How to write research papers?


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  • How to write research papers?

    1. 1. Research Writing Yogesh Dandawate
    2. 2. What do you expect from me? Why are you here?
    4. 4. Researchers FAQ!1. What are hot research topics?2. How to identify/ frame a research problem?3. What are the open problems in my area of research?4. Who are key researchers in my domain?5. How to identify the key papers in my domain?6. How can go about research? 1. What are key milestones in my research? 2. Publishing (Why, What, Where, When, how) 5
    5. 5. What’s hot?
    6. 6. Researcher Focus
    7. 7. Researchers FAQ!1. What are hot research topics?2. How to identify/ frame a research problem?3. What are the open problems in my area of research?4. Who are key researchers in my domain?5. How to identify the key papers in my domain?6. How can go about research? 1. What are key milestones in my research? 2. Publishing (Why, What, Where, When, how) 8
    8. 8. How to identify/ frame a research problem? A Million Dollar Question Researcher Guide <<Match>> Research Interest Research Interest Defines Problem Find Solution 9
    9. 9. Just for Gags 10
    10. 10. Researchers FAQ!1. What are hot research topics?2. How to identify/ frame a research problem?3. What are the open problems in my area of research?4. Who are key researchers in my domain?5. How to identify the key papers in my domain?6. How can go about research? 1. What are key milestones in my research? 2. Publishing (Why, What, Where, When, how)7. Research Tools 11
    11. 11. How can go about research? Preferred Write research approach when Idea Do research conclusions are paper to be published •Clear focus Write Do Write •Crystallizes ourIdea working research understanding paper research paper •Opens a way of dialogue/ discussion/ brainstorming 12
    12. 12. General approach to researchIdentify problem/idea: Rationale behind why this problem isimportant; Is it a open problem? survey of available solutions to theproblem?Support the problem with theory (Literature study)Study and identify/decide the method to solve the problem.Develop solution/ alternative solutionDo Experiments, Simulations, collection of Data etc.Validation of solutionResults and discussionConclusion 13
    13. 13. Researchers FAQ!1. What are hot research topics?2. How to identify/ frame a research problem?3. What are the open problems in my area of research?4. Who are key researchers in my domain?5. How to identify the key papers in my domain?6. How can go about research? 1. What are key milestones in my research? 2. Publishing (Why, What, Where, When, How) 14
    15. 15. Milestones Research Results with Propose benchmarking Methodology to solve Literature problem with Survey validationProblemIdentification 16
    16. 16. WHY PUBLISH? 17
    17. 17. Why PublishGreatest ideas are worthless Knowledge is generated in variousif you keep them to yourself forms: • Experience • Capability/ProficiencyGoal • Use cases• To infect the readers mind • Problems-Solutions • New ideas/design/thoughts with your idea almost like a virusSome Fallacies Knowledge should be shared.• You need a fantastic idea to write a research paper How to share? Publish 18
    18. 18. WHAT CAN I PUBLISH? 19
    19. 19. Milestones Working National International JournalConference conference conference Journal Research Conference Paper Research Paper Survey Research Paper Results with Propose benchmarking Methodology Concept to solve Literature problem with Paper validation Survey Problem Identification 20
    20. 20. What can I publishResearch Papers*Research BooksMagazine articlesCase studiesThought paper, Point of view, Perspectives*White Papers *Blogs, WikisText Books 21
    21. 21. White paperA white paper is an authoritative report or guide that oftenaddresses issues and how to solve them [1]White papers are used to educate readers and help peoplemake decisions. Often used in politics, business, and technicalsubjects.White papers are often used to generate sales leads, make abusiness case, or to educate customers• Business-benefits: Makes a business case for a certain technology or methodology• Technical: Describes how a certain technology works• Hybrid: Combines high-level business benefits with technical details in a single document• Policy: Makes a case for a certain political solution to a societal or 22 economic challenge.
    22. 22. Thought leadership paperFuturistic / visionary workIt goes beyond white paper and identifies problems in a domainor technology that the client or prospect or stakeholder mightnot know- it exists.It also present trends which may be useful for further researchin industry or academics. 23
    23. 23. Research paperA research paper is an expanded essay from identifiedproblems.Problem may be identified by industry professional oracademician.It is thorough analysis of problems and validated results arepresented. 24
    24. 24. At a glance Thought Leadership Research Papers White Papers Papers• Contribution to • Useful to • Useful to business body of academicians as • Abstract knowledge/theory well as business presentation of• Useful to • Innovative ideas, business problem academicians as Future trends, and solution well as business Future problems • Business focus• Problem, Solution/ and possible writing Experiments, solutions • Published in Results, Validation • Business focus magazines, wiki, of solutions writing blogs etc.• Published in • Published in Journals and magazines, wiki, conferences blogs etc. 25
    25. 25. Different types of papers 1 • Contains two works of the same natureCompare and • Discuss about the PROS and CONS of the two workscontrast papers • Always based on Literature and Balanced comparison essential • Contain arguments and personal points of view and solution by the writerArgumentative • Contains the two sides of a controversial issuepapers • Author needs to be unbiased and neutralAnalytical • Contains multiple points of viewspapers • Author analyzes all the points and draws a conclusion • Talk about the probable reason (cause) and the expected outcome or resultCause and effect (effect).papers • Useful in the field of business and education • Contain data about multiple professional fieldsReports • These are professional type of research papers • Frequency based Annual, quarterly, monthly etc.Subject-based • Papers based on a particular subjectpapers • Mostly written by students as assignmentsSource: 26
    26. 26. General structure of research paperAbstract • 4-10 Lines • Background of problemIntroduction and • Problem definitionRelated work • Related work • Detailed Problem • Methodology to solve the problemBody • Solution Details • Validation of solutionDiscussion & • DiscussionConclusion • Conclusion • List all the references used during theReferences/Citations research, provide appropriate credits 27
    27. 27. Abstract What is abstract? What should abstract contain?• Abstracts are used by program • Kent Beck suggest the abstracts to committee members to decide address 4 questions 1 which papers to read. This • State the problem abstract should be two hundred • Explain why the problem is words or less. interesting• The abstract is a summary of the • Explain how your solution solved entire paper and hence should be the problem written at the end. • Explain what follows your• Abstract contains the purpose of solution. the study - hypothesis, overall question, research objective , brief of the experiment, Important conclusions and future work 28
    28. 28. Introduction What is introduction? What should introduction contain?• Your introductions should not exceed one page(double • Describe the problem spaced, typed). • State your contribution (all• The purpose of an introduction contributions of your research) is to acquaint the reader with • This section should create an the rationale behind the work, entice the reader to read it with the intention of fully defending it. It places your work in a theoretical context, and enables the reader to understand and appreciate your objectives. 29
    29. 29. Body What is body? What should body contain?• The body constitutes of • Describe the problem and why is it • The problem interesting • The idea/solution • Describe the idea/solution • Idea/Solution details • Provide data and supporting • Related Work evidences support each claim made by you in the introduction• There is no specific page limit, but a key concept is to keep this section as • Evidence can be: analysis and concise as you possibly can. People comparison, theorems, will want to read this material measurements, case studies selectively. The reader may only be • Provide references to related work interested in one formula or part of a and prior work as and when procedure required. It can be at the start or after your complete work is explained. 30
    30. 30. Conclusion What is conclusion? What should conclusion contain?• Conclusion is summary of your findings • Summarize your findings in text• The page length of this section is set by • In text, describe each of your results, the amount and types of data to be pointing the reader to observations reported. Continue to be concise, using that are most relevant figures and tables, if appropriate, to • Provide a context, such as by present results most effectively describing the question that was• The purpose of a results section is to addressed by making a particular present and illustrate your findings. observation Make this section a completely • Describe results of control experiments objective report of the results, and and include observations that are not save all interpretation for the presented in a formal figure or table, if discussion. appropriate • Analyze your data, then prepare the analyzed (converted) data in the form of a figure(graph), table, or in text form. 31
    31. 31. References/Citations What is reference? What should reference contain?• References is the list of all the • List all literature cited in your paper, in literature that you have used for the alphabetical order, by first author. paper • In a proper research paper, only• Note: primary literature is used (original • Giving credit to others does not research articles authored by the diminish the credit you get from your original investigators). paper • Be cautious about using web sites as • Failing to give credit to others can kill references - anyone can put just about your paper anything on a web site, and you have • Warmly acknowledge people who no sure way of knowing if it is truth or have helped you fiction. • If you are citing an on line journal, use the journal citation (name, volume, year, page numbers). Some of your papers may not require references, and if that is the case simply state that "no references were consulted." 32
    32. 32. Referencing Styles There are many different citation styles …Visit: 33
    33. 33. RECAP 34
    34. 34. Introduction SectionIntroducti Problem Details (Blow Background of the problemon up the problem by What is the problem that exist today? using Statistical data Is this a valid problem? by Analysts like What is the problem you are trying to solve Gartner/ Forrester/ IDC.....) Relevance of the Why is this problem relevant to theme (eg. Big Data)? Problem Explain in detail 35
    35. 35. Body of PaperBody Existing Solutions and Are there any solutions available in market that their drawbacks address your problem. What are their drawbacks. Create a table making it self-explanatory(preferably) Summarize: Why current technologies will fail to address the issue Proposed Solution What aspects of the problem are you attempting to solve? a. List your assumptions here Model the system a. Inputs to systems i. How are planning to get the input data b. System model c. Output of the system (Expected) Technologies that you are planning to use for the solution and why, Give rationale for techlogy selection Experimentation Setup of experiment Validation of experiment Observations and Results of experiment 36
    36. 36. Conclusion, future work and ReferencesConclusion Summarize your result List your findings during this entire excercise in natural languageFuture Future workwork/disc Drawbacks of your solutionussion How can your solution be improvedReference NOTE: Every journal has a reference style. There are several reference styles if you are not aware of the citation styles please see this. 37
    37. 37. WHERE CAN I PUBLISH? 38
    38. 38. Books and Journal Content Aggregators••••••••••• 4f63-8287-340e59cc5e8d%40sessionmgr10&vid=2&hid=10• – 39
    39. 39. WHEN CAN I PUBLISH 40
    40. 40. Call for Paper CalendarsConference Related Information Gathering1. www.cfpwiki.com3. 41
    41. 41. HOW CAN I PUBLISH? 42
    42. 42. Publication process Pre- Content Production Production Distribution Acquisition Process ProcessCall For Papers Author Copy Editing (CFP) Rewrites Layout and Short listing Abstract content of Papers proofing Abstract Workshop / Review Conference IP Check Distribution Selection Full Paper Full Paper Review and Author Signoff Printing Selection 43
    43. 43. SOME DO’S AND DONT’S 44
    44. 44. Audience Analysis• Who is my audience?• How much do they know about the subject?• Why do they need to know about the subject?• Is the content in this document appropriate?• Is the tone appropriate for the audience?• Is the language appropriate for this audience?
    45. 45. Writing Style• Be gender neutral• Avoid unnecessary capitalization• Use bulleted/unnumbered lists when sequence is not important• Use an introductory phrase for lists
    46. 46. ToneBe Avoid• Assertive • Humor• Polite • Colloquialisms• Informative • Personal Opinions• Engaging
    47. 47. Common Errors!• Very, very long sentences• Variation in the tense used• Improper flow of thought• Incorrect numbering of tables or figures• Inconsistent Styles applied• Extensive use of “The”
    48. 48. Writing Rightavoid betterconsensus of opinion consensusfewer in number fewerexact duplicate duplicateestimated at about estimatedsum total sumwhether or not whetherin order to toelongated in shape elongatedboth of them both
    49. 49. Writing Rightavoid betternowadays presently, currentlyfor instance for exampledespite the fact that althoughgoes under the name of is calledon the contrary in contrastfirstly initiallyto begin with initiallybe that as it may howeverat last finallyin as much as because to date*til now (until now)its it iswerent were notdidnt did nothavent have notcant cannot
    50. 50. Things to Avoid • Using someone elses • Copyright is the ideas or phrasing and exclusive right granted representing those to the author or creator ideas or phrasing as our of an original work, own, either on purpose including the right to or through carelessness, copy, distribute and is a serious offense adapt the work. known as plagiarism.Copyright • Original works of • written or spoken authorship includes Plagiarism material from wholeviolation literary, dramatic, papers and paragraphs musical, artistic, and to sentences certain other intellectual • phrases — but it also works. includes statistics, lab results, art work, etc. 53
    51. 51. MISCELLANOUS 54
    52. 52. Remaining Questions• Identifying trend of a particular topic (Try doing for your topic) –• Top Journals in Computer Science(Try doing for your Domain) – subdomainid=0&last=0• Top Conference’s in Computer Science(Try doing for your Domain) – subDomainID=0&last=0&start=1&end=100• Conference Ranking (By Tier) –• Top Authors in Computer Science (Try doing for your topic) – subDomainID=0&last=0&start=1&end=100 55
    53. 53. Researcher Toolset• Good Bookmarking Sites • Excellent Ebook Management – tool – – Caliber e-book – management: http://calibre- marks/ – • Excellent Paper Management – tool(Reference management softwares)• PDF readers – Mendeley Desktop: – (The Best) – – – Acrobat Professional (*) – neo/files/ – JabRef• Researchers Browsers – Zotero – Firefox – Scholars Aid – Crome – – 56
    54. 54. FINAL WORD 57
    55. 55. Remember Writing is a acquired skill,the more you write the more you will benefit So Keep Writing! 58
    56. 56. THANK YOUYogesh Dandawate• Research Scientist• Infosys Labs, Pune•• 60