Scan50 W

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Powerpoint used in UCLA Scandinavian 50W (Winter, 2004)

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  • Scan50 W

    1. 1. Introduction to Scandinavian Literature 50 W <ul><li>A brief orientation in space (maps) </li></ul><ul><li>And time (timeline) </li></ul>
    2. 2. contemporary notions of Scandinavia
    3. 3. Norden today Norway Denmark Sweden Finland Pop: 276,365 Area: 103,000 km 2 Pop: 4.5 mil Area: 324,200 km 2 Pop: 5.3 mil Area: 43,100 km 2 Pop: 8.9 mil Area: 450,000 km 2 Pop: 5.2 mil Area: 337,000 km 2 Iceland
    4. 4. Greenland <ul><li>Pop: 55,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Area: 2,715,600 km 2 </li></ul>
    5. 5. Timeline Iron Age (500 BC-800)
    6. 6. Iron-Age Scandinavia <ul><li>Early Iron Age: 500 BC-AD 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Archeological evidence of warrior cult </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-viking ship burials </li></ul><ul><li>Bog findings </li></ul>
    7. 7. Timeline Viking Age 800-1000 AD
    8. 8. Viking Scandinavia 800-1000AD
    9. 9. Picturestones
    10. 10. Runestones
    11. 11. Timeline Middle Ages: 1000 - 1500
    12. 12. Conversion: ~1000 AD Introduction of Christianity Borgund, Norway 1200 AD Elucidarius, 1100 AD
    13. 13. Stories of pagan heroes were carved on churches…. From Hylestad in Setesdal, Norway
    14. 14. Stories told inside the stave churches Christ & Apostles inside Ulvik Church in Norway (c. 1250
    15. 15. Eddas and Sagas <ul><li>Law codes </li></ul><ul><li>Recording of “oral” poetry and prose </li></ul><ul><li>saga > segja = to say </li></ul><ul><li>Sagas of saints, kings, icelanders </li></ul><ul><li>Eddas refer mythological and heroic poems, e.g. Sigurd </li></ul>
    16. 16. Recording Laws and History Swedish Law Code, ~1280 Saxo’s History of the Danes (in Latin), early 13 th century
    17. 17. 14 th and 15 th centuries (late middle ages) <ul><li>Black Plague: approx. 1/3 of Europe dies in mid-1300s </li></ul><ul><li>Kalmar Union (kingdoms of Norway, Sweden and Denmark) – need for consolidation - centralization </li></ul><ul><li>Struggles between Swedish aristocracy and Danish monarchy, ending in Stockholm Bloodbath (1520) </li></ul>St. Birgitta (1303-73) Kalmar Union 1397-1523
    18. 18. Timeline Reformation 16 th century Renaissance/Humanism, i.e. Enlightenment
    19. 19. Reformation: 16 th century <ul><li>Spread of Luther’s influence from Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on the vernacular, Bible is translated from Latin </li></ul><ul><li>Printing, literacy and scholarship rise </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance ideas spread </li></ul>Olaus Magnus’ map Gustav Vasa becomes King of Sweden 1523
    20. 20. Renaissance/Humanism Danish Astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601 ) Bernt Notke’s St. George & the Dragon (1487) Stockholm
    21. 21. Mapping external and internal worlds Oldest surviving map of denmark, 1570 An English Anatomy, ~1400 in the Swedish Library
    22. 22. Baroque: 16 th -17 th centuries <ul><li>Extravagant, fantastic forms </li></ul><ul><li>Exaggerated, theatrical effects, curved lines </li></ul><ul><li>Age of Swedish Expansion – ruling the Baltic & Finland </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute Monarchs (1660) </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of middle class and cities </li></ul>
    23. 23. Collections <ul><li>1620 King of Sweden gives Vasa collection to Uppsala University </li></ul><ul><li>1665 Royal Library of Denmark established </li></ul>Morkinskinna / A.M. Swedes conquer Prague and bring home “The Devil’s Bible, 1648
    24. 24. Enlightenment: 18 th Century <ul><li>Rationalistic methods </li></ul><ul><li>Scepticism of established dogma </li></ul><ul><li>Linnaeus, Swedish botanist, publishes Systema Naturae, based on direct observation </li></ul><ul><li>National Libraries established, collections of antiquities </li></ul><ul><li>Optimism, travel, expansion </li></ul>
    25. 25. Enlightenment: home & abroad Maps of 1736 Map of Greenland, 1737 Map of Danish trade colony in India, est. 1733
    26. 26. Timeline Romanticism: Nineteenth Century French Revolution: 1789 Americn Declaration of Independence 1776 Industrial Revolution
    27. 27. Independence: Finland <ul><li>Prior to 1809, Finland was a province of Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>1809-1917: Finland was Grand Duchy of Russia and became autonomous </li></ul><ul><li>1917-20: Civil War ended and Finland became fully independent </li></ul>1814
    28. 28. Finnish Nationalism: Kalevala Finnish national ‘epic’ – a collection assembled by Elias L önnroth, 1835 Forging of the sampo
    29. 29. Independence : Norway <ul><li>Napoleonic wars: Sweden vs Denmark (Danes allied with France) </li></ul><ul><li>Peace of 1814 </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden wins Norway from Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>Norway writes its own constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Independence in 1905 </li></ul>Eidsvoll, 17 th of May
    30. 30. Rising Population <ul><li>Norway </li></ul><ul><li>1815: 880,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1865: 1.7 million </li></ul><ul><li>(decrease in infant mortality ) </li></ul><ul><li>1850-1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Norway: 1.7 to 2.5 million </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark: 1.7 to 2.75 </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden: 4 to 6 million </li></ul><ul><li>Finland: 1.7 to 2.75 </li></ul><ul><li>Iceland: 67,000 to 89,000 </li></ul>
    31. 31. How to cope? <ul><li>Emigration </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in agricultural practices </li></ul><ul><li>Move from rural to cities </li></ul><ul><li>From cities to America </li></ul><ul><li>800,000 Norwegians emigrated to U.S from 1825-1939 </li></ul>
    32. 32. Romanticism: 19 th century <ul><li>Emphasis on the individual and imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism (rather than internationalism) </li></ul><ul><li>Folk, folklore, folklife </li></ul><ul><li>Nature (rather than city) </li></ul><ul><li>Lyricism, wilderness </li></ul>Asbj ørnsen and Moe, collected and published Norwegian Folktales, 1841
    33. 33. H.C. Andersen Andersen ’s own paper-cut art work Illustration from Emperor’s New Clothes Hans Christian (1805-1875)
    34. 34. Copenhagen 1834 1820 Holmensgade 8 Pop: 101,000 (1800) Pop: 560,000 (1911)
    35. 35. Growth of cities <ul><li>Copenhagen’s four-fold increase in population </li></ul><ul><li>Poor housing conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis at its peak in 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption was associated with fast-paced life in the cites </li></ul><ul><li>Overstimulation </li></ul>
    36. 36. Deaths from TB in Sweden and Finland Urban vs Rural
    37. 37. Stockholm <ul><li>1893 Map of Stockholm </li></ul>Pop: 76,000 (1800)
    38. 45. Iceland

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