Uche 1Oguejiofor Amuche H.IMT/CS/H2010/214Mr.s Okorie M NCOM425Current Topics in Computing27 November 2012 Virtual RealityAugmented reality (AR) is a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-worldenvironment whose elements are augmented by computer generated Sensory inputsuch as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. Body A. INTRODUCTION 2 B. HARDWARE 2 C. SOFTWARE AND ALGORITHM 10 D. AREA’S OF APPLICATION 15 E. CONCLUSION 19 F. THESIS REWARDED 19 G. REFERENCES 20
Uche 2IntroductionIt is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in which a view ofreality is modified (possibly even diminished rather than augmented), by acomputer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s currentperception of reality. By contrast, virtual reality replaces the real world with asimulated one. Augmentation is conventionally in real-time and in semanticcontext with environmental elements, such as sports scores on TV during a match.With the help of advanced AR technology (e.g. adding computer vision and objectrecognition) the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomesinteractive and digitally manipulable. Artificial information about the environmentand its objects can be overlaid on the real world.HardwareThe main hardware components for augmented reality are: processor, display,sensors and input devices. Modern mobile computing devices like smartphones andtablet computers contain these elements which often include a camera and MEMSsensors such as accelerometer, GPS, and solid state compass, making them suitableAR platforms.8]Display
Uche 3Various technologies are used in Augmented Reality rendering including opticalprojection systems, monitors, hand held devices, and display systems worn onones person.Head-mountedA head-mounted display (HMD) is a display device paired to a headset such as aharness or helmet. HMDs place images of both the physical world and virtualobjects over the users field of view. Modern HMDs often employ sensors for sixdegrees of freedom monitoring that allow the system to align virtual information tothe physical world and adjust accordingly with the users head movements. HMDscan provide users immersive, mobile and collaborative AR experiences.Eye GlassesAR displays can be rendered on devices resembling eyeglasses. Versions includeeye wear that employs cameras to intercept the real world view and re-display itsaugmented view through the eye pieces and devices in which the AR imageryis projected through or reflected off the surfaces of the eye wear lens pieces.Contact LensesContact lenses that display AR imaging are in development. These lenses containthe elements for display embedded into the lens including integrated circuitry,
Uche 4LEDs and an antenna for wireless communication. Another version of contactlenses, in development for the U.S. Military, is designed to function with ARspectacles, allowing soldiers to focus on close-to-the-eye AR images on thespectacles and distant real world Augmented reality - Wikipedia, the freeencyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augmented_reality2 of 14 11/12/2012 8:02 AM objects at the same time.Virtual Retina DisplayA virtual retinal display (VRD) is a personal display device under development atthe University of Washingtons Human Interface Technology Laboratory. With thistechnology, a display is scanned directly onto the retina of a viewers eye. Theviewer sees what appears to be a conventional display floating in space in front ofthem.HandheldHandheld displays employ a small display that fits in a users hand. All handheldAR solutions to date opt for video see-through. Initially handheld AR employedfiduciary markers, and later GPS units and MEMS sensors such as digitalcompasses and six degrees of freedom accelerometer–gyroscope. Today SLAMmarker less trackers such as PTAM are starting to come into use. Handheld displayAR promises to be the first commercial success for AR technologies. The twomain advantages of handheld AR is the portable nature of handheld devices and
Uche 5ubiquitous nature of camera phones. The disadvantages are the physical constraintsof the user having to hold the handheld device out in front of them at all times aswell as distorting effect of classically wide-angled mobile phone cameras whencompared to the real world as viewed through the eye.SpatialSpatial Augmented Reality (SAR) augments real world objects and scenes withoutthe use of special displays such as monitors, head mounted displays or hand-helddevices. SAR makes use of digital projectors to display graphical information ontophysical objects. The key difference in SAR is that the display is separated fromthe users of the system. Because the displays are not associated with each user,SAR scales naturally up to groups of users, thus allowing for collocatedcollaboration between users. SAR has several advantages over traditional head-mounted displays and handheld devices. The user is not required to carryequipment or wear the display over their eyes. This makes spatial AR a goodcandidate for collaborative work, as the users can see each other’s faces. A systemcan be used by multiple people at the same time without each having to wear ahead-mounted display. Examples include shader lamps, mobile projectors, virtualtables, and smart projectors. Shader lamps mimic and augment reality byprojecting imagery onto neutral objects, providing the opportunity to enhance theobject’s appearance with materials of a simple unit- a projector, camera, and
Uche 6sensor. Handheld projectors further this goal by enabling cluster configurations ofenvironment sensing, reducing the need for additional peripheral sensing. Othertangible applications include table and wall projections. One such innovation, theExtended Virtual Table, separates the virtual from the real by including beam-splitter mirrors attached to the ceiling at an adjustable angle. Virtual showcases,which employ beam-splitter mirrors together with multiple graphics displays,provide an interactive means of simultaneously engaging with the virtual and thereal. Altogether, current augmented reality display technology can be applied toimprove design and visualization, or function as scientific simulations and tools foreducation or entertainment. Many more implementations and configurations makespatial augmented reality display an increasingly attractive interactive alternative.Spatial AR does not suffer from the limited display resolution of current head-mounted displays and portable devices. A projector based display system cansimply incorporate more projectors to expand the display area. Augmented realitywhere portable devices have a small window into the world for drawing, a SARsystem can display on any number of surfaces of an indoor setting at once. Thedrawbacks, however, are that SAR systems of projectors do not work so well insunlight and also require a surface on which to project the computer-generatedgraphics.
Uche 7Augmentations cannot simply hang in the air as they do with handheld and HMD-based AR. The tangible nature of SAR, though, makes this an ideal technology tosupport design, as SAR supports both a graphical visualization and passive hapticsensation for the end users. People are able to touch physical objects, and it is thisprocess that provides the passive haptic sensation.TrackingModern mobile augmented reality systems use one or more of the followingtracking technologies: digital cameras and/or other optical sensors, accelerometers,GPS, gyroscopes, solid state compasses, RFID and wireless sensors. Thesetechnologies offer varying levels of accuracy and precision. Most important is theposition and orientation of the users head. Tracking the users hand(s) or ahandheld input device can provide a 6DOF interaction technique.Input devicesTechniques include speech recognition systems that translate a users spoken wordsinto computer instructions and gesture recognition systems that can interpret ausers body movements by visual detection or from sensors embedded in aperipheral device such as a wand, stylus, pointer, glove or other body wear.ComputerThe computer analyzes the sensed visual and other data to synthesize and positionaugmentations.
Uche 8Software and algorithmsA key measure of AR systems is how realistically they integrate augmentationswith the real world. The software must derive real world coordinates, independentfrom the camera, from camera images. That process is called image registrationwhich uses different methods of computer vision, mostly related to video tracking.Many computer vision methods of augmented reality are inherited from visualodometry. Usually those methods consist of two parts.First detect interest points, or fiduciary markers, or optical flow in the cameraimages. First stage can use feature detection methods like corner detection, blobdetection, edge detection or thresholding and/or other image processing methods.The second stage restores a real world coordinate system from the data obtained inthe first stage. Some methods assume objects with known geometry (or fiduciarymarkers) present in the scene. In some of those cases the scene 3D structure shouldbe pre-calculated beforehand. If part of the scene is unknown simultaneouslocalization and mapping (SLAM) can map relative positions. If no informationabout scene geometry is available, structure from motion methods like bundleadjustment are used.Mathematical methods used in the second stage include projective (epipolar)geometry, geometric algebra, and rotation representation with exponential map,kalman and particle filters, nonlinear optimization, and robust statistics.
Uche 9Augmented reality has many applications, and many areas can benefit from theusage of AR technology. AR was initially used for military, industrial, and medicalapplications, but was soon applied to commercial and entertainment areas as well.AREA’S OF APPLICATIONArchaeologyAR can be used to aid archaeological research, by augmenting archaeologicalfeatures onto the modern landscape, enabling archaeologists to formulateconclusions about site placement and configuration another application given toAR in this field is the possibility for users to rebuild ruins, buildings, or evenlandscapes as they formerly existed.ArchitectureAR can aid in visualizing building projects. Computer generated images of astructure can be superimposed into a real life local view of a property before thephysical building is constructed there. AR can also be employed within anarchitects work space, rendering into their view animated 3D visualizations oftheir 2D drawings.Architecture sight-seeing can be enhanced with AR applications allowing usersviewing a buildings exterior to virtually see through its walls viewing its interiorobjects and layout.
Uche 10ArtAR can help create art in real time integrating reality such as painting, drawing andmodeling. AR art technology has helped disabled individuals to continue pursuingtheir passion. Recently, Alaskan artist Nathan Shafer created a global warming-oriented AR project, called Exit Glacier AR Terminus. In this project, ARtechnology (is this case, smartphones) walks the viewer through various positionsof South Central Alaskas Exit Glacier, going back three decades. Belgianphotographer, Liesje Reyskens recently commissioned Augmented Reality AgencyKudanto produce an AR art installation at the Albus Lux gallery - the AR apprecognized her photography and overlaid live animation video to enhance thegallery experience.An item such as a commemorative coin can be designed so that when scanned byan AR enabled device it displays additional objects and layers of information thatwere not visible in a real world view of it.CommerceAR can enhance product previews such as allowing a customer to view whatsinside a products packaging without opening it. AR can also be used as an aid inselecting products from a catalog or through a kiosk.Scanned images of products can activate views of additional content such ascustomization options and additional images of the product in its use. AR is used to
Uche 11integrate print and video marketing. Printed marketing material can be designedwith certain "trigger" images that, when scanned by an AR enabled device usingimage recognition, activate a video version of the promotional material.EducationAugmented reality applications can complement a standard curriculum. Text,graphics, video and audio can be superimposed into a student’s real timeenvironment. Textbooks, flashcards and other educational reading material cancontain embedded ―markers‖ that, when scanned by an AR device, producesupplementary Augmented reality - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augmented_reality 5 of 14 11/12/2012 8:02 AMinformation to the student rendered in a multimedia format. Students canparticipate interactively with computer generated simulations of historical events,exploring and learning details of each significant area of the event site. Augmentedreality technology also permits learning via remote collaboration, in which studentsand instructors not at the same physical location can share a common virtuallearning environment populated by virtual objects and learning materials andinteract with another within that setting.Industrial DesignAR can help industrial designers experience a products design and operationbefore completion. Volkswagen uses AR for comparing calculated and actual crash
Uche 12test imagery. AR can be used to visualize and modify a car body structure andengine layout. AR can also be used to compare digital mock-ups with physicalmock-ups for efficiently finding discrepancies between them.MedicalAR can provide the surgeon with information of the heartbeat, the blood pressure,the state of the patient’s organ, etc. It can also help the doctor identify the problemwith the patient right away. This approach works in a similar as the techniciansdoing maintenance work. Examples include a virtual X-ray view based on priortomography or on real time images from ultrasound and co focal microscopyprobes or open NMR devices. AR can enhance viewing a fetus inside a motherswomb. See also Mixed reality.MilitaryIn combat, AR can serve as a networked communication system that renders usefulbattlefield data onto a soldiers goggles in real time. From the soldiers viewpoint,people and various objects can be marked with special indicators to warn ofpotential dangers. Virtual maps and 360° view camera imaging can also berendered to aid a soldiers navigation and battlefield perspective, and this can betransmitted to military leaders at a remote command center.Navigation
Uche 13AR can augment the effectiveness of navigation devices. Information can bedisplayed on an automobiles windshield indicating destination directions andmeter, weather, terrain, road conditions and traffic information as well as alerts topotential hazards in their path. Aboard maritime vessels, AR can allow bridgewatch-standers to continuously monitor important information such as a shipsheading and speed while moving throughout the bridge or performing other tasks.Office WorkplaceAR can help facilitate collaboration among distributed team members in a workforce via conferences with real and virtual participants. AR tasks can includebrainstorming and discussion meetings utilizing common visualization via touchscreen tables, interactive digital whiteboards, shared design spaces, and distributedcontrol rooms.Sports & EntertainmentAR has become common in sports telecasting. Sports and entertainment venues areprovided with see-trough augmented reality - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augmented_reality 6 of 14 11/12/2012 8:02 AM andoverlay augmentation through tracked camera feeds for enhanced viewing by theaudience. Examples include the yellow "first down" line seen in televisionbroadcasts of American football games showing the line the offensive team mustcross to receive a first down. AR is also used in association with football and other
Uche 14sporting events to show commercial advertisements overlaid onto the view of theplaying area. Sections of rugby fields and cricket pitches also display sponsoredimages. Swimming telecasts often add a line across the lanes to indicate theposition of the current record holder as a race proceeds to allow viewers tocompare the current race to the best performance. Other examples include hockeypuck tracking and annotations of racing car performance and snooker balltrajectories.AR can enhance concert and theater performances. For example, artists can allowlisteners to augment their listening experience by adding their performance to thatof other bands/groups of users.The gaming industry has benefited a lot from the development of this technology.A number of games have been developed for prepared indoor environments. EarlyAR games also include AR air hockey, collaborative combat against virtualenemies, and an AR-enhanced pool games. A significant number of gamesincorporate AR in them and the introduction of the smartphone has made a biggerimpact.Task supportComplex tasks such as assembly, maintenance, and surgery can be simplified byinserting additional information into the field of view. For example, labels can bedisplayed on parts of a system to clarify operating instructions for a mechanic who
Uche 15is performing maintenance on the system. Assembly lines gain many benefits fromthe usage of AR. In addition to Boeing, BMW and Volkswagen are known forincorporating this technology in their assembly line to improve their manufacturingand assembly processes. Big machines are difficult to maintain because of themultiple layers or structures they have. With the use of AR the workers cancomplete their job in a much easier way because AR permits them to look throughthe machine as if it was with x-ray, pointing them to the problem right away.Tourism and sightseeingAugmented Reality applications can enhance a users experience when traveling byproviding real time informational displays regarding a location and its features,including comments made by previous visitors of the site. AR applications allowtourists to experience simulations of historical events, places and objects byrendering them into their current view of a landscape. AR applications can alsopresent location information by audio, announcing features of interest at aparticular site as they become visible to the user.TranslationAR systems can interpret foreign text on signs and menus and, in a usersaugmented view, re-display the text in the users language. Spoken words of aforeign language can be translated and displayed in a users view as printedsubtitles.
Uche 16Ivan Sutherland invented the first AR head-mounted display at Harvard University.Steven Feiner, Professor at Columbia University, is a leading pioneer ofaugmented reality, and author of Augmented reality - Wikipedia, the freeencyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augmented_reality 7 of 14 11/12/20128:02 AM the first paper on an AR system prototype, KARMA (the Knowledge-based Augmented Reality Maintenance Assistant), along with Blair MacIntyre andDoree Seligmann. L.B. Rosenberg developed one of the first known AR systems,called Virtual Fixtures, while working at the U.S. Air Force Armstrong Labs in1991, and published first study of how an AR system can enhance humanperformance. Dieter Schmalstieg and Daniel Wagner jump started the field of ARon mobile phones. They developed the first marker tracking systems for mobilephones and PDAs. Bruce H. Thomas and Wayne Piekarski develop the Tinmithsystem in 1998. They along with Steve Feiner with his MARS system pioneeroutdoor augmented reality.Reinhold Behringer performed important early work in image registration foraugmented reality, and prototype wearable test-beds for augmented reality. He alsoco-organized the First IEEE International Symposium on Augmented Reality in1998 (IWAR98), and co-edited one of the first books on augmented reality. 1901:L. Frank Baum, an author, first mentions the idea of an electronicdisplay/spectacles that overlays data onto real life (in this case people), its named
Uche 17a character marker. 1957–62: Morton Heilig, a cinematographer, creates andpatents a simulator called Sensorama with visuals, sound, vibration, and smell.1966: Ivan Sutherland invents the head-mounted display and positions it as awindow into a virtual world. 1975: Myron Krueger creates Videoplace to allowusers to interact with virtual objects for the first time. 1989: Jaron Lanier coins thephrase Virtual Reality and creates the first commercial business around virtualworlds. 1990: The term "Augmented Reality" is believed to be attributed to TomCaudell, a former Boeing (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing%7CBoeing)researcher.1992: L.B. Rosenberg develops one of the first functioning AR systems, calledVirtual Fixtures, at the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory—Armstrong, anddemonstrates benefits to human performance.1992: Steven Feiner, Blair MacIntyre and Doree Seligmann present the first majorpaper on an AR system prototype, KARMA, at the Graphics Interface conference.1993 A widely cited version of the paper above is published in Communications ofthe ACM – Special issue on computer augmented environments, edited by PierreWellner, Wendy Mackay, and Rich Gold.1993: Loral WDL, with sponsorship from STRICOM, performed the firstdemonstration combining live AR-equipped vehicles and manned simulators.
Uche 18Unpublished paper, J. Barrilleaux, "Experiences and Observations in ApplyingAugmented Reality to Live Training", 1999.1994: Julie Martin creates first Augmented Reality Theater production, DancingIn Cyberspace, funded by the Australia Council for the Arts, features dancers andacrobats manipulating body–sized virtual object in real time, projected into thesame physical space and performance plane. The acrobats appeared immersedwithin the virtual object and environments. The installation used Silicon Graphicscomputers and Polhemus sensing system. 1998: Spatial Augmented Realityintroduced at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill by Raskar, Welch,Fuchs.1999: Hirokazu Kato (加藤 博一) created ARToolKit at HITLab, where AR laterwas further developed Augmented reality - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augmented_reality8 of 14 11/12/2012 8:02 AM by other HITLab scientists, demonstrating it atSIGGRAPH.2000: Bruce H. Thomas develops ARQuake, the first outdoor mobile AR game,demonstrating it in the International Symposium on Wearable Computers.2008: Wikitude AR Travel Guide launches on 20 Oct 2008 with the G1 Androidphone.
Uche 192009: ARToolkit was ported to Adobe Flash (FLARToolkit) by Saqoosha,bringing augmented reality to the web browser.2009: project SixthSense from MIT showcased projection based wearable ARpendent device.THESIS OF AWARDEDAugmented reality (AR) is a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-worldenvironment whose elements are augmented by computer generated Sensory inputsuch as sound, video, graphics or GPS data.CONCLUSIONAugmentation is conventionally in real-time and in semantic context withenvironmental elements, such as sports scores on TV during a match. With the helpof advanced AR technology (e.g. adding computer vision and object recognition)the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactiveand digitally manipulable. Artificial information about the environment and itsobjects can be overlaid on the real world.
Uche 20REFERENCE 1. Borghino, Dario Augmented reality glasses perform real-time language translation (http://www.gizmag.com/language-translating-glasses/23494/) . gizmag, 29 July 2012 2. "Knowledge-based augmented reality" (http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=159587). ACM. July, 1993. 3. a b L. B. Rosenberg. The Use of Virtual Fixtures as Perceptual Overlays to Enhance Operator Performance in Remote Environments. Technical Report AL-TR-0089, USAF Armstrong Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB OH 4. Wagner, Daniel (29 September 2009). "First Steps Towards Handheld Augmented Reality" (http://portal.acm.org 5. Piekarski, William; Thomas, Bruce. Tinmith-Metro: New Outdoor Techniques for Creating City Models with and techniques