Modified1 lego slides putting play in our secondary practice for hice 2013
Enhancing Learning Opportunities and Student Success with Play-Based Learning at the Secondary Level Hawaii International Conference on Education January 6-9, 2013 Drs. Alicia Wenzel & Cindy Ryan Western Oregon University, OR
• What do you first think of when you hear the word “play”: – As teachers? – As parents? – As humans?
Play Theory• Piaget, Vygotsky, Erikson, and other theorists have studied play and its importance on children’s development in the following areas: – Social-Emotional - Cognitive – Language - Physical – Creative - Cultural Or, of big This is a common kids image when many “playing.” think of little kids “playing.” BUT, isn’t there more???
Benefits of Play• It is through play that children grow and develop - individually, with others, and as part of a larger community. Wordle.net
Unfortunate state of affairs• Play has changed dramatically over the last half century, and has been virtually eliminated in many schools at all levels.• HOWEVER, children of all ages need to: • engage in play to build executive functioning, • learn how to interact socially and to work as teams, • put theory to practice • problem solve, critical think, risk, learn to fail and win (graciously) • have opportunities to develop in all areas of their being• Removing play is hazardous to one’s health (Isenberg & Quisenberry, 1998; Hurwitz, 2002/2003; Pellagrini, 2005)
Necessary or not? • As educators we know that play is vital to the development of young children, but how important is play in the development for middle and high school students?http://www.prweb.com/releases/2012/3/prweb9293984.htm
Guiding Research Qs: What does play-based learning mean and look like for secondary students? How can facets of play in early childhood effectively translate to a secondary learning environment so that help young adolescents have greater success in school? What are specific, successful play-based practices that can be incorporated into secondary classrooms? What are barriers or challenges related to incorporating play- based learning opportunities and how can we positively address each?
Play in adolescence• The maturation of the frontal lobe continues in adolescence. – increase in speed and efficiency of thought – spatial working memory improves, – emotional regulation becomes greater, – planning and problem solving skills increase, – scientific reasoning and ability to understand one’s own thinking develops• Play & pastimes often are a group production – equipment for organized sports or activities – electronic games – complex head games• At the same time, preteens lavish lots of time and concentration on individual interests. – books – music – elaborate construction
Generalizing Play Theory & Practice to other levels • ‘Play’ at the MS & HS levels:Students garden at Scarsdale MS Gaming teaches HS students problem-solving skills Balsa Bridge Building Contest for all Physics 11 &12 students Kids creating murals DebateTheatrical & musical productions Team competing at FIRST
More play-based opportunities• Incorporating activities through & with T.V., movies, songs they know• Online gaming• Robotics & Lego Design• Role-Playing• Music – Singing – Playing instruments – Creating lyrics• Art – Collage – Sculpture – Photography – Graphic design• Video-Movie Making – Commercials – Videos – News reports• Mobile Technologies Ways to use iPads in the classroom
More examples of play, games, and problem/project based learning• White Plains School District – http://newlearninginstitute.org/digital-media-programs/school-b• Middle School Example-D3 Lab – http://newlearninginstitute.org/d3-lab-nightingale-middle-schoo• High School Example-Project & Standard Based Learning School – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ovkW8M8vD5o
Play based resources:• Brown, S. (2009). Play: How It Shapes the Brain, Opens the Imagination, and Invigorates the Soul. London, England. Penguin Books, Inc.• DeKoven, B. (2005). Junkyard Sports. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.• DeKoven, B. (2002). The Well-Played Game: A Playful Path to Wholeness. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.• Hurwitz, S. C. (2002/2003). To be successful: let them play! Child Education. 79:101–102.• Isenberg, J. & Quisenberry, N.L. (1998). Play: a necessity for all children . Child Education. 64:138 –145.• Kemp, G., Smith, M., DeKoven, B., & Segal, J. (2012). Play, creativity, and lifelong learning: Why play matters for both kids and adults. – http://www.helpguide.org/life/creative_play_fun_games.htm• McGonigal, J. (2011). Reality Is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World. Penguin Books.• Nash, R. (2010). The active classroom field book. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(Includes numerous success stories from active classrooms K-12, and lots of ideas of how to incorporate active learning into the classroom).• Nash, R. (2010). The active classroom: Practical strategies for involving students in the learning process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(Promotes classroom experiences that engage students at all levels in active learning. Shares research to back up the need for active learning).• Pellegrini, A.D. & Bohn, C.M. (2005). The role of recess in children’s cognitive performance and school adjustment. Educ Res. 2005;34:13–19• Sheldon, L. (2011). The Multiplayer Classroom: Designing Coursework as a Game. Course Technology PTR.• Vygotsky, L.S. (1978, original essay published in 1933). “The Role of Play in Development,” in M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman (Eds.). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes, 92-104.
The benefits of play based learning• 10 Reasons Play Can Make You Healthy, Happy, and More Productive – Top ten list of the many ways play contributes to mental and physical health. (U.S. News & World Report) – http://health.usnews.com/health-news/family-health/childrens-health/articles/2009/03/09/10-reasons-play-can-make-yo .• Play Science: The Patterns of Play – Learn about the different ways human beings play, the roles these different patterns of play serve, and how we benefit from them. (National Institute for Play) – http://nifplay.org/states_play.html.• The Value of Play I: The Definition of Play Provides Clues to Its Purposes – Psychologist Peter Gray discusses the purpose and benefits of play. (Psychology Today) – http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200811/the-value-play-i-the-definition-play-provides-clues-its-pur .• The Value of Play II: How Play Promotes Reasoning in Children and Adults – Learn how playfulness can improve reasoning and problem-solving skills. (Psychology Today). – http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200812/the-value-play-ii-how-play-promotes-reasoning-in-childre .• Leisure Play Is Important for Human Collaboration – Article describes how play teaches human beings to cooperate and curbs tendencies towards aggression and dominance. (PsychCentral). – http://psychcentral.com/news/2009/04/17/leisure-play-is-important-for-human-collaboration/5398.html .
Play and problem/project based learning activities• FIRST-lego & robotics activities and competitions for ages 6-18 – http://www.usfirst.org/roboticsprograms• Problem and project-based learning activities. – http://www.mrsoshouse.com/pbl/pblin.html• More problem and project-based learning activities. Search for projects developed by others or contribute your own. Many list the standard/s addressed. – http://www.pbl-online.org/.• ‘Electronic’ posters- seeks to bring the poster into the 21st century by allowing users to create a digital poster, or glog, with multimedia and hyperlinked elements. – http://edu.glogster.com/• Ed Tech Teacher Recommended iPad Apps, Links, & Ideas – http://www.edtechteacher.org/index.php/teaching-technology/mobile-technology-apps/ipad-apps• Future Problem Solving Program International-To develop the ability of young people globally to design and promote positive futures using critical, creative thinking. – http://www.fpspi.org/• Using mobile phones in the classroom – http://www.guardian.co.uk/teacher-network/2012/sep/10/mobile-phones-classroom-teaching-• 100 Ways to use iPads in the classroom – http://edudemic.com/2012/09/100-ways-to-use-ipads-in-your-classroom/
Serious games:•26 Learning Games to Change the World – http://www.missiontolearn.com/2008/04/learning-games-for-change/•Foldit -computer game enabling you to contribute to important scientific research. – http://fold.it/portal/info/about•Filament Games-beautiful, educational games for most subject areas including 21 st century skills – http://www.filamentgames.com (Youtube clip on some games on the site: – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T_73na0SiRE (Youtube clip showing some of the games)•iCivics-prepares young Americans to become knowledgeable, engaged 21st century citizens with 16educational video games as well as standards-aligned teaching materials. – http://www.icivics.org-•Mike Farley (MS & HS teacher)-webpage with serious games and accompanying curriculum – http://mikefarley.weebly.com/serious-games.htmlOther ideas for play, problem, & project based learning:•Mobile technology: Combines 21st century skills with many interests of students•Plays: Students create their own or use a pre-made one. So many options!•Internships: local-international•Service Learning: local-international
"What do most Nobel Laureates, innovativeentrepreneurs, artists and performers, well- adjusted children, happy couples andfamilies, and the most successfully adapted mammals have in common? They play enthusiastically throughout their lives." ~ Stuart Brown, Institute of Play