirculation By gravity Sludge drying Bed. By gravity Treated 4m3 Effluent TankMokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 47
  48. 48. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 48
  49. 49. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak sangh Ltd. Khodashi. Industrial Training Report.Mokashi College Of Food Technology Rajmachi,Karad. 49
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