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Final review


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Final review

  1. 1. Final Review STUDY THIS!
  2. 2. #1  American democracy has Greek (direct democracy), Roman (Republic) and English (limited govt., individual rights, rule of law) influences. However, we are a representative democracy which is a govt. in which voters hold power and elected representatives (responsible to the people), exercise that power.
  3. 3. #2  By creating 3 branches of govt., the founding fathers built a "check and balance" system into the Constitution. This system was built so that no one branch of our govt. could become too powerful (power corrupts; we did not want another absolute monarch/king).
  4. 4. #3  John Locke promoted life, liberty, and property. He influenced American democracy because we are a nation that focuses on natural rights and the govt. has an obligation to protect those rights. Also, we hold his belief that power comes from the people.
  5. 5. #4  The Establishment Clause prohibits the govt. from creating an official or established church (separation of church/state). The Free Exercise Clause prohibits the govt. from interfering with the practices of any religion except in the 'compelling interest' of the greater society (for example, human sacrifice as part of your religion).
  6. 6. #5  The Bill of Rights is the first 10 Amendments of the Constitution. It was prioritized by the Anti- Federalists during ratification, so that our individual freedoms/rights would be safeguarded/protected in writing.
  7. 7. #11  For the most part, speech is protected under 1st Amendment. However, freedom of speech can be limited when dealing with: clear and present danger, fighting words, libel/slander (defamatory speech), obscenity.
  8. 8. #12  You may not be tried twice for the same crime (double jeopardy); you don’t have to testify against yourself (self-incrimination); you have right to a speedy trial, lawyer, and an impartial jury.
  9. 9. #13  5th Amendment protects people from being held for a crime unless they are properly indicted (accused); cannot be tried twice for same crime (double jeopardy), plead the 5th = don’t have to testify against yourself
  10. 10. #15  By participating in the democratic process (voting), electing quality representatives, and becoming educated about major issues in society (becoming informed).
  11. 11. #21  The President has the power of the veto, which means he can stop legislation from becoming law. The president's veto power is an example of separation of power and "checks and balances" of the United States government.
  12. 12. #23  Congress writes/votes on a law and the president signs it, making it official. But if someone feels the law is unconstitutional, they can bring a suit against it to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court may decide the law violates the constitution, and 'reverse' it (i.e. cancel it). That's called Judicial Review.
  13. 13. #24  Formal amendments are proposed by congress with a 2/3 vote in both houses. They are ratified (made official), by a 3/4 approval of the states. Example of federalism (states working w/ federal govt.)  “2/3 of both houses, 3/4 of all states”
  14. 14. #25  Congress can collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common defense and general Welfare of the United States.  Collect $, to spend $  Can also borrow $ and coin $
  15. 15. #31  Our 2 senators in California are: Diane Feinstein & Barbara Boxer. They represent our state on a federal level.
  16. 16. #32  House (many based on population): Must be at least 25 yrs. old; US citizen for at least 7 yrs.; live in the state you represent. (Term length: 2 yrs.)  Senate (each state gets 2): Must be at least 30 yrs. old; US citizen for at least 9 yrs.; and live in state you represent. (Term length: 6 yrs.)
  17. 17. #33 1. House and Senate introduce bill 2. Committees approve, rewrite, or kill a bill 3. Each house debates and votes on their version of the bill 4. Both houses agree to create one version of the bill 5. Both houses vote separately on final version 6. Goes to President who can accept or reject (veto) it 7. If vetoed, congress can override it w/ 2/3 vote 8. Bill is passed, law is made!
  18. 18. #34  22nd Amendment = The President can only serve for 2, four-year terms (8 years total)
  19. 19. #35  The Constitution states that Justices "shall hold their Offices during good Behavior." This means that the Justices hold office as long as they choose and can only be removed from office by impeachment.  For life, unless they do something bad
  20. 20. #47  Protest is linked to freedom of assembly. includes the right to parade and demonstrate in public. Protests must be peaceful and mindful of the rights of others. Picketing, boycotting and going on strike must uphold peaceful intentions.
  21. 21. #48  People can volunteer their time to help out candidates (fundraising $, telephone calling, lobbying, distributing information/signs, etc.).
  22. 22. #50  Political parties bring people together to achieve control of the govt., develop policies favorable to their interests or the groups that support them, and organize and persuade voters to elect their candidates to office. They align their members to express like-minded political ideas (platforms).
  23. 23. #51  Political parties (1) select candidates, (2) mobilize voters, (3) facilitate governance by setting policies, and (4) monitor the opposing party when it's in power
  24. 24. #52  A political party is a group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, and determine public policy. The basis of their formation originates with the rift between Alexander Hamilton (federalist) and Thomas Jefferson (anti-federalist) following George Washington’s presidency.
  25. 25. #53  The purpose of a third party is to offset the polarization between the two major parties in American politics. 3rd parties rarely win, but they introduce novel ideas that are generally unpopular at the time they are presented. However, many times, 3rd parties offset key votes geared toward Democratic or Republican candidates.