WHAT IS THIS UNIT ABOUT? This unit is about the how elections function in the United States. Thisunit cover things such as PACs, interest groups, and how elections work.
VOCAB WORDS• Amnesty- The idea of granting citizenship to all illegal immigrants within a country• Citizen- A person who has membership in a country either by birth or naturalization• Duty- Things that a citizen is required to do by law.• Illegal Aliens- A person who resides in a country who is not a citizen or going through the naturalization.• Jury Duty- Serving temporarily in the judicial system by deciding on court decisions.• Naturalization- The process of becoming a citizen within a country.
VOCAB WORDS CONT.• Responsibility- Things that a citizen should do, but there is no legal penalty for not doing.• Selective Service- Program in which all American men over the age of 17 must apply with the government to participate in the draft.• Caucus- A meeting of leaders in a political party to narrow down the field of candidates.• Closed Primary- Election to narrow down a field of candidates in which voters can only vote for the party in which they hold membership.• Electoral College- Body of officials within a state that votes to elect the President of the United States.
VOCAB WORDS CONT.• Interest Group- Organizations of people with common ideologies, occupations, or beliefs who work together to influence legislation and political leaders.• Multi Party System- Political system in which multiple political parties share power.• One Party System- Political system in which one leader or political party has power.• Open Primary- Election to narrow down a field of candidates in which voters can vote for both political parties.
VOCAB WORDS CONT.• Political Party- Organization of people with shared political ideologies who work to get candidates elected to office.• Propaganda- Media designed to influence people’s thoughts and behaviors.• Recall- A vote to remove an elected official from office and hold another election.• Referendum- A vote on state and local laws.• Two Party System- Political system in which two political parties share power.
CITIZENSHIP Members of a nation are granted certain rights,responsibilities and duties by the government. Thegovernment helps it’s people by distributing resources andproviding order. In the early U. S voting was limited towealthy white males. Citizenship status breaks down to fullcitizenship, immigrant (Going through naturalization), alien(person in the country who is there to work or visit), illegalaliens (people in a country without permission), andrefugees ( a person in a country because they are leavinganother country due to war, natural disaster, or politicalpersecution.)
NATURALIZATION PROCESS• File a Declaration of Intention and begin the 5 year waiting process (3 years if marrying an American citizen)• File an Application of Naturalization• Interview with an USCIS and pass a citizenship test• Sworn in a court with oath of loyalty to U.S
RIGHTS, DUTIES, AND RESPONSIBILITIES• Rights- Granted by Constitution (voting, practicing a religion, hold elected office, have a fair trial, and other rights in the Bill of Rights)• Duties- Required by law (obeying laws, register for Selective Service, serving in court as witness or juror, attend school until 16, paying taxes, and others.)• Responsibilities- Things you should do but aren’t required to by law (Voting, participating in government, respecting rights of others, being informed, and other responsibilities.)
LIMITS ON NON-CITIZENS• Can’t vote in political elections• Can’t run for government offices• Can’t hold government jobs
WAYS TO LOSE CITIZENSHIP• Become a citizen of another country (exception is dual-citizenship)• Serve in foreign military• Threaten to overthrow U.S government
RANDOM• The U.S is known as a “nation of immigrants” because everyone has descended from an other nation• E Pluribus Unum- out of many one (Found on U.S currency)
THEORIES OF INTEGRATION IN U.SM E LT I N G P O T TOSSED SALADTHEORY THEORY The blending of Groups of peoplecultures, races, and hold onto their ownideas. unique culture while still being one nation.
VOTING REQUIREMENTS• U.S Citizen• 18 Years Old• Must meet a instate registration requirement (NC= 30 Days)• Must register to vote
REASONS PEOPLE DO OR DON’T VOTEPeople vote because: People don’t vote because:• They feel a sense of • They are apathetic duty (don’t care), have no• They support a time, are sick or away candidate from home, or are not registered• Want a voice in a specific issue
ABSENTEE BALLOTS Voters can request tovote earlier with anabsentee ballot.
HOW A CANDIDATE RUNS FOR OFFICE1. File form to run for office2. Primary election is held within a political party to narrow down to the best candidate to represent the party3. Candidates from each party (and independent candidates) will take part in the general electionAll elections except for presidential are by popular vote.
PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONSThe presidential election is held on the first Tuesday afterthe first Monday in November and the winner is decided bywhoever gets the majority of electoral college votes.1. Candidates need 270 out of 538 to win2. It’s a winner-takes-all system for electoral votes in each state3. If no candidate gets majority the House of Representatives will select the president.
PROBLEMS WITH THE ELECTORALCOLLEGE• More populated states have more influence• A candidate can win the popular vote but lose the electoral vote• Some people suggest that the electoral votes be split up by the percentage of popular vote per state.
TYPES OF TICKETSSTRAIGHT TICKET SPLIT TICKET Voting for all Voting forcandidates from candidates fromone party. different parties.
WAYS VOTERS INFLUENCE LEGISLATIONI N I T I AT I V E REFERENDUM Proposed law Proposed lawstarts by grass by the legislatureroots movement and then votedand then voted on byon by constituents.constituents.
POLITICAL PARTIES Political parties are groups of people withsimilar political views and interests who try toinfluence the outcome of an election. The first twoin America were the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists. Since 1854 either the Republicans orDemocrats have been in power.
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DEMOCRATS ANDREPUBLICANSD E M O C R AT S REPUBLICANS• Working class • Business people• Catholics • Protestants• Minorities • Those who are• Union Members against a strong central• Belief in a strong government central government
PURPOSES OF POLITICAL PARTIES• Selecting and supporting a candidate• Keep the public informed• Act as a watchdog• Give citizens a voice• Get citizens involved.
EXPLANATION OF SCALE Radicals want widespread and rapid change in political, social,and economic systems and may resort to violence to achieve these goals.Liberals call for gradual change in political systems and want governmentinvolvement in this. Moderates share the views of both Liberals andConservatives. Conservatives favor keeping things the way they are andare very cautious about change. Reactionaries want things to go back tothe way they were and will use extreme methods like repressivegovernment power to achieve goals. Candidates will often move to thecenter of the scale during voting season to attract voters.
TYPES OF PARTY SYSTEMS• One Party System- There is no confusion over who is in charge but viewpoints are ignored. (China)• Two Party System- Provides stability and continuity but sometimes minority viewpoints are ignored. (U.S)• Multi-Party System- Provides a broad range of choices but it’s hard for one party to get control so they form unstable coalitions. (Japan, Israel, Italy)
TYPES OF THIRD PARTIES• Single Issue (Prohibition Party in 1872)• Political Beliefs (Socialist, Green, Libertarian, and American reform parties)• Single Candidate (George Wallace 1968, Ross Perot in 1992 and 1996
PROBLEMS WITH THIRD PARTIES There are quite a few problems with thirdparty candidates such as:• Hard to get on the ballot• Difficult to raise enough money to compete with the Democrats and Republicans• Voters think that they have no chance to win so they don’t vote for them
CAMPAIGNS AND PROPAGANDA Every few years billions of dollars are spent onthe presidential election and other offices at alllevels of governments. They can be fundedprivately or publicly.
SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS Special interest groups have very narrow viewsand influence elections by bringing issues orconcerns to the people and lawmakers, representthe concerns of a specific group or supportcandidates who support their views.
THEY CAN REPRESENT:• A particular economic interest (American Medical Association, American Bar Association, etc.)• A particular ethnic, age, or gender group (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, National Organization for Women, etc.)• A specific cause (People for the Ethic Treatment od Animals, National Rifle Association, etc.)• A public interest (American Civil Liberties Union)
PROPAGANDA Propaganda is information and ideasdeliberately spread in order to affectpeople’s opinions on a person, group, orissue; it is delivered through variousmedia outlets.
TYPES OF PROPAGANDA• Glittering Generalities- Use attractive but vague words that make speeches and other forms of communication sound good bit say nothing. (Miss America Answers)• Plain Folks- Make the voters feel that the leaders are “just like them” and do the same things the voters do.• Bandwagon- Male it appear that many people already have supported a candidate and that these people are having fun and gaining a significant advantage.
MORE TYPES OF PROPAGANDA• Cardstacking- candidate lists accomplishments and statistics that compare him/her favorably to their opponent• Name Calling- information deliberately presented about the opponent that is discrediting in nature.• Transfer/ Symbol- candidate is shown with symbols that make the candidate seem patriotic.