Legislative PoliticsPOLS 4211 Chap. 4, 5, 6                          1
Participation• The most important question a candidate wants  answered – how many votes do I need to win!• Who Cares?  – H...
Participation - 2• Percentage reporting participation:  –   Had interest in political campaign – 84%  –   Voted in preside...
Who Votes?• Those excluded are:  – Jailed inmates (> 2 million in 2000)     • Only 2 states allow them to vote  – Convicte...
Who Votes - 2• Age Highly correlated with propensity to vote   – (18-29) Vote or Die!   – As age increases, so does the pr...
Who Votes - 3• Income  – Higher incomes tend to participate more…of    course this largely corresponds to occupation and  ...
GOTV• Get Out The Vote  – To increase turnout, Congress in 1993 passed the Motor-    Voter Law     • Permitted registratio...
Developing Campaign StrategiesIssue Voting - Do Issues Matter?   – The Rational Voter?      • Do voters think ideologicall...
Party Identification   – An informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people     acquire in chi...
Party Identification• Party identification is the single best predictor of how  people will vote!• Unlike candidates and i...
Party Alignment•   Critical Elections/Periods – 1 party yields preeminence or major voting    groups alter the shape of th...
Re-Alignment• Election that dramatically changes the voters’ partisan  identification and persists through several subsequ...
De-Alignment• Instead of a full realignment, we seem to be in a period of  electoral dealignment, in which party loyalties...
Congressional Party Platforms• 1994 Contract With America  –   Enact during 1st 100 days (FDRs 100 days)  –   Balanced bud...
Congressional Party Platforms• Six for ’06  - Enact during 1st 100 hours (Pelosi)  1- Minimum wage increase  2- Stem cell ...
Miller & Stokes• Studied links between voters’ attitudes &  members voting  – Constituency attitudes correlated differentl...
Issue Uptake – Tracy Sulkin• Legislative responsiveness process of  – Learning issue saliency during campaign     • Influe...
Terms•   Party Identification     – An informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people acquire...
Terms•   Party Dealignment     – Weakening of partisan preferences that points to a rejection of both major parties and a ...
Campaign Strategy• Campaigns are a communications process!• The straightforward method of winning?  – Hardwork…& repetitiv...
Campaign Strategy - 2• Theme – the most important element  – What is the single, most important message to be    communica...
Theme, cont.– 2 main factors should determine theme   • Policy issues that concern voters   • Personal characteristics and...
Theme, 3• Remember, the proposed theme should also be  evaluated in the context of the audience to  which it will be addre...
Audience• Your communication must convince your  audience and motivate them to vote for YOU• Strategy must consider the fo...
Audience - 2• Voting behavior  – Targeting – defining the most likely audience for    your campaign     • Narrowing the au...
Audience - 3• Voter Opinions• Evaluate the opinions of the electorate  – Emphasize the candidate’s priority issues that mo...
Audience - 4• Geography  – May limit possible campaign styles     • Distance between homes         – Urban vs. rural resid...
Audience - 5• Delivery - 2 basic methods  – Direct personal communication     • By the candidate, surrogates, or volunteer...
Audience - 6• Resources: people, money and time  – Rule 1: resources are always limited and needs are always    unlimited!...
Targeting Your Audience•   Obtaining Election Results•   Selecting Comparison Races•   Targeting Priority Areas•   Percent...
Targeting Your Audience - 2• Fine-Tuning the Results  – Consider several factors before the final priority    ranking     ...
Targeting Your Audience - 3• Precinct Targeting  –   Size  –   Turnout  –   Performance  –   Persuadability• Ranking Preci...
Being There• Foggy Bottom:  – Few wanted to go to new Capitol  – It was a part-time job, members averaged less than    5 y...
Being There - 2• By 1900  – Roughly one-quarter of all House members retired    or were defeated at each election  – Pendl...
Being There - 3• By 1950s  – being a member became a full-time job and long    term career  – They began to exploit the na...
Being There - 4• By 1970  – The number had fallen to barely a tenth• Even in 1994 congressional elections, when the  GOP w...
Being There - 5• Many vie for the chance now and enjoy the  fruits of government retirement ($165,200 – 2007)      • Revol...
Legislators & Representativeness• How alike are officials to their constituents?  – Some characteristics are more recogniz...
Legislators & Representativeness - 2• Wealthy   – Top 1% of income       • Av household = $42,600• Females (Jeannette Rank...
Legislators & Representativeness - 3• Race  –   Minority representation (total = 16%)  –   A. Americans        8.2%  –   L...
Legislators & Representativeness - 4• Religion   –   1 atheist   –   Most are Catholic or Protestant   –   7% Jewish (2.6%...
Legislators & Representativeness - 5•   Totals add up to more than 535 because some of the officials have more    than one...
Diversity• Most of the officials are wealthy and over one-  third are millionaires.• Old customs die hard…Appropriations  ...
Representing• Hanna Finichel Pitkins two styles  – Substantive: consciously acting for constituents    even if not one of ...
Speaker Sam Rayburn• “New members were to go along in order to get  along, and to be seen and not heard.”• The norms were ...
Herbert B. Asher – 7 norms1.   Friendly relationships are desirable     - Norm of seniority1.   The important work of the ...
New Norms• Equally simple as old norms.   – More impatient & more professional staff work      • New members are no longer...
Bringing Home The Bacon• It’s not pork if it’s for my state!• Earmarks   – Special spending projects that are set aside on...
Schedule• There is not enough time except for individuals  who do not have a life!  – No specific verifiable measure of “h...
Schedule - 2• Staff professionalism  –   Maintains office  –   Maintains officials schedule  –   Acts as stand-in/proxy wh...
Staff Functions• Staff Functions  – Most aides are       • Young, well-educated, transient          – Served less than 4 y...
Staff Functions - 2• Most of the Congress members have about  one-third + of their office staff in their home  district  –...
Staff• House = $1.2 million  – 18 full-time & 4 part-time but usually av. 15• Senate = $ based on state’s population and  ...
Internships• See appendix B  – Internships, the OJT for students, provides    opportunity for students to get experience a...
Soaking & Poking in DC• Author’s 5 observations:  1 - No central clearinghouse exists     • Look often and broadly        ...
Staying in Touch• Direct Mail (the frank)   – Includes all US Postal mail      • Print and media postage      • Abused ove...
Franking Limitations– Mail “must be related to the official business,  activities and duties of members”– Prohibits mail f...
Franking Limits - 2– Linked mailing costs to office expenses   • General staff prepares mail, folding, etc.– Caps placed  ...
Feeding the local press• Most local news organizations do not have a  DC bureau and depend on AP/UPI for info• Congress me...
Other Communication Methods• In-Person  – Contradiction     • Constituents want to be in-touch with their official but als...
“Casework is all profit”• Constituency services   – Ombudsperson: review of specific constituent problem to     provide in...
Terms•   Constituent     –   The residents of a congressional district or state•   Delegate role     – An official who is ...
Historic TreesSince the early 1900s, over one hundred memorial and  historic trees have been planted with the majority sti...
Leaders & Parties in Congress• Majority makers  – The 42 (D) freshmen who helped make history  – N. Pelosi, 01/04/07: high...
Nietzsche “wherever I found the living, there I found the will to ___”It is usually thought of as one of mankind’s less at...
Madam Speaker• It would do no violence to the truth to call the  Speaker of the House the second most  powerful office hol...
Line Of Succession1. Speaker of the House2. Senate: President Pro Tempore3. Secretary of State              14. Secretary ...
Speakers in HistoryThe first Speaker was Frederick A. C. Muhlenberg, He  served during both the First and Third Congresses...
Speaker who became President• James K. Polk, Tennessee: Speaker 24th and 25th  Congresses from December 7, 1835, March 3, ...
Selecting A Speaker (does not have to be a House member)In the early days the Speaker was elected by ballot, but   since 1...
Selecting A Speaker - 2Although the election officially occurs on the floor of the house, modern-day Speakers are actually...
Selecting A Speaker - 3The stability of the two party system in the modern era  has led to a period of unbroken lines of s...
Powers & DutiesThe constitution makes but scant reference to the office  prescribing in Article I, Section 2 that “the Hou...
Powers & Duties - 2In the modern era, the many duties of the Speaker include   presiding at the sessions of the House, ann...
Powers & Duties - 3Perhaps the duties of the Speaker were put most idealistically by the  first “great” Speaker, Henry Cla...
Speaker is a Triple Personality1- Being a Member of the HouseAs a Member of the House she has the right to cast   a vote o...
Personality #2 – Presiding OfficerAs presiding officer, the Speaker interprets the rules that the House has adopted for gu...
Presiding Officer #3She has discretion in choosing the Members she  will recognize to make motions to suspend the  rules o...
Personality #4 – Party LeaderAs a party leader, the Speaker had certain additional powers prior to 1910: to appoint all st...
Limiting the SpeakerIn 1910, the House cut back some of the  Speaker’s power. They removed him from the  Rules Committee, ...
Speaker Gingrich 1995-1999• 3 factors explain Gingrich’s influence  – Most recognized him as the leader of the party’s    ...
Gingrich Confrontational Style• As a National leader pushed Newt into  limelight  – Media focused on Newt  – Media played ...
Professor Ethics?1996 confrontation methods became election issue– Dec. 12, 1996: Newt admitted to  inaccurate/incomplete ...
Coach Dennis Hastert 1999-2007• Chief Deputy whip (appropriations chair Robert Livingston, LA  resigned because of adulter...
Nancy Pelosi• Thank you President Bush and GOP  – 6 for ‘06 in 1st 100 hours  – Father was Baltimore Mayor & 8 yr. US Rep....
“The Velvet Hammer”• Though many believed the Dems succeeded in  passing their ‘package’ through the House,  much criticis...
Why are leaders stronger during some eras than others?• Conditional Party Govt Theory  – Each party is internally united i...
Leadership theories - 2• Party leaders are agents of rank-and-file  members• Members want to accomplish goals of  – Reelec...
Specific theories (Box 6.1)• Conditional Party Govt. Theory   – The power of congressional leaders hinges on the degree of...
Pivotal Voter Theory•   Suggests that policy outcomes on the floor rarely    diverge from what is acceptable to the pivota...
Pivotal Voter Theory, continued3. If each party is internally united in its policy  preferences, as the conditional party ...
110th Congress                                    SPEAKER                                  N a n c y P e lo s iM A J O R I...
Other House Officers - TotalsSee Figure 6-1• Dems  – 223 Dem members     • Dem Caucus        – Chm. Rahm Emanuel (Ill)    ...
Other House Officers - DemsSee Figure 6-1• Speaker Nancy Pelosi (Ca)     • Comm on Rules Chm Louise Slaughter (NY)  – Majo...
Other House Officers - GOPSee Figure 6-1• Minority Leader John Boehner (Ohio)     • GOP Steering Comm Chm. John Boehner   ...
Other House Officers• Majority & Minority leader(s) (sometimes called floor leader)   – Helps plan party strategy   – Conf...
Elected Officers of Congress• At the beginning of each Session of Congress  both bodies, by Majority vote, elect the offic...
Elected Officers of the House• Clerk of the House  – This office has a broad range of legislative and    administrative du...
Elected Officers of the House - 2• Clerk of the House, cont.     • A number of internal budgeting, disbursing, accounting ...
Elected Officers of the House - 3• Sergeant at Arms of the House  – This office enforces the rules of the House and    mai...
Elected Officers of the House - 4• Doorkeeper of the House     • Supervises the doormen stationed at each entrance to the ...
Elected Officers of the House - 5• Doorkeeper of the House, cont.     • Physical arrangement for joint sessions and joint ...
Elected Officers of the House - 6• Postmaster of the House     • Primary duty of the Postmaster is to provide mail pickup ...
Elected Officers of the Senate• Secretary of the Senate   – Primary duty of this officer is for the legislative     admini...
Elected Officers of the Senate - 2• Sergeant at Arms of the Senate  – Primary responsibility is to enforce the Senate rule...
Elected Officers of the Senate - 3• Secretaries to the Majority and the Minority  – Similar duties – primarily to supervis...
Pages• Practice of employing pages was primarily as  messengers…and has evolved since the origin of the  Federal governmen...
Pages - 2– Until 1971, only males were employed as pages.– The first Senate female pages were appointed in  May 1971 by Se...
Pages - 3• Senate pages may be between the ages of 14-  17  – House pages 16-18 or who are juniors or seniors in    high s...
Pages - 4• The four year high school is nationally accredited• The curriculum is college preparatory   – Most of the stude...
Senate leaders• The Majority Leader of the Senate is the closet  counterpart of the Speaker of the House,  although the Fr...
Senate leaders - 2– The other passage provides that the “Senate shall  choose…a President Pro Tempore, in the absence  of ...
Senate leaders - 3– Historical studies attempting to explain the  Senate’s attitude toward these top offices have  stresse...
Senate leaders - 4– Selection:   • Emergence of readily recognizable floor leaders in the     Senate did not occur until 1...
Senate leaders - 5– Selection, cont   • The Majority and Minority Leader today are elected bya     majority vote of all th...
Senate leaders - 6– The Majority Leader is the elected spokesman on  the Senate floor for the majority party. The office i...
Senate leaders - 7– The Majority Leader is responsible for the enactment of his  party’s legislative program. His role is ...
Senate leaders - 8– The Majority Leader (currently Democratic) is ex-  officio chairman of all of the Party’s policy makin...
Senate leaders - 9– cont, The Majority Leader almost invariably:   • Makes motions to proceed to the consideration of all ...
Senate leaders - 10– Through the years, the Majority Leader has made  the motions to recess or adjourn from day to day,  u...
Senate leaders - 11– The Majority Leader keeps in close touch with the Minority  Leader as to proposed legislation to be b...
Senate leaders - 12– In summary, the Senate floor leader performs 6  basic functions of leadership   1. Is, or has the pot...
Terms•   Speaker     – The presiding officer in the House of Representatives, formally elected by the       House but actu...
Terms• Blue Dog Democrats   – Democrats who are fiscally conservative• New Dems   – Moderate Democrats• Pairing   – The vo...
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Legislative politics part 2

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Legislative politics part 2

  1. 1. Legislative PoliticsPOLS 4211 Chap. 4, 5, 6 1
  2. 2. Participation• The most important question a candidate wants answered – how many votes do I need to win!• Who Cares? – However VAP is figured…turnout is low • Reasons vary – Not govt mandated but public choice – Cynical about politics » Negative ads, media & scandals – Registration rules vary & election dates (Oregon allows phone voting – naked voting) – 40% of nonvoters Don’t Care about politics – JKF, Jr. and George 2
  3. 3. Participation - 2• Percentage reporting participation: – Had interest in political campaign – 84% – Voted in presidential elections – 49% – Tried to persuade others about vote choice – 29% – Attended party meetings – 6% – Worked in campaign – 3% • Since 1952 only the turnout rate dropped …more than 10% points • Puzzle = 1996 presidential turnout rate was lower than before the Civil War and this decline runs counter to the rise in educational level of the electorate 3
  4. 4. Who Votes?• Those excluded are: – Jailed inmates (> 2 million in 2000) • Only 2 states allow them to vote – Convicted felons (>1.4 million in 2000) • Barred from voting in 14 states • May ask for pardon/reinstatement of rights – Undocumented aliens (> 14 million in 2000) • CA and NY have proposals to allow aliens voting 4
  5. 5. Who Votes - 2• Age Highly correlated with propensity to vote – (18-29) Vote or Die! – As age increases, so does the proportion of persons voting (unless they are very old & infirm)• Education – Probably the best correlation…more education = more likely to vote – Blacks & whites of same education vote at same rates!• Gender – Females, since 1992, have voted at a higher percentage than men – Generally attributed to increasing levels of education and employment 5
  6. 6. Who Votes - 3• Income – Higher incomes tend to participate more…of course this largely corresponds to occupation and those with higher-status jobs are more likely to vote• Race – Blacks were about 10% points below whites in 1992 & 94 but more recently have closed the gap to within 4% pts (remember education factor) – Hispanics are not yet participating at rates similar to females & blacks but history teaches that over time this will change 6
  7. 7. GOTV• Get Out The Vote – To increase turnout, Congress in 1993 passed the Motor- Voter Law • Permitted registration by mail, driver’s license and encouraging registration at other facilities (Malls) – Increased over 3.5 million registered voters for 1996 election – Represented only 1.8% of all registered voters that yr – But the % who actually voted declined by over 5% from 1992 – The 1st election since 1972 when the franchise was extended to 18-21s that voter registration rose while turnout declined – Also, seemed to increase GOP voters…NOT expected. 7
  8. 8. Developing Campaign StrategiesIssue Voting - Do Issues Matter? – The Rational Voter? • Do voters think ideologically? – Look at Original Dilemma & Equality – (See Note) – Varies but is often relatively low – Provides a lens • Most US citizens are moderates or report not knowing whether they are liberal or conservative – Single Issue Groups (PIGs) • National Rifle Assn – Claimed credit for defeating #’s Dems in 1990s – Some vote according to their paramount issue! – Single best positive factor = Strong Economy 8
  9. 9. Party Identification – An informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people acquire in childhood• One of the most important in POLS – It signifies a voter’s sense of psychological attachment to a party – which is NOT the same thing as voting for the party in any given election. – Voting is a behavior; identification is a state of mind • For example, millions of southerners voted for Eisenhower in 1952 & 1956 but continued to consider themselves Democrats – More people identify with one of the 2 major parties than reject a party attachment – The number of GOP & Dems combined far exceeds the independents in every year – The number of Dems consistently exceeds that of the GOP – The number of Dems has shrunk over time, to the benefit of both the GOP and independents, and the 3 groups are now almost equal in size 9
  10. 10. Party Identification• Party identification is the single best predictor of how people will vote!• Unlike candidates and issues, which come and go, party ID is a long-term element in voting choice.• The strength of party ID is also important in predicting participation and political interest.• Strong Rep/Dem participate more actively than other groups and are generally better informed about political issues• Pure Independents are just the opposite; they vote at the lowest rates and have the lowest levels of interest and awareness of any of the categories of party ID 10
  11. 11. Party Alignment• Critical Elections/Periods – 1 party yields preeminence or major voting groups alter the shape of the parties’ coalitions, or both• E.g. – Civil War – 1890s – New Deal – Contract with America – 1990s• Other changes w/o underlying party realignment – Wilson 1913-1919 – Johnson Great Society 1964-1968 – Post Watergate 1974 – Reagan early 1980s – GOP revolution 1994-1995• National Mood – Wilson & Johnson 1916 & 1968 – Kennedy & Carter 1979 – Bush & Cleveland 2004 & 1892 11
  12. 12. Re-Alignment• Election that dramatically changes the voters’ partisan identification and persists through several subsequent elections – Believed to occur every 36 years • 1860-1894: A Rough Balance. The GOP won 8 of 10 presidential elections – Johnson may be considered Union party and Cleveland won in 1884 & 1892 • 1896-1930: election of 1896 helped solidify a GOP majority in industrial America and forged a link between the GOP and business. GOP dominated national politics – controlling the presidency, the Senate, and the House – almost continuously from 1896 until the Wall Street crash of 1929. • 1932-1990s: formed the “Roosevelt coalition” = along with democratic voters in the solid south came urban workers in the North, middle-class liberals, Catholics, Jews, labor and new European ethnic voters. • GOP had better success with Presidents and 1994 gained control of Congress for the first time in 40 years. They retained control after the 1996 election – the 1st time they took both houses in successive election since Herbert Hoover was elected in 1928. GOP took Congress again in 1998, but Democrats gained five house seats. Not since 1934 had a president’s party won seats in a midterm election. 12
  13. 13. De-Alignment• Instead of a full realignment, we seem to be in a period of electoral dealignment, in which party loyalties have become less important to voters as they cast their ballots.• As a cartoon in the New York Times suggested – John Kerry locks the door to a store…The New Deal is “out of business”• The Solid South consistently votes Republican – The DOJ attempts to increase majority black districts helped give additional districts to GOP (paradox of representation)• Several third parties have tried but… – Congressional polls at an all-time low – Talk of creating 3rd party has been popular since 90s 13
  14. 14. Congressional Party Platforms• 1994 Contract With America – Enact during 1st 100 days (FDRs 100 days) – Balanced budget amendment – Presidential line-item veto – Internal House reform – Term limits – Crime proposals – Welfare reform – Business regulation – Tax cuts • FEW were enacted … some of the GOP retired 14
  15. 15. Congressional Party Platforms• Six for ’06 - Enact during 1st 100 hours (Pelosi) 1- Minimum wage increase 2- Stem cell research development 3- Health care 4- National security 5- Education 6- Energy 15
  16. 16. Miller & Stokes• Studied links between voters’ attitudes & members voting – Constituency attitudes correlated differently according to the kind of policy • Foreign Affairs negatively correlated • Welfare/Social moderate • Civil Rights high 16
  17. 17. Issue Uptake – Tracy Sulkin• Legislative responsiveness process of – Learning issue saliency during campaign • Influences their congressional agenda – Influences the intensity for issues – Influences their public policy interests » Focus…committee choices, etc. 17
  18. 18. Terms• Party Identification – An informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people acquire in childhood• Political Socialization – The process by which we develop our political attitudes, beliefs, and values• Interest Group – A collection of people who share a common interest or attitude and seek to influence government for specific ends. Interest groups usually work within the framework of government and try to achieve their goals through tactics such as lobbying.• Lobbyist – A person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches.• Lobbying – Engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and the policies they enact.• Issue Network – Relationships among interest groups congressional committees and subcommittees, and the government agencies that share a common policy concern. 18
  19. 19. Terms• Party Dealignment – Weakening of partisan preferences that points to a rejection of both major parties and a rise in the number of independents• Party Realignment (36 years) – An election that dramatically changes the voters’ partisan identification• Interest Group – A collection of people who share a common interest or attitude and seek to influence government for specific ends. Interest groups usually work within the framework of government and try to achieve their goals through tactics such as lobbying.• Lobbyist – A person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches.• Lobbying – Engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and the policies they enact.• Issue Network – Relationships among interest groups congressional committees and subcommittees, and the government agencies that share a common policy concern. 19
  20. 20. Campaign Strategy• Campaigns are a communications process!• The straightforward method of winning? – Hardwork…& repetitive, persuasive communication with your likely supporters!• Components of communication (interrelated) – Theme – Audience – Delivery – Timing – Resources 20
  21. 21. Campaign Strategy - 2• Theme – the most important element – What is the single, most important message to be communicated to the electorate • It’s the economy stupid! • Read my lips, no new taxes! – It’s a mistake to confuse the laundry list of the candidate’s positions on various issues with the fundamental theme that should define a campaign. 21
  22. 22. Theme, cont.– 2 main factors should determine theme • Policy issues that concern voters • Personal characteristics and reputation of the candidate– Are most voters in the district renters or military • Then relate personal characteristics/reputation to match the voters want a.k.a. Are you one of them?– 1980 Kennedy vs. Carter • Kennedy chose “leadership” with his picture on full- page ads to contrast his persona to Carter’s lackluster image – Backfired – people contrasted Kennedy to Chappaquidick to Carter’s high moral standard » Remember Watergate era 22
  23. 23. Theme, 3• Remember, the proposed theme should also be evaluated in the context of the audience to which it will be addressed – the voters in your district. You CAN’T sell wrinkle cream to teenagers, not even very good wrinkle cream. 23
  24. 24. Audience• Your communication must convince your audience and motivate them to vote for YOU• Strategy must consider the following 4 variables – Voting behavior – Voter opinions – Geography – Demographics 24
  25. 25. Audience - 2• Voting behavior – Targeting – defining the most likely audience for your campaign • Narrowing the audience for your campaign • Concentrate your limited resources where they will do the most good…which is produce the most votes – Again…Even for the smallest campaign, the secret to success is repetitive, persuasive communication with your likely supporters, NOT casual contact with the entire universe of adults! – Study past voting behavior/patterns = party patterns 25
  26. 26. Audience - 3• Voter Opinions• Evaluate the opinions of the electorate – Emphasize the candidate’s priority issues that most closely match the key concerns of the targeted electorate 26
  27. 27. Audience - 4• Geography – May limit possible campaign styles • Distance between homes – Urban vs. rural resident campaign styles » Door to door canvass » Security systems in high-rise bldgs? – Will define main travel an assembly routes • May reach many voters with relatively few volunteers by leafleting bus, subway, or railway stations – Also must consider differences among neighborhoods or communities within district • Some may be concerned about economic development … specific industry vs. another concerned about job growth 27
  28. 28. Audience - 5• Delivery - 2 basic methods – Direct personal communication • By the candidate, surrogates, or volunteers – Non-direct or mediated • Radio, TV, newspapers, brochures, billboards, staged ‘events’, paid advertising,• The important thing to remember is that all the methods chosen for delivering your campaign message should reinforce one another. 28
  29. 29. Audience - 6• Resources: people, money and time – Rule 1: resources are always limited and needs are always unlimited! – Good Housekeeping Seal of approval • Endorsements of key individuals • Support of movers & shakers • General recruits – Prior campaign experience a plus + – The greatest assets that volunteers bring to a campaign are their enthusiasm and their commitment. – Time is usually measured by counting the number of days until the election. 29
  30. 30. Targeting Your Audience• Obtaining Election Results• Selecting Comparison Races• Targeting Priority Areas• Percent-of-Effort Targeting – Identifies the likely % of your total vote that will come from each subdivision so that you can allocate the appropriate resources to each area – Divide # votes cast in single ward for candidate by # votes cast in entire district for candidate will = ward’s % of vote – List the wards in descending order of their average percent- of-effort to assign a priority ranking to each 30
  31. 31. Targeting Your Audience - 2• Fine-Tuning the Results – Consider several factors before the final priority ranking • Is there a large concentration of union members or active community organization or industry? • Are there media outlets in an area that may affect voters? • Is there a strong PIG or single issue PIG? • Is the opponent’s home ward popularity so strong that you should concede those votes or coversely, is dissatisfaction so high in a particular area that you may make unusual gains 31
  32. 32. Targeting Your Audience - 3• Precinct Targeting – Size – Turnout – Performance – Persuadability• Ranking Precincts in Priority Order• Targeting Primary Elections• Identifying Individual Voters 32
  33. 33. Being There• Foggy Bottom: – Few wanted to go to new Capitol – It was a part-time job, members averaged less than 5 years and returned to private life – Congressional pay was low• During 1800s – Pay increased and membership became more attractive• 1850s – Roughly one-half of all House members retired or were defeated at each election 33
  34. 34. Being There - 2• By 1900 – Roughly one-quarter of all House members retired or were defeated at each election – Pendleton Act • Civil Service Reform • PUAD begins• By 1930s – Govt services increased dramatically along with influence/regulation 34
  35. 35. Being There - 3• By 1950s – being a member became a full-time job and long term career – They began to exploit the natural advantages that come with incumbency • Name recognition • Service to citizens back home (claiming advantage) • Campaign funding • Nearly unlimited access to the media • Franking privilege – 1954 = 44 million pieces of mail sent home – 2004 = increased by over 1000% 35
  36. 36. Being There - 4• By 1970 – The number had fallen to barely a tenth• Even in 1994 congressional elections, when the GOP won the House majority for the 1st time in 40 years, 90% of House incumbents who ran for reelection won! 36
  37. 37. Being There - 5• Many vie for the chance now and enjoy the fruits of government retirement ($165,200 – 2007) • Revolving Door: employment cycle in which individuals who work for governmental agencies that regulate interest eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern• “In the short rum, everybody plays and nearly everybody wins. Yet the institution bleeds from 435 separate cuts.” Political Scientist Richard F. Fenno, Jr. 37
  38. 38. Legislators & Representativeness• How alike are officials to their constituents? – Some characteristics are more recognizable than others • Difficult to ‘see’ wealth • Difficult to ‘see’ ideology – Most officials are white, anglo-saxon, protestant, males (WASPs) • Most are more educated and wealthy than their constituents • No specific personality types have been polled or tested • Criminals = about the average for the population 38
  39. 39. Legislators & Representativeness - 2• Wealthy – Top 1% of income • Av household = $42,600• Females (Jeannette Rankin 1916 Montana) – 199 been elected (vs. 115 A. Americans) – 17% total in 110th Congress• Age (now highest in history) – House = 56 – Senate = 62 39
  40. 40. Legislators & Representativeness - 3• Race – Minority representation (total = 16%) – A. Americans 8.2% – Latino 5.6% – Asain/Pac 1.7% – Native am 1 house member• Most AA are representing districts with over 50% AA VAP• Future note relates to difference in how we determine race 40
  41. 41. Legislators & Representativeness - 4• Religion – 1 atheist – Most are Catholic or Protestant – 7% Jewish (2.6% of population) – 1 Muslim and 2 Buddhists• Many say they attend a church or synagogue weekly• Tammy Baldwin D-Wis became the first lesbian representative whose sexual orientation was known before her initial election 41
  42. 42. Legislators & Representativeness - 5• Totals add up to more than 535 because some of the officials have more than one occupation group…they determine background info• Business, banking (largest group)• Lawyers = 162 Rep & 58 Senators (41%) – Real Estate and Insurance• Public Service – 272 were state legislators – 116 were previously on D.C. staff • Many were interns – 9 were Governors 42
  43. 43. Diversity• Most of the officials are wealthy and over one- third are millionaires.• Old customs die hard…Appropriations Committee, Chairman Robert Byrd still addressed committee members as “Gentlemen” even though some committee members were females• A.Americans have done the best approaching 9% membership vs. females approaching 17% 43
  44. 44. Representing• Hanna Finichel Pitkins two styles – Substantive: consciously acting for constituents even if not one of them – Descriptive or symbolic: One of them • Sometimes more superficial• Believed that many perceive of one of their own in more positive terms even if they do not represent their interests – they tend to remember their names – Provides a sense of pride 44
  45. 45. Speaker Sam Rayburn• “New members were to go along in order to get along, and to be seen and not heard.”• The norms were simple such as the norm of seniority• The Senate, especially, was considered the worlds best men’s club – Perks were many • Personal media consultants, mass communications hardware, exercise center with personal trainer, etc. • With seniority, committee chairs were available and added perks – Additional staff, etc. 45
  46. 46. Herbert B. Asher – 7 norms1. Friendly relationships are desirable - Norm of seniority1. The important work of the House should be done in committees, not on the floor2. Learning the procedural rules of the House is essential3. Members should not personally criticize a colleague on the House floor - Norm of courtesy1. Member should be prepared to trade votes2. Members should be specialists - Norm of specialization1. Freshmen should serve apprenticeships - Norm of apprenticeship 46
  47. 47. New Norms• Equally simple as old norms. – More impatient & more professional staff work • New members are no longer willing to wait their turn to speak or introduce legislation and now have enough staff to make their opinions known on just about any issue at just about any point in the legislative process – Norm of courtesy still lives – New congressional career allows little time for the following old norms • Specialization • Seniority • Apprenticeship – Members take care of their electoral concerns 1st! 47
  48. 48. Bringing Home The Bacon• It’s not pork if it’s for my state!• Earmarks – Special spending projects that are set aside on behalf of individual members of congress for their constituents • Earmarks help increase the incumbency advantage and may provide a carrot and stick approach for party members 48
  49. 49. Schedule• There is not enough time except for individuals who do not have a life! – No specific verifiable measure of “hours/week” • Senate averages 3 coms & 7 subcoms • House averages 2 coms & 4 subcoms – Mix of constituent contact and constituent legislative needs (bills/regulations) – Most legislators desire to spend more time on legislative affairs • See Table 5-2 49
  50. 50. Schedule - 2• Staff professionalism – Maintains office – Maintains officials schedule – Acts as stand-in/proxy when possible – Handles constituent services as much as possible – Often EA is professional personal friend with management experience • Some hires are DC professionals and others are merit – supporter hires 50
  51. 51. Staff Functions• Staff Functions – Most aides are • Young, well-educated, transient – Served less than 4 years • Salaries above US average but low, especially for DC – A.A. = Chief of Staff – LA = Legislative Assistant – PA = Press Assistant – Someone generally handles interns and interns are spread among various depts 51
  52. 52. Staff Functions - 2• Most of the Congress members have about one-third + of their office staff in their home district – Generally, home districts costs are less • Helps to have staff who are well-known in the area and they may have home within commuting distance – Helps create appearance of Home connectedness • Many franchise businesses MUST have office in the community as mandated by the governing authority – Why do we need a GA Power office in every city? – Post Office locations = politics » Sugar Hill GA 52
  53. 53. Staff• House = $1.2 million – 18 full-time & 4 part-time but usually av. 15• Senate = $ based on state’s population and distance from DC – 13 to 71 staff but average 30 to 35 – 3 separate accounts & Interns • Administrative • Clerical (varies according to state population) • Legislative assistants • Internships – different system 53
  54. 54. Internships• See appendix B – Internships, the OJT for students, provides opportunity for students to get experience and legislators cheap labor – The Washington Center attempts to fill the clearninghouse void by contracting with many DC agencies, etc. • Several obstacles exist such as the varied qualifications and background checks of agencies• Studying in Washington: Academic Internships in the Nation’s capital. Stephen E. Frantzich 54
  55. 55. Soaking & Poking in DC• Author’s 5 observations: 1 - No central clearinghouse exists • Look often and broadly – Be persistent, patient and determined 2 - Research the offices and pick an area you like 3 - Target your congress members or close neighbors 4 - Intern placements are plentiful … remember #1 5 - Work may be drudgery (gopher) but can be rewarding intellectually• Remember, many interns return to work full- time in DC after graduation 55
  56. 56. Staying in Touch• Direct Mail (the frank) – Includes all US Postal mail • Print and media postage • Abused over the last 2 decades – Mailings increased during election years and just prior to an election cycle – Congress implemented franking rules after media/public complaints • Limits (next slide) 56
  57. 57. Franking Limitations– Mail “must be related to the official business, activities and duties of members”– Prohibits mail for a “matter which specifically solicits political support for the sender or any other person or any political party, or a vote or financial assistance for any candidate for any political office– Prohibits mass mailings (500+ pieces) 60 days (Senate) or 90 days (House) before primary, runoff, general election • Result…considerable amount of mail is sent few months before election cycle 57
  58. 58. Franking Limits - 2– Linked mailing costs to office expenses • General staff prepares mail, folding, etc.– Caps placed • Senate = 1 piece for each address in state • House = 3 pieces for each address in district • Curb advertising features such as personal references or pictures– Internet communication • Senate loosely applies restrictions • House … no restrictions– Internet, blogs, etc. will become more important and little “legal” limitation will be available 58
  59. 59. Feeding the local press• Most local news organizations do not have a DC bureau and depend on AP/UPI for info• Congress members often have Press Secretary – Schedules media events, media mailings, press discussions and provides 1st person discussions – May provide “actualities” prepared statements (on tape or digital format) via audio/video studio • Excerpts often used by local media especially on slow news day…ready made and easy to use – Some special news actuality may be presented in person by local PIG or interested individual • Some just want the official on video but overall the officials tended to be treated well by the press 59
  60. 60. Other Communication Methods• In-Person – Contradiction • Constituents want to be in-touch with their official but also demand she vote (be present) for most votes in Congress• Congress members make frequent commutes home – Obviously, some expected more than others • New Jersey, Maryland much more than say Hawaii, Alaska • Safe seats and they may stay in D.C – More senior members tend to make fewer commutes! • If family stays in state, more commutes • If anti-Washington, better make more commutes and don’t be caught enjoying the D.C. life! • Some maintain their club memberships…at home • Wealth brings power and most would like a 2nd / 3rd home – Keeping up with the Joneses 60
  61. 61. “Casework is all profit”• Constituency services – Ombudsperson: review of specific constituent problem to provide information or solve – Oversight: the process of reviewing agencies’ operations to determine whether they are carrying out policies as Congress intended• Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 – Recognized the need for staff for communications – Most common reason for constituency comm? • Express opinions and obtain issue information • Govt Jobs…letter of recommendations • They are a magnet for request of ANY problem – They have perceived POWER and INFLUENCE 61
  62. 62. Terms• Constituent – The residents of a congressional district or state• Delegate role – An official who is expected to represent the views of her constituents even when personally holding different views• Trustee role – An official who is expected to vote independently based on her judgment of the circumstances• Seniority rule – A legislative practice that assigns the chair of a committee or subcommittee to the member of the majority party with the longest continuous service on the committee• Oversight – The process of reviewing agencies’ operations to determine whether they are carrying out policies as Congress intended• Ombudsperson – The process of reviewing a specific constituent’s problem for information or solution 62
  63. 63. Historic TreesSince the early 1900s, over one hundred memorial and historic trees have been planted with the majority still living on the United States Capitol Grounds. Three trees, Loblolly Pine, Pin Oak, and a White Oak were planted memorializing the state of Georgia or Georgians. Name the individuals who either planted the trees or whom they memorialized. (April 24, 1912: Senator Augustus O. Bacon of Georgia- Pin Oak… removed from Capitol Grounds; November 13, 1963, State of Georgia sponsored by Senator Richard B. Russell – Loblolly Pine; November 18, 1963 representative Carl Vinson – White Oak. 63
  64. 64. Leaders & Parties in Congress• Majority makers – The 42 (D) freshmen who helped make history – N. Pelosi, 01/04/07: highest ranking female ever • Seen with her grandchildren – Remember John Robert’s children and son who was not ‘still’ » Public relates to “family” » Think of the “Big Guy” ads of Mark Taylor • Made sure to discuss how to get reelected and maintain their majority in Congress • Another example of the Dual Nature of Congress – GOP discussed “team work” to lead to future majority 64
  65. 65. Nietzsche “wherever I found the living, there I found the will to ___”It is usually thought of as one of mankind’s less attractive characteristics, along with violence and aggression, with which it is often confused. Most people do not like to admit that they want it, which is why they never get it, and those who do have it go to endless lengths to mask the fact. Some politicians, like the late Lyndon b. Johnson, openly relish it’s trappings, but the contemporary American style is to pretend that one has none. To confess that one has it, is to make oneself responsible for using it, and safety lies in an artfully contrived pose of impotence, behind which one can do exactly as one pleases. 65
  66. 66. Madam Speaker• It would do no violence to the truth to call the Speaker of the House the second most powerful office holder in the U.S. Government, surpassed only by the President. In fact, the Presidential Succession Act of 1947 places the Speaker second in line in succession to the Presidency, behind only the Vice-President, whose assumption to that office is required by the Constitution. 66
  67. 67. Line Of Succession1. Speaker of the House2. Senate: President Pro Tempore3. Secretary of State 14. Secretary of Education4. Secretary of the Treasury 15. Sec. Veterans Affairs5. Secretary of Defense 16. Homeland Security6. Attorney General7. Secretary of the Interior8. Secretary of Agriculture9. Secretary of Commerce10. Secretary of Labor11. Secretary of Health & Welfare12. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development13. Secretary of Transportation 67
  68. 68. Speakers in HistoryThe first Speaker was Frederick A. C. Muhlenberg, He served during both the First and Third Congresses, April 1, 1789, to March 3, 1791, and December 2, 1793, to March 3, 1795.• Georgians• Howell G. Cobb: speaker, 31st Congress, December 22, 1849, to March 3, 1851.• Charles F. Crisp: speaker 52nd and 53rd Congress from December 8, 1891, to March 3, 1895.• Newt Gringrich: speaker, 104th and 105th Congress from 1995-1999. 68
  69. 69. Speaker who became President• James K. Polk, Tennessee: Speaker 24th and 25th Congresses from December 7, 1835, March 3, 1839. Former Governor of Tennessee. 69
  70. 70. Selecting A Speaker (does not have to be a House member)In the early days the Speaker was elected by ballot, but since 1839 all have been chosen by roll call or voice vote. The election of the Speaker is traditionally the first order of business upon the convening of a new Congress.The choosing of the Speaker has undergone a few significant changes over the past 200 years. Only relatively senior Members with 20-plus years of experience have been elected Speaker in this century. From 1789 to 1896, each new Speaker averaged only seven years of experience in Congress. Once elected, a Speaker is customarily re-elected as long as his party remains in the majority and he retains his Congressional seat. 70
  71. 71. Selecting A Speaker - 2Although the election officially occurs on the floor of the house, modern-day Speakers are actually decided upon when the majority party meets in caucus on the eve of a new Congress. Despite the forgone conclusion of the contest, the minority party also nominates its candidate who, upon losing, becomes minority leader. Since the 1930s, service in the lesser party leadership posts, such as majority and minority whip, majority and minority leader, have become stepping stones to the Speakership. 71
  72. 72. Selecting A Speaker - 3The stability of the two party system in the modern era has led to a period of unbroken lines of succession in the leadership tracks of both parties. This has not always been the case, however. In 1855, more than 130 separate votes were required over a period of two months before a Speaker was finally chosen. In 1859, only four years later, the House balloted 44 times before choosing a first-term new Jersey Congressman for the Speakership-and he was defeated for re- election to the House after that one term! 72
  73. 73. Powers & DutiesThe constitution makes but scant reference to the office prescribing in Article I, Section 2 that “the House of Representatives shall chuse (sic) their speaker.” While the powers and duties of the Speaker are spelled out to some degree in the Rules of the House, the effectiveness of any particular Speaker has depended upon a great many intangibles: the speaker’s own personal dynamism, the size of his majority in the House, his relationship with the executive branch, his ability to “get things done.” Men of greatly differing styles and temperaments have served as Speaker. Freshmen, septuagenarians, dictators, tyrants, moderates, Southerners, Northerners, former Presidents, Vice-Presidents (and would-be Presidents) have all, at one time or another, served in the Speaker’s chair. 73
  74. 74. Powers & Duties - 2In the modern era, the many duties of the Speaker include presiding at the sessions of the House, announcing the order of business, putting questions to a vote, reporting the vote and deciding points of order. He appoints the chairmen of the Committee of the Whole and members of select and conference committees. He chooses Speakers pro tem and refers bills and reports to the appropriate committees and calendars. Although he is not constitutionally required to be an elected Member of the House, this de facto requirement assures that the Speaker also enjoys the privileges of ordinary House Members. He may, therefore, after stepping down from the Chair, vote and participate in debate on the floor. 74
  75. 75. Powers & Duties - 3Perhaps the duties of the Speaker were put most idealistically by the first “great” Speaker, Henry Clay, back in 1823. It was up to the Speaker to be prompt and impartial in deciding questions of order, to display “patience, good temper and courtesy” to every Member, and to make “the best arrangement and distribution of the talent of the House”, in carrying out the country’s business. Finally, Clay noted, the Speaker must “remain cool and unshaken amidst all the storms of debate, carefully guarding the preservation of the permanent laws and rules of the House from being sacrificed to temporary passions, prejudices or interests.” But in fact the Speakership today is a partisan office. As Floyd Riddick, Parliamentarian Emeritus of the U.S. Senate, has commented, “tradition and unwritten law require that the Speaker apply the rules of the House consistently, yet in the twilight zone a large area exists where he may exercise great discrimination and where he has many opportunities to apply the rules to his party’s advantage.” 75
  76. 76. Speaker is a Triple Personality1- Being a Member of the HouseAs a Member of the House she has the right to cast a vote on all questions, unlike the President of the Senate who has no vote except in the case of a tie. Usually, however, the Speaker does not exercise his right to vote except to break a tie or when she desires to make her position known on a measure before the House. As a Member, she also has the right to leave the Chair and participate in debate on the House floor as the elected Representative of her district. 76
  77. 77. Personality #2 – Presiding OfficerAs presiding officer, the Speaker interprets the rules that the House has adopted for guidance. In this matter she is customarily bound by precedents, created by prior decisions of the Chair. Appeals are usually in order from decisions of the Chair, but seldom occur. When they are taken, the Chair is usually sustained. The Speaker’s power of recognition is partially limited by House rules and conventions that fix the time for considerations of various classes of bills. 77
  78. 78. Presiding Officer #3She has discretion in choosing the Members she will recognize to make motions to suspend the rules on days when such motions are in order. The rules of the House may be suspended by two-thirds vote on the first and third Mondays of the month, the Tuesdays immediately following those days, and the last six days of the session. 78
  79. 79. Personality #4 – Party LeaderAs a party leader, the Speaker had certain additional powers prior to 1910: to appoint all standing committees and to name their chairs; to select members of the Rules Committee; and from 1858 to serve as its chairperson. Her political power evolved gradually during the nineteenth century and peaked under the leadership of former Speaker Joseph Cannon. 79
  80. 80. Limiting the SpeakerIn 1910, the House cut back some of the Speaker’s power. They removed him from the Rules Committee, stripped him of his power to appoint the standing House committees and their chairmen and restricted his former right of recognition. These actions were not directed so much against the principle of leadership as against the concentration of power in the hands of a single individual. 80
  81. 81. Speaker Gingrich 1995-1999• 3 factors explain Gingrich’s influence – Most recognized him as the leader of the party’s emergence as the majority party & they owed him • He was a political leader of a grassroots movement not like many of the previous Speakers who were legislative leaders – Broad commitment to the GOP agenda • Especially the Contract With America & the economy (spending reductions & balancing the budget) – Belief in the need to continue to succeed • They remembered the past and didn’t want to repeat it – 9 points (except term limits) passed within 100 days! 81
  82. 82. Gingrich Confrontational Style• As a National leader pushed Newt into limelight – Media focused on Newt – Media played Clinton vs. Gingrich • Styles, not ideology, was prominent – Clinton = “I feel your pain” compassion and ability to relate emotionally to the public vs. Gingrich “professorial” … “let me explain it to you this way” educational style » Public doesn’t want to be “educated” even though they need it – Pushed downsizing govt by confronting Clinton with reduced budget…Govt closed and GOP viewed as extremist and cold-hearted 82
  83. 83. Professor Ethics?1996 confrontation methods became election issue– Dec. 12, 1996: Newt admitted to inaccurate/incomplete info. about solicitation of tax-deductible contribution– Became 1st speaker formally disciplined for ethical wrongdoing– Additional miscues such as continued focus on Clinton’s affair (while having marital problems of his own) led to his decision to retire 83
  84. 84. Coach Dennis Hastert 1999-2007• Chief Deputy whip (appropriations chair Robert Livingston, LA resigned because of adulterous affair)• Was more low profile and supportive of others• Still maintained hierarchical structure – Work through Tom DeLay (tx) & Roy Blunt (mo) – Removed Christopher Smith (nj) from Veterans affairs chair and committee for speaking out against GOP budget for veterans• Lost position when GOP lost status in 2007 84
  85. 85. Nancy Pelosi• Thank you President Bush and GOP – 6 for ‘06 in 1st 100 hours – Father was Baltimore Mayor & 8 yr. US Rep. • “Favor File” list of favors fulfilled • Grandmother • 1st elected 1987 at 47 • Became minority whip in 107th congress (2001-2003) – Gephardt stepped down as min. leader when Dems failed to gain seats in 2002 election – Nancy won Minority Leader position with ease 85
  86. 86. “The Velvet Hammer”• Though many believed the Dems succeeded in passing their ‘package’ through the House, much criticism was expressed that even though Pelosi vowed bipartisanship, the GOP was not invited – Much of the package failed to pass Senate – Some perceive it a Dem. failure • They hold both houses of congress!• Her leadership style is top-down 86
  87. 87. Why are leaders stronger during some eras than others?• Conditional Party Govt Theory – Each party is internally united in its policy preferences and usually the majority party finds passage of its policy relatively easy• Pivotal Voter Theory – If each party is so united, then why do we find the majority party in such disarray and in need of “pivotal” votes 87
  88. 88. Leadership theories - 2• Party leaders are agents of rank-and-file members• Members want to accomplish goals of – Reelection • Maintain “power” status within government – Making good policy (MAD) • Look at accomplishments of party platforms – The Progressives – The New Deal – The Great Society – The Contract With America 88
  89. 89. Specific theories (Box 6.1)• Conditional Party Govt. Theory – The power of congressional leaders hinges on the degree of homogeneity within the majority party concerning policy and on the extent of interparty conflict between Democrats and Republicans – With both conditions in play, rank-and-file party members are supportive of changes that strengthen their party leaders, such as the Speaker. Thus, a cohesive majority party can pass legislation without any support from the minority party – Conversely, when parties’ policy goals are fragmented, partisan lawmakers have little incentive to give their leaders more authority. They ma use their power against the political and policy interests of many in the rank-and-file 89
  90. 90. Pivotal Voter Theory• Suggests that policy outcomes on the floor rarely diverge from what is acceptable to the pivotal voter – the voter who casts the 218th vote in the House• Rarely does everyone in the majority party support a particular policy. Why, then, should majority members change their policy views to back a party position with which they disagree? Instead, they will join with members of the other party to form the winning coalition. According to this theory, these pivotal voters determine chamber outcomes 90
  91. 91. Pivotal Voter Theory, continued3. If each party is internally united in its policy preferences, as the conditional party government theory states, there will beno difference between what the majority party wants and what the chamber membership will agree to.4. Simply observing party leaders engaged in frenetic activity-often seeking pivotal vote- does not mean they can skew legislative outcomes beyond what is acceptable to a majority of the entire membership. 91
  92. 92. 110th Congress SPEAKER N a n c y P e lo s iM A J O R IT Y L E A D E R T y p e n a m e h e re M IN O R IT Y L E A D E RS te n y H . H o y e r (M d ) T y p e t it le h e re J o h n B o e h n e r (O h ) 92
  93. 93. Other House Officers - TotalsSee Figure 6-1• Dems – 223 Dem members • Dem Caucus – Chm. Rahm Emanuel (Ill) » Vice Chm. John Larson (Conn)• GOP – 202 Rep members • GOP Conerence – Chm. Adam Putnam (Fl) » Vice Chm. Kay Granger (Tx) 93
  94. 94. Other House Officers - DemsSee Figure 6-1• Speaker Nancy Pelosi (Ca) • Comm on Rules Chm Louise Slaughter (NY) – Majority Leader: Steny H. Hoyer (Md) – Demmocratic Steering & Policy comm Co-Chm. Rosa De Lauro (Conn) & George Miller (Ca) • Majority Whip: James Clyburn (S.C.) • Democratic campaign comm. Chair Chris Van Hollen (Md) 94
  95. 95. Other House Officers - GOPSee Figure 6-1• Minority Leader John Boehner (Ohio) • GOP Steering Comm Chm. John Boehner • GOP Policy Comm. Chm. Thaddeus McCotter (Ca) – Minority Whip: Roy Blunt (Mo) • GOP Campaign Comm. Chm. Tom Cole (Ok) 95
  96. 96. Other House Officers• Majority & Minority leader(s) (sometimes called floor leader) – Helps plan party strategy – Confers with other party leaders – Helps keep party members in line• Party whips (term comes from whipper-in, the huntsman who keeps the hounds bunched in a pack during a foxhunt) – They assist floor leaders • Serve as liaisons between leadership and rank-&-file • Inform members when important bills will come up for vote • Prepare summaries of the bills • Do vote counts for the leadership – Take the temperature of various factional groups within the party • Exert pressure (sometimes mild and sometimes heavy) • Try to ensure maximum attendance on the floor especially for critical votes 96
  97. 97. Elected Officers of Congress• At the beginning of each Session of Congress both bodies, by Majority vote, elect the officers whose responsibility it is to keep the House and Senate operating smoothly. These persons are not Members of the Congress. The House elects – Clerk of the House, Sergeant at Arms, the Doorkeeper, Postmaster 97
  98. 98. Elected Officers of the House• Clerk of the House – This office has a broad range of legislative and administrative duties; • Presiding at the opening of each new Congress, pending the election of the Speaker • Receiving the credentials of Members • Compiling the Official Role of representatives-elect • Taking all votes and certifying passage of bills • Processing all legislation • Maintaining, printing & distributing documents relating to the legislative activity • Receives all official communications during recess or adjournment periods 98
  99. 99. Elected Officers of the House - 2• Clerk of the House, cont. • A number of internal budgeting, disbursing, accounting and housekeeping responsibilities are also assigned to the Clerk. This officer is assisted by the Offices of Finance, Supply Service, Equipment Service, and Records and Registration. 99
  100. 100. Elected Officers of the House - 3• Sergeant at Arms of the House – This office enforces the rules of the House and maintains decorum during sessions. • In charge of the Mace – Symbol of legislative power and authority • Major Responsibility = Maintains the general security of the House buildings and Capitol – Alternates with the Senate Sergeant at Arms as Chairperson of the Capitol Police Board and the Capitol Guide Board. • Another Major Responsibility is management of the House bank which disburses Members’ salaries and travel expenses 100
  101. 101. Elected Officers of the House - 4• Doorkeeper of the House • Supervises the doormen stationed at each entrance to the House floor & House gallery • Supervises the pages • Operates the Document Room which provides copies of House bills, laws, committee reports, and other documents to the Members, media and public • Under his jurisdiction are the staff members serving the media galleries and the Members’ cloakrooms • He also distributes authorized publications such as the Congressional Directory and copies of the U.S. Codes ot the Members & their staffs 101
  102. 102. Elected Officers of the House - 5• Doorkeeper of the House, cont. • Physical arrangement for joint sessions and joint meetings of the Congress, announcements of messages from the President and the Senate, announcement of the arrival of the President when he addresses Congress in person, escorting dignitaries visiting the Capitol – those are the tasks the public sees the Doorkeeper performing. 102
  103. 103. Elected Officers of the House - 6• Postmaster of the House • Primary duty of the Postmaster is to provide mail pickup and delivery service to the House wing of the Capitol, the House office buildings and the House annexes. Four post offices are under his jurisdiction and provide the usual counter service. • Also provides a mail security system which scans every piece of incoming mail. 103
  104. 104. Elected Officers of the Senate• Secretary of the Senate – Primary duty of this officer is for the legislative administration of the Senate • He is custodian of the Senate Seal • Administers oaths of office • Certifies passage of legislation, ratification of treaties and confirmation or rejection of Presidential nominations • He is assisted in his legislative administration by a wide variety of experts, including the Parliamentarian, Legislative Clerk, Office of Classified National Security Information, Journal Clerk, Disbursing Officer, Senate Librarian, Senate historian and official reporters • He is a member of the Federal Election Commission, the Federal Council on the Arts and Humanities and serves as Executive Secretary to the Commission on Arts and Antiquities of the Senate 104
  105. 105. Elected Officers of the Senate - 2• Sergeant at Arms of the Senate – Primary responsibility is to enforce the Senate rules and maintain decorum • Supervises – Mail & computer systems – Senate post offices – Press galleries, service department, recording studio, telephone services, janitorial services • rotates with House Se. Arms as Chairman of the Capitol Police Board and Capitol Guide Board • He is protocol officer of the Senate – Announcement of the arrival of the President or dignitaries 105
  106. 106. Elected Officers of the Senate - 3• Secretaries to the Majority and the Minority – Similar duties – primarily to supervise the majority and minority cloakroom – Obtain pair votes as requested – Brief Senators on votes and issues under consideration – Poll the Senators at the request of the Leadership – Generally, serve the Senators of their party 106
  107. 107. Pages• Practice of employing pages was primarily as messengers…and has evolved since the origin of the Federal government in 1789• House pages are under the supervision of the Doorkeeper; Senate pages of the Sergeant at Arms.• They deliver documents and messages and run errands for the members.• Visitors are intrigued by the bench pages who sit on the rostrum steps and assist the members during the session. Others are assigned to the Cloakroom, the Speaker’s office, and the Senate majority and Minority Leaders 107
  108. 108. Pages - 2– Until 1971, only males were employed as pages.– The first Senate female pages were appointed in May 1971 by Senators Jacob Javits of New York and Charles Percy of Illinois– Former Speaker Carl Albert of Oklahoma appointed the first official female House page in 1973– Pages are selected by the Senators or Representatives whose seniority permits this privilege. The “patron” agrees to be responsible for the safety and conduct of pages he or she appoints. 108
  109. 109. Pages - 3• Senate pages may be between the ages of 14- 17 – House pages 16-18 or who are juniors or seniors in high school – They must maintain at least a C average and be of good character – They live in rooming houses or with relatives – They attend the Capitol Page school which has been located in the Library of Congress • They attend 4 or 5 45 minute classes, five days a week beginning at 6:45am and continuing until 9:45 am 109
  110. 110. Pages - 4• The four year high school is nationally accredited• The curriculum is college preparatory – Most of the students go on to college » They have a basketball team, yearbook, school paper, student counsel and social and extra-curricular activities• Numerous government officials began their careers as Congressional pages 110
  111. 111. Senate leaders• The Majority Leader of the Senate is the closet counterpart of the Speaker of the House, although the Framers of the Constitution apparently did not foresee such a development – The Constitution’s only references to leadership posts in the Senate are contained in two passages of Article I, Section 3. One passage provides that the Vice President “shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided” (Clause 4). 111
  112. 112. Senate leaders - 2– The other passage provides that the “Senate shall choose…a President Pro Tempore, in the absence of the V. President, or when he shall exercise the office of the President of the United States” (Clause 5).– With few exceptions, the Senate has been reluctant to place substantial political power in these offices. It has instead entrusted power to the majority and minority leaders 112
  113. 113. Senate leaders - 3– Historical studies attempting to explain the Senate’s attitude toward these top offices have stressed the unwillingness of Senators to delegate power either to a non-member (the Vice President), or to a Member (the President Pro Tempore) who may preside only at times of the Vice President’s absence. If the Vice President and president pro Tempore are of different political parties, which has often been the case, the Vice President is able to neutralize the authority the President Pro Tempore by merely assuming the chair. Consequently the Senate has vested the real leadership in its party floor leaders 113
  114. 114. Senate leaders - 4– Selection: • Emergence of readily recognizable floor leaders in the Senate did not occur until 1911-1913. Designation of these positions was the culmination of an increasing party influence in the chamber which began around 1890. Before that time, leadership in the Senate was usually vested in powerful individuals or small factions of Senators. • In the early years of the twentieth century each paty elected its own chairman for the party caucus, but no Senator was elected to be the Majority or Minority Leader as we know these offices today. 114
  115. 115. Senate leaders - 5– Selection, cont • The Majority and Minority Leader today are elected bya majority vote of all the Senators in their respective parties. The practice has been to choose the leaders for a 2 year term at the beginning of each Congress. After the parties have held their elections, the selection is made known through the press or by announcement to the Senate 115
  116. 116. Senate leaders - 6– The Majority Leader is the elected spokesman on the Senate floor for the majority party. The office is a political one and was not created by the rules of the Senate even though the rules do confer certain powers on the Majority Leader– The Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 and 1970, and more recent amendments to the Senate rules, have given certain unique authorities ot the Majority Leader 116
  117. 117. Senate leaders - 7– The Majority Leader is responsible for the enactment of his party’s legislative program. His role is an integral part of the effective functioning of the machinery of the Senate. The Majority Leader must keep himself informed on national and international problems in addition to pending legislative matters.– On the floor of the Senate he is charged by his party members to deal with all procedural questions in consultation with them and his party’s policy-making bodies. In turn, he must keep his party colleagues informed as to proposed action on pending measures. In more recent years, the Majority Leader also has been responsible for the scheduling of legislation. 117
  118. 118. Senate leaders - 8– The Majority Leader (currently Democratic) is ex- officio chairman of all of the Party’s policy making and organizational bodies – that is, the Democratic conference, the Democratic Policy Committee, and the Democratic Steering Committee.– The Majority Leader almost invariably: • Offers motions to recess or adjourn from day to day • Calls up the sine die adjournment resolution and other resolutions relating to adjournment, including resolutions and motions to adjourn for period of several days • (Next) 118
  119. 119. Senate leaders - 9– cont, The Majority Leader almost invariably: • Makes motions to proceed to the consideration of all proposed legislation (bills and resolutions) • Proffers routine requests to accommodate the Senate, including orders to permit standing committees to meet while the Senate is in session, notwithstanding the provisions of the rule. • These are the parliamentary means which enable the Senate to conduct its day-to-day business 119
  120. 120. Senate leaders - 10– Through the years, the Majority Leader has made the motions to recess or adjourn from day to day, until it is now assumed to be virtually his prerogative. 120
  121. 121. Senate leaders - 11– The Majority Leader keeps in close touch with the Minority Leader as to proposed legislation to be brought up, the procedure to be followed, and the legislative contests to be staged.– In earlier years, even in the 20th century, chairmen of committees usually submitted motions to proceed to the consideration of bills reported by their own committees. At the present time, however, nearly all such motions are made by the Majority leader himself.– In summary, the Senate floor leader performs six basic functions of leadership (next) 121
  122. 122. Senate leaders - 12– In summary, the Senate floor leader performs 6 basic functions of leadership 1. Is, or has the potential for being, the principal force in organizing the party 2. Principal force in organizing the party 3. Promoting attendance on the floor 4. Collecting and distributing information 5. Persuading other Senators to unite on policy questions 6. Providing liaison with the White House 122
  123. 123. Terms• Speaker – The presiding officer in the House of Representatives, formally elected by the House but actually selected by the majority party• Majority Leader – The legislative leader selected by the majority party who helps plan party strategy, confers with other party leaders, and tries to keep member of the party in line• Minority leader – The legislative leader selected by the minority party as spokesperson for the opposition• Whip – Party leader who is the liaison between the leadership and the rank-and-file in the legislature• Closed rule – A House procedural rule that prohibits any amendments to bills or provides that only members of the committee reporting the bill may offer amendments• Open rule – A House procedural rule that permits floor amendments within the overall time allocated to the bill 123
  124. 124. Terms• Blue Dog Democrats – Democrats who are fiscally conservative• New Dems – Moderate Democrats• Pairing – The voluntary arrangement that allows members to go on record without voting or affecting the final tabulation. When members cannot vote in person, it allows them to still be recorded on an issue.• President Pro Tempore – Officer of the Senate selected by the majority party to act as chair in the absence of the vice president• Hold – A procedural practice in the Senate whereby a senator temporarily blocks the consideration of a bill or nomination• Caucus – A meeting of the members of a party in a legislative chamber to select party leaders and to develop party policy. Called conference by the GOP. 124

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