Zoomorphic – close with nature and animalsResembles Islamic artWouldn’t sign it because its dedicated to god and signing It would be a sin of vanity Illustrating what the text would say
Charlamagne – tried to revive the roman empire (holy Roman empire) not as successful as Justinian Marcus Aurelius – equestrian
Mark – lion Matthew – guy with angel Luke – guy with bull John – guy with eagle Wrote story of Jesus’ lifeDessed in toga – emulate the Romans
Made literacy extremely important Made punctuation important Psalter – mini book of psalms
Carolignian – cover of gospel Super rare so decorated
Germanic, hiberno saxon and carolingian (student) updated(4)
A. The Vandals sacked Rome in 455, and the last Roman emperor died in 475.
In the following centuries (ca. 500-1400), several cultural and artistic
styles evolved. The general term for this time is “ medieval." The
important styles during the years were: Germanic Hiberno-Saxon,
Carolingian, Feudal(secular), Romanesque, Gothic , and 14th century .
B. After the dissolution of the Roman Empire, Western Europe was
fragmented, and the population was plunged into violence and illiteracy.
During this time society slowly rebuilt itself, resulting in a conglomerate
culture inherited from Germanic tribal traditions, de-contextualized
Greco-Roman remnants, and Christian iconography, presided over by the
church as the only and ultimate authority. This era, once called "the dark
ages," eventually resulted in the foundation of modern European nations.
A. Various Germanic tribes (Huns, Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Franks, Vandals
Burgundians, Celts, Vikings, Angles, and Saxons) belonged to one language
family. They were tribal and warlike, following a migratory existence.
B. Germanic Tribal traditions
1. Epic poem of Beowulf
a. Exalts personal valor and heroism associated with a
b. Transmitted orally and eventually written.
c. Is the first monumental literary composition in a European
vernacular language (Old English).
2. Purse cover from Sutton Hoo
a. From a Viking ship burial
b. Medium of cloisonné
c. Zoomorphic decoration
A. Religious objects. In 432 Saint Patrick established the first Christian
church in Ireland and began the conversion of the Celts.
1. Ardagh Chalice
a. Medium of precious metal, gold wire, glass, and enamel
b. Used in celebration of the Mass
2. Lindisfarne Gospels, Carpet Page
a. Illuminated manuscript
b. Christian book wrought in intricate Hiberno-Saxon style
c. The monastery of Lindisfarne was established in 635.
1. Frankish chief Charles the Great ruled from 768 to 814
2. Pursued the dream of restoring the Roman Empire under
Christianity, and crowned "Holy Roman Emperor."
3. Led a rebirth in literacy, art, and culture, established link with
Bagdad, opened trade routes, and encouraged scholarship.
B. The Four Evangelists , from The Coronation Gospels
1. Integration of classical culture with Christian subject.
2. "Gospels" is a collection of the four Evangelists' versions of the life
3. Evangelists and their symbols:
a. Matthew (angel)
b. John (eagle)
c. Luke (ox)
d. Mark (lion)
C. Utrecht Psalter
1. A “ Psalter " is a collection of Biblical Psalms (Songs written by
2. Illustrates the Psalm: "Praise the lord with the sound of the
trumpet...with the psalter and harp…with tambourine and
dance...with stringed instruments and organs...upon loud cymbals."
D. Jeweled cover of the Lindau Gospels
1. Integration of Germanic, Roman, and Byzantine styles.
E. Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen , Germany
1. Inspired by San Vitale, Ravenna
2. Attached to palace complex
Purse cover from Sutton Hoo, c. 630. Gold with garnets and cloisonné enamel, length 8 in.
Ardagh Chalice, from Ireland, early 8th century. Silver, gilt, bronze, gold wire, glass, enamel
from the Lindisfarne Gospels, c. 700.
Equestrian statuette of Charlemagne,
from Metz, 9th century.
Bronze with traces of gilt. Height 9 ½ in.
The Four Evangelists,
from The Coronation Gospels, c. 805
Utrecht Psalter, featuring
Psalm 150, c. 830. Ink on vellum,
1 ft. 1 in. x 9 7/8 in.
Front cover of the Lindau Gospels,
c. 870. Silver gilt with cloisonné enamel
and precious stones, 13 3/8 x 10 3/8 in.
Odo of Metz, Palatine Chapel of
Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany,
Beowulf— an Old English epic poem celebrating the
legendary Scandinavian hero Beowulf; the first monumental
literary composition in a European vernacular language
Sutton Hoo— the site in Suffolk of a Saxon ship burial of the
seventh century, containing magnificent grave goods including
jewelry and gold coins
Cloisonné— (French, cloison, “fence”) an enameling
technique produced by pouring molten colored glass between
thin metal strips secured to a metal surface; any object
ornamented in this manner
Zoomorphic— animal-shaped; having the form of an animal
Gospels— the four New Testament books that relate the life
and teachings of Jesus
Illuminated manuscript— a luxurious handmade book with
painted illustrations and decorations
Four Evangelists— the writers of the four Gospels
(John, Matthew, Luke, Mark)
Medieval— In European history, the era between the Roman
Empire and the Renaissance. Also called the Middle Ages
Germanic— People who consisted of various tribes (Huns,
Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Franks, Vandals, Burgundians, Celts,
Vikings, Angles, and Saxons) and belonged to one language
family. They were tribal, warlike, and followed a migratory
Hiberno-Saxon—Style of art produced in British Isles postRoman Empire. Also known as insular art. Most of the art
originates from Irish monasticism, especially illuminated
Carolingian— The Frankish noble family that reigned in
Europe, reached its peak with Charlemagne as emperor. His
death in 814 led to fragmentation and decline.
Feudal— System of legal and military customs in medieval
Europe. The feudal system was a structure for society based
around the exchange of land for service or labor.
Romanesque— “Roman-like,” medieval style of art and
architecture during the 11th to 13th centuries that used Roman
Gothic—Medieval style of art and architecture that followed
the Romanesque style. Also developed architectural
innovations such as the flying buttress.
14th Century—A dynamic and unstable era of transition
between the past (Gothic) and future (Renaissance), containing
elements of both old and new ideas.