SCANDINAVIA: NORWAY DENMARKLoi FrancisMontalBo JEREmiah SALVIO KISHA MARIE DICEN SWEDEN
WHAT IS SCANDINAVIA? is a historical cultural- linguistic region in northern Europe that includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Swede n, characterized by their common ethno-cultural heritage and related languages Scandinavia is usually used as a cultural term, but in English usage, it is occasionally confused with the purely geographical term Scandinavian Peninsula
Early middle Christianity was adopted replacing NORSEages Numerous petty mythology– itself a subset of kingdoms and paganism chiefdoms were unified into 3 kingdoms (Norway, Sweden and Denmark) 15th century, Scandinavia Scandinavia despite many wars was united in the Kalmar over the years since the formation of Union. Today, the nations the three kingdoms, been politically cooperate mainly in the and culturally close. European Union or the Nordic Council
The Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish languages form a dialect continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered mutually intelligible with each other. Scandinavia and Scandinavian entered usage in 18th century—terms for 3 Scandinavian countries Historically referred to SCANIA the name used by Pliny may be of West Germanic origin, originally denoting Scania. the Germanic stem can be reconstructed as : Skaðan- meaning "danger" or "damage" (English scathing,German Schaden) has been restructed as *awjō, meaning "land on the water" or "island". The name Scandinavia would then mean "dangerous island", to refer to the treacherous sandbanks surrounding Scania. Skanör in Scania, with its long Falsterbo reef, which means "sandbanks".
NORWAYCalled "The Land of Vikings, and the Midnight Sun,―is the northernmost country in Europe. Norway has a jagged expanse ofislands and fjords. The maritime industry sustains the economy here.
SWEDEN offers numerous lakes and is the largest of the Scandinavian countries - both in land size and population. Volvo and Saab both originated here and are a big part of the Swedish industry. Swedish citizens are independently minded and highly regard their people-oriented social programs, especially in womens rights.
DENMARKThe southern-most Scandinavian country, consists of theJutland peninsula and over 400 islands, some of which arelinked to the mainland by bridge.Almost all of Denmark is low and flat, but there are many lowhills as well.Windmills and traditional thatched cottages can be seeneverywhere.Note that the Faroe Islandsand Greenland both belongto the Kingdom of Denmark.
ARTIC CIRCLE NorthATLANTIC OCEAN West East South
Magical midnight suno is a natural phenomenon which means that the sun does not set during the summer months. In other words, given fair weather, you can see the sun for a continuous 24 hours.o The duration of the midnight sun depends on how far north you are. At the Arctic Circle in the county of Nordland, you can see the midnight sun from 12 June to 1 July, at the North Cape in Finnmark you can see the sun from 14 May to 29 July, and at the North Pole the sun does not set for six months.An excellent way to experience the Norwegiancoast, is to go on a cruise with Hurtigruten (TheNorwegian Coastal Voyage)
1442-1814 ruled byRavaged the Danish Kings when itNorthwest Coast was united withof Europe Sweden—although retaining a degree of independence and18th- 11th receivingCentury a new constitution— in an uneasy partnership. King Olaf II Haraldson became the first effective king in 1015 and began converting the Norwegians to Christianity A treaty with Sweden provided that all disputes In 1905, the Norwegian parliament arranged aNORSEMEN/ be settled by arbitration peaceful separation and and that no fortificationsVIKINGS be erected on the invited a Danish prince to common frontier the Norwegian throne
KING CANUTE the Greato Danish King of Englando able to administrator and increased English tradeo but is best remembered for his futile attempt to stop the tide from coming in
The Norwegian constitution – 17 may 1814 - threemain principles: sovereignty of the people, separation of powers, human rights The Principle of the Sovereignty of the People: The people of a nation are entitled to govern themselves. The will of the people should determine the actions of the governing power, and the governing power governs on behalf of the people. The people elect representatives to a national assembly which is entrusted, among other things, with enacting the laws held to be in force in that society.The Principle of Separation of Powers: The powerof the State is divided between several branchesof government which are independent of each otherand act as checks and balances on each other. Theaim of this principle is to prevent the concentrationand abuse of power. In 1814, legislative, executiveand judicial powers were divided between theStorting, the King and the courts.
The Principle of Human Rights: It is essential to safeguard the fundamental and inalienable rights of the people. The Constitution establishes the rights of freedom of speech, freedom of worship,freedom of assembly and the rule of law, but the implementation of these civil rights came about only gradually. For instance, prohibitions against laypreachers and religious minorities existed for many years.
World War I broke out, Norway joinedSweden and Denmark in a decision toremain neutral and to cooperate in the joint interest of the three countries
WORLD WAR II Norway recovered quickly as its economy expanded. It joined NATO in 1949. Norway was invaded by the Germans on April 9, 1940. It resisted for two months before the Nazis took complete control. King HaakonMaj. Vidkun Quisling and hiswho served as governmentNorways prime fled tominister and most London,notorious of the Nazi established acollaborators. He wasexecuted by the government-Norwegians on Oct. 24, in-exile.1945 despite severelosses in the war
Late 2oth Century Seesawed for control each sometimes having to lead minority governments The country became the second- largest oil exporter after SaudiAn important debate was over Norways Arabia in 1995.membership in the European Union. In anadvisory referendum held in Nov. 1994, Norway continued to experiencevoters rejected seeking membership for rapid economic growth into thetheir nation in the EU. new millennium.
POLITICS IN 21st Century March 2000 – Prime Minister KJELL MAGNE BONDEVIK resigned after Parliament voted to build the countrys first gas-fired power stations. Bondevik had objected to the project, asserting that the plants would emit too much carbon dioxide.Labor Party leader Jens Stoltenberg succeededBondevik. Stoltenberg and the Labor Partywere defeated in Sept. 2001 elections, and noparty emerged with a clear majority. formed aConservatives coalitionChristian People’s Party with BondevikLiberals as prime minister.
The governing coalition was backedby the far-right Progress Party. But in Sept. 2005 elections, the center-left Red-Green coalition gained a majority of seats, and Jens Stoltenberg of the Labor Party once again became prime minister.
In April 2008, government officials agreed to amend the 1814Constitution to loosen the ties between church and state. The monarch must still be Lutheran, but citizens are no longer required to raise their children as Lutherans. In the future, the church will appoint bishops instead of the monarch, and equal financial backing for other faiths and atheist communities must be provided by the state. In June 2008, Parliament voted 84–41 to pass a new marriage act, granting homosexual couples the same marriage and adoption rights as heterosexual couples.
On Friday, July 22, 2011, Norway was hit with tworelated terrorist attacks.1.) a bomb exploded in Regjeringskvartalet, thegovernment quarter of Oslo. The explosionhappened right outside the prime ministers officeas well as other government buildings, killing eightpeople and wounding several others.2.) Two hours later, a gunman disguised as apoliceman opened fire on campers at a camp foryoung political activists on the island of Utoya inTyrifjorden, Buskerud. The camp was organized bythe youth organization of the Norwegian LabourParty. The gunman killed at least 68 campers,including personal friends of Prime MinisterStoltenberg.Police arrested Anders Behring Breivik who hasbeen charged with both attacks. Breivik, a 32-year-old Norwegian and a right-wing fundamentalistChristian, has been linked to an anti-Islamic groupand may be connected to other terrorist groups.
Out of respect for the victims, to "the facts" of thestores in Norway removed attacks. However, he didcertain war toys and not admit criminal guiltcomputer games from and claimed that he wasshelves. Breivik was a talk acting alone, whichforum regular for players of contrasted some of thethe online game, World of statements given byWarcraft. witnesses.
POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS: Hereditary GOVERNMENT CONSTITUTIONAL Legislative: MONARCHY Modified UNICAMERAL Parliament 1905 INDEPENDENCE Storting (169 members, elected for 4 CONSTITUTION: May years by universal adult suffrage) 17, 1814 BRANCHES: Judicial: Supreme Court (19 SC Court Judges w/Executive: 1 Chief Justice) KING (Chief of State) Appellate Courts PRIME MINISTER(Head City and County Courts of the Government) Political parties represented in the Coucil of parliament: Ministers(Cabinet) Labor, Progress Conservative Suffrage: Universal over 18 Socialist Left Christian Democratic Administrative subdivisions: Center 19 fylker (counties) and Liberal. 430 municipalities, and Svalbard.
Constitutional Monarchy w/ a Democratic - source PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRATIC of political power system of governance. and legitimacy according to the Parliamentary - as the Constitution lies with Government acting the people, in that all executive power, cannot citizens are able toFORM OF GOVERNMENT govern without the participate in the Storting county and confidence of the municipal councils. Storting-- the legislative power. Constitutiona l monarchy because the Both democratic governance and the Government, monarchy were established in the in Constitution of 1814. accordance Parliamentarianism was introduced in with the 1884 original articles of the Constitution, derives its
KING has little real political power, but fills an important symbolic function as the Head of State and official representative of Norwegian society and industry. plays a crucial unifying role that becomes particularly evident in times of national crisis. This was clearly demonstrated during WWII, when King Haakon VII, who opposed the Nazi invasion of Norway in 1940, fled Norway to workfunctions :mainly ceremonial in London against the occupation from exile1814 constitution grants important executive KING HARALD Vpowers to the king, these are almost always King Harald V, as a young man, entered the Norwegian Cavalry Officers’exercised by (Kings Council) Training School and went on to finish Appoints the PRIME MINISTER with the vote his military education at the Military of confidence, Majority of the STORTING Academy in 1959. Upon completion of The Council is appointed by the monarch in his compulsory military service, Crown Prince Harald went to Oxford for further accordance with the will of the Storting, to study. He attended Balliol College from which the Council is responsible. 1960 to 1962, studying social science, history and economics.
THE MONARCHCrown Prince Princess Astrid PrincessOLAV V Ragnhild Crown Princess Märtha Crown Prince Crown Miss Sonja Heraldsen Haakon PrincessKING HARALD V Harald Mette-Marit
Sister of Crown Prince Haakon Princess Ingrid AlexandraPrince SverreMagnus Princess Märtha Louise was married to author Ari Behn Youngest -Emma Tallulah Behn Second - Leah Isadora Behn Eldest - Maud Angelica Behn
State PowerExecutive(The Legislative JudiciaryGovernment) (Storting) (The Courts) public administration designed to serve the needs of the political bodies, is sometimes viewed as a fourth state power, as it now takes independent action and can exert influence on the shaping of policies.
KingExecutive (The Government) o Symbolic power (national unity);ceremonial o 1814 constitution-grants important executive powers excercised by the COUNCIL OF STATE (King’s Council/Cabinet) o Protector of Church State o Supreme Commander of Norwegian Armed Forces o Formality appoints the PM w/ the vote of confidence of STORTING o Will ask the Leader of Parliamentary Block that has the majority to form a government Prime Minister King appoints the • Appoints the leader of the party after PM elections resulting to no clear majority party/ coalition
The participation of the people in the political sphere takes place both through direct elections and through their Average Norwegian of organizations. membership o Member of 4 Organizations o 70% of the adult population member of at least 1 Organization able to exert influence on the authorities by means of formal andParliamentary Ministries Interest informal Committees Groups contacts with the public administration mean that Norwegian policies are oriented towards segments such as the industrial segment, the agricultural segment or the educational segment Election turnout is usually in the vicinity of 80%.
GENERAL SUFFRAGEMEN- introduced in 1898 WOMEN- introduced in 1913 The age of majority is currently 18
FUNCTIONS to submit bills and budget proposals to the Storting (Norwegian national assembly) and implement decisions through the Ministries. The Government is derived from the Storting and is headed by the Prime Minister. Formally speaking, it is the King who asks the majority party to form a government or a viable coalition. Government decisions are formally taken by the King in Council (that is, jointly approved by the King and the Council of State) every Friday. All Royal Decrees must be signed by the King and countersigned by the Prime Minister.Both formally and in real terms, the Norwegian Government,especially the Prime Minister, has less power than in many otherWestern countries. Traditionally, the Prime Minister, the Minister ofForeign Affairs and the Minister of Finance comprise the highest-status Government positions.
Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg leader of the Norwegian Labor Party previously served as Prime Minister from 2000 to 2001 1st elected to Parliament in 1993 served as State Secretary in the Ministry of the Environment from 1990 to 1991 and as Minister of Industry from 1993 to 1996 in the Third Brundtland Cabinet appointed as Minister of Finance when Jagland and the entire government resigned After poor results in the 2001 While in parliamentary opposition, parliamentary election, and fall of his Stoltenberg served in the standing government Stoltenberg successfully committees on energy affairs challenged Thorbjørn Jagland for the party Following a motion of confidence against leadership in 2002, and led the party to the First Bondevik Cabinet, Stoltenberg was victory in the 2005 election by forming appointed Prime Minister 2000, despite a Red-Green coalition government with being deputy leader of the party, and not the Centre Party (Sp) and the Socialist Left the party leader Party (SV). He was re-elected in 2009 for another term as Prime Minister of Norway.
FUNCTIONS of Prime Minister (statsminister) is the political leader of Norway Head of His Majestys Government The Prime Minister and Cabinet (consisting of all the most senior government department heads) are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Sovereign, to Stortinget (Parliament), to their political party, and ultimately the electorate The position of Prime Minister is the result of legislation Modern Prime Ministers have few statutory powers but, provided they can command the support of their parliamentary party, they can control both the legislature and the executive (the Cabinet) and hence wield considerable de facto powers
MINISTERIAL GOVERNMENT Ministers Serving as the political head of his or her Ministry Close to ministers ---politically-appointed State Secretaries, akin to deputy ministers, and Political AdvisorsState Secretary EspenBarth Eide
Secretary-General (top ranking administrative Leader) DirectorGeneral(ekspedisjonssjef) (departmental level) Head of Division (byråsjef) at a divisional level Assistant Director General(avdelingsdirektør) Civil Service Departmental or Sectional level (advisors,executive officers and clerical staff) Deputy Assistant Director General (underdirektør) at a sectional level
Legislative (STORTING– GREAT COUNCIL) members elected by popular vote for a four year term (during which it may not be dissolved) by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies. ODELSTING LAGTING o Rarely disagrees and mainly rubber- stamps the Oldesting’sIn February 2007, the Storting passed a Decisionconstitutional amendment to repeal thedivision, which abolishes the Lagting forthe 2009 general election
Storting (Norwegian National Assembly) served as the highest political body in Norway since the introduction of Parliamentarianism in 1884 Elections held every fourth year, and mandates are distributed Storting majority can utilize a vote of no confidence to according to a bring about the resignation of a Government or a specific system of minister proportional A motion of no confidence can be submitted by any representation member of the Storting or the Government itself may put The Government is forth a request for a confidence vote In the event that a Government has broken the law or selected on behalf acted in violation of the Constitution, it may be impeached of the King from by the Storting. However, this has rarely happened in within the Storting practice.
Formal Control over important tools of Government: o the enactment of legislation and approval of national budgets. o Most bills and national budgets proposals are introduced to the Storting by the Government. o Normally, only minor adjustments need to be made to the bills, as the Government either already has a supporting majority in the Storting, or has adapted its proposals to satisfy the Storting majority. The Storting monitors the efforts of the Government.The most important instruments of control include calling a vote of confidence invoking the court of impeachment checks by the Office of the Auditor General and the system of parliamentary questions and interpellations During Question Time, members of the Storting can pose questions directly to the Government which must be answered by the appropriate minister. A short debate will normally ensue.
169 elected representatives(all representing a party) STORTINGelected by county on the basis of proportionalrepresentation, i.e. each county is awarded a specified number ofrepresentatives based on its population. Standing Committees- Most work take place– where a majority of the changes PRESIDIUM to governmental bills are proposed Head o Negotations and Debate play a 6 members minor role in the outcome of a given issue Along with the private party groups, the twelve standing committees comprise the most important political bodies of the Storting.
Supreme Court of Justice (Høyesterett) the Interlocutory Appeals Committee of the Supreme Court (Høyesteretts kjæremålsutvalg) the Courts of Appeal y Judiciar (lagmannsrettene)Norway is divided into :6 territorial jurisdictions(lagdømmer) and15 judicial districts the District Courts (tingrett)(lagsogn) the Conciliation Courts (forliksrådet) SPECIAL Courts
There are two components to its political role: 1.) its activities serve to implement the legislation adopted by the Storting (Norwegian national assembly) y Judiciar 2.) it monitors the legislative and executive powers to ensure that they themselves comply with the acts of legislation that have been previously adopted able to set aside a statute passed by the Storting if it is found to be in contravention of the Constitution This right to “censor” the Storting is not laid down in the Constitution and is controversial It was utilized on several occasions during the period 1884–1918, when several radical statutory reforms were halted by the Supreme Court. Since then, the Judiciary has been reluctant to invoke this right. All levels of the ordinary legal system are empowered to examine the validity of a statute, but such cases will inevitably end up being presented before the Supreme Court.
The Supreme Court the appeal body for courts of appeal Judgements by the Supreme Court cannot be appealed further Judgements by the Supreme Court are final. This means that they are legally enforceable.
Courts of Appeal Punishment an appeal body means that a court of appeal decides the There are many outcome of appeals regarding different types of judgements from district courts Both the defendant and the legal sanction. These prosecuting authority can are the most common: appeal a case to a court of appeal o Waiver of prosecution They can do this both if they o Fine believe the punishment is too o Suspended prison sentence strict or too lenient, or if they o Immediate prison sentence believe the question of guilt has o Preventative detention in not been correctly decided. an institution o Community service Impeachment • may be brought against Members of the Council of State, or of the Supreme Court or of the Storting, for criminal offenses which they may have committed in their official capacity. • Indictments are raised by the Storting and judged by five Supreme Court justices and six lay judges
Who JUDGES?district courts and courts of Professional judges are lawyers.appeal Co-judges and lay judges are ordinary people who are appointed to the it is the judges who position. determine questions of guilt and punishment. Judges can be professional In serious cases a court of judges, co-judges, or lay appeal will sit with a jury of 10 judges. civilian members(5 men and 5 women) The jury decides whether the defendant is guilty or not. It is an important principle in the Norwegian legal system that questions of guilt must be determined by a defendant’s peers.
The powers of the county and municipal councils for19 Counties self-government have been delegated from the State, and are set out in legislation, not in the Constitution. The State is directly represented at a local level through the County Governors’ offices. County Level administered: • Upper secondary schools • number of technical services Each of these levels of administration receive part of their revenues through local taxation, fees and local business management, and partly from allocations from the central authorities and other430 municipalities public institutions. The municipalities are the most important units of local government administration • responsible for primary • lower secondary education • social services • municipal roads • water and sewerage • zoning regulation
The counties and municipalities governed by elected councils elections are held every four years distributed to a system of proportional representation the number of mandates varies from 13 (municipal councils) and 25 (county councils) to 85 The councils are led by an executive committee comprising a representative selection of all the party groups from the relevant council and a mayor A few exceptions, chiefly Oslo and Bergen, employ a parliamentary form of government and thus establish a party-based local governmentThe 18 county administrations were established in 1975 to provide anadministrative level between the State and the municipalities. Since themajor amalgamation reform of 1967, the number of municipalities hasstabilized at a figure around 420-440.
Political parties (MULTIPARTY SYSTEM) 21 parties stood for election in the 2005 general election 7 of them had representatives elected to the Storting 76.7% of people who were entitled to vote used their vote in this election. the largest parties as follows: Socialist parties The Red Electoral Alliance (RV) The Socialist Left Party (SV) The Labour Party (DNA) Conservative parties The Centre Party (SP) The Christian Democratic Party (KrF) The Liberals (V) The Conservative Party (H) The Progress Party (FrP)
NORWAY and the European Union Norway is one of very few western European countries not to be a member of the European Union. • Norway has held a referendum on the issue of EU membership twice, first in 1972 and then again in 1994. On both occasions, a rather narrow majority of the Norwegian population rejected membership (in 1994, 52% were against and 48% were in favour). As a consequence, Norway is not a Member State of the EU, and the relationship with the Union is therefore based on other forms and means of close contact and co-operation. This co-operation enables Norway to maintain a very high level of economic integration, and political co-operation, with the EU and its Member
Another area of very close co-operationbetween Norway and the EU is the foreignand security policy, where Norway as aNATO-country has signed up to the Berlin+accord on co-operation between EU andNATO on deployment of resources anddevelopment of policies.Norway is also participating in a whole rangeof EU programmes and initiatives, forexample within the fields of research,education and culture.
ECONOMY Norway is 3rd worlds richest countries in per capita terms. It has an important stake in promoting a liberal environment for foreign trade. Its large shipping fleet is one of the most modern among maritime nations. Metals, pulp and paper products, chemicals, shipbuilding, and fishing are the most significant traditional industries. first place in the whole world in UNDP Human Development-Index (HDI) constantly for the sixth year
Europe’s most diversified maritime nation and commands worldwide respect for its MARITIME shipping expertise, equipment INDUSTRY and ability to exploit new market niches. Norway’s overall maritime economy – an expanding cluster of industries linked to shipping and the aquaculture industry – encompasses an increasingly wide variety of products and services. Aquaculture Equipment Norway’s aquaculture outfitters have developed and are producing a
Capital cityOslo, a city full ofhistory and touristspots, is the capital citywith good ambiance Currency official currency unit of Norway is Norwegian Krone or NOK.
Norway’sNational Day May 17th ---The day is celebrated to commemorate 17th May 1814 when Norway gained its constitution. It is usual to dress up on the national day. Many people wear a “bunad” or other national costume. Children’s parades are held during the morning. School children march in parades while waving Norwegian flags and singing songs. In many places marching bands play in the parades. Later on in the day there are often speeches and events at schools, in parks and in town or city centres. 17th May is also known as the children’s day.
Norwegian national flag consists of an indigo blue cross with white borders on a bright red background. The vertical arm of the blue Scandinavian cross extends to the edges of the flag pole and is shifted to the hoist side in the style of Language: Norwegian the Dannebrog or theDanish flag .RELIGION : Protestant State Church based on the Evangelical-Lutheranreligion. Although there is no separation of Church and State, all inhabitants have theright to exercise their religion freely in accordance with a 1964 amendment to theConstitution. Eight out of ten ethnic Norwegians are members of the State Church ofNorway.