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Asgmn mt jan

  1. 1. Small World PlaySmall World Play is imaginative play where children are provided with small beautiful objects with whichto play. This type of play is similar to role play put different in that the child creates the small world andtransfer their thoughts and feelings onto the objects. The thoughts and feelings then belong to the objectnot to the child. These objects are not "commercially bought toys" and are often made of natural orrecycled materials. Materials are open ended and may include the following: wood or cardboard boxes wooden or cloth family figures, vehicles or animals small blocks, shells, stones, seeds, feathers wooden, metal or porcelain bowls, dishes, bottles, cups, trays fabrics: silk, velvet, lace, voile, woolThe objects are often "fragile" and children learn to play in an appropriate manner. The child is providedwith a clearly defined private and enclosed space such as at or under a small table or in a small secludedcorner. This space provides the opportunity for the child to explore the materials alone or in a small groupof two or three children. Types of materials provided are simple and appealing and materials are regularlyrotated in order to regenerate interest, and extend or change the direction of play. Children are involvedin the swapping of materials and the choosing of new objects which will be incorporated into the smallworld.The role of the adult in Small World play is to sit nearby to support and observe the play and to providesensitive non-intrusive responses.http://www.redhen.ie/smallworldplay.htmWhat is a mathematical game?When considering the use of games for teaching mathematics, educators shoulddistinguish between an activity and a game. Gough (1999) states that "A game needsto have two or more players, who take turns, each competing to achieve a winningsituation of some kind, each able to exercise some choice about how to move at any timethrough the playing". The key idea in this statement is that of choice. In this sense,something like Snakes and Ladders is NOT a game because winning relies totally onchance. The players make no decisions, nor do that have to think further than counting.There is also no interaction between players - nothing that one player does affects otherplayers turns in any way.Oldfield (1991) says that mathematical games are activities which: involve a challenge, usually against one or more opponents; a re governed by a set of rules and have a clear underlying structure; normally have a distinct finishing point; have specific mathematical cognitive objectives.
  2. 2. Benefits of Using GamesThe advantages of using games in a mathematical programme have been summarised inan article by Davies (1995) who researched the literature available at the time. Meaningful situations - for the application of mathematical skills are created by games Motivation - children freely choose to participate and enjoy playing Positive attitude - Games provide opportunities for building self-concept and developing positive attitudes towards mathematics, through reducing the fear of failure and error; Increased learning - in comparison to more formal activities, greater learning can occur through games due to the increased interaction between children, opportunities to test intuitive ideas and problem solving strategies Different levels - Games can allow children to operate at different levels of thinking and to learn from each other. In a group of children playing a game, one child might be encountering a concept for the first time, another may be developing his/her understanding of the concept, a third consolidating previously learned concepts Assessment - childrens thinking often becomes apparent through the actions and decisions they make during a game, so the teacher has the opportunity to carry out diagnosis and assessment of learning in a non-threatening situation Home and school - Games provide hands-on interactive tasks for both school and home Independence - Children can work independently of the teacher. The rules of the game and the childrens motivation usually keep them on task.Few language barriers - an additional benefit becomes evident when children fromnon-english-speaking backgrounds are involved. The basic structures of some games arecommon to many cultures, and the procedures of simple games can be quickly learnedthrough observation. Children who are reluctant to participate in other mathematicalactivities because of language barriers will often join in a game, and so gain access to themathematical learning as well as engage in structured social interaction.Hints for Successful Classroom GamesThese tips come from Alridge & Badham (1993): Make sure the game matches the mathematical objective Use games for specific purposes, not just time-fillers Keep the number of players from two to four, so that turns come around quickly The game should have enough of an element of chance so that it allows weaker students to feel that they a chance of winning Keep the game completion time short Use five or six basic game structures so the children become familiar with the rules - vary the mathematics rather than the rules
  3. 3. Send an established game home with a child for homework Invite children to create their own board games or variations of known games.http://nrich.maths.org/2489Play is the natural way in which children learn. It is the process through which childrenexplore,investigate, recreate and come to understand their world. Play is an activity in whicheverything that achild knows and can do is practised or used to make sense of what is new.Maths through PlayTo many adults, the words Maths and Play have absolutely nothing to do with eachother. For manyof us, maths was a torture, something we had to do, and something we didn’tunderstand andcouldn’t do. Play on the other hand was something we loved.Young children are learning maths all the time through a wide variety of playexperiences. Fromthe time they are born, babies are surrounded by sense impressions. Shapes inparticular are ofimmediate importance: babies react instinctively to the arrangement of shapes whichmake up thehuman face.In the home, in parent and toddler groups, and pre-school settings, children have manyopportunitiesto enjoy and learn Maths through Play.“Play is an effective vehicle for fostering Mathematical concepts and developing positiveattitudes tomathematics… Adults in the pre-school setting should seek to extend informally themathematicalexperiences the children have already had in their home environment.” (CurricularGuidance for PreschoolEducation) (back page)Physical Play• Develop fi ne motor skills through physical activity, e.g. Sorting out a jigsaw, Threadingbeads• Block play or playing with toy cars can help to develop sequencing by encouragingyour child tosequence according to size, colour, use (e.g. bike, car, lorry)• Playing with different sized blocks can help to develop an understanding of weight and
  4. 4. dimensions.• Tidying toys away allows children to sort into different sizes and colours.• It can also develop mathematical language – fi rst, second, third, how many are blue,which islargest / smallest.http://www.early-years.org/parents/positive_parenting/maths_through_play.pdfDefinition of PlayWhile most of us know play when we see it, academics have hadtrouble defining it (Johnson, Christie, & Yawkey, 1999). "Playinvolves a free choice activity that is non-literal, self-motivated,enjoyable and process oriented. Critical to this definition is the non-literal, non-realistic aspect. This means external aspects of time, useof materials, the environment, rules of the play activity, and roles ofthe participants are all made up by the children playing. They arebased on the childs sense of reality" (Wardle, 1987, p. 27). "Childrendo not play for a reward-praise, money, or food. They play becausethey like it."(p. 28). Children who compete to make the best woodenship are not playing. Children who are told they must use the blockwith an "A" on it to create a word are not playing, and children whoare asked to label the colors of their paints, instead of using them tocreate a picture, are not playing.This child-centered aspect of play creates the central dilemma.Increasingly, we expect education programs to meet prescribed adultobjectives. Schools, funding sources, and curricular developersexpect programs to teach specific outcomes and provide child-basedresults (Kagan & Cohen, 1997). And more and more parents expecttheir young children to be learning specific academic skills. If adultsdevelop these standards and outcomes, there is no room left forchild-centered learning-play. Ironically, at the same time we areeliminating play from the formal education of young children.Therefore, many of our children do not have access to the naturalplay experiences we experienced as children. They dont walk in thepark collecting leaves, throw stones in the water to see the ever-expanding ripples, play racing-of-the-sticks under the bridge, buildmuddy castles on the banks of a cold stream, or create a frontier fortwith their buddies. They dont scramble up gnarled trees, skip acrossmeadows full of flowers, pick nuts from low branches, use a fallentree as a natural balance beam, or sit on an old tractor imagining thatthey are leading a convoy of explorers across the Sahara Desert.Why is Play Critical to Future Academic Success?As we push more academics and computer instruction on youngchildren; as we observe many of our childrens homes becomedominated by passive TV watching and computer games; and as wesee many of our publicly funded early childhood programs becomedownward extensions of public schools, we need to advocate forchildrens right to play. More and more parents question the value ofyoung children climbing trees, playing in the sandbox, and splashingpaint all over themselves. Below are some of the various kinds of
  5. 5. play, and why they are important.Types of Play Motor/Physical Play Motor play provides critical opportunities for children to develop both individual gross and fine muscle strength and an overall integration of muscles, nerves, and brain functions. Recent research has confirmed the critical link between stimulating activity and brain development (Shore, 1997). Young children must have ample opportunities to develop physically, and motor play instills this disposition toward physical activity. With so many American adults experiencing health problems from being overweight, we have a responsibility to encourage physical activity in young children. Social Play A variety of opportunities for children to engage in social play are the best mechanisms for progressing through the different social stages. By interacting with others in play settings, children learn social rules such as, give and take, reciprocity, cooperation, and sharing. Through a range of interactions with children at different social stages, children also learn to use moral reasoning to develop a mature sense of values. To be prepared to function effectively in the adult world, children need to participate in lots of social play. Constructive Play Constructive play is when children manipulate their environment to create things. This type of play occurs when children build towers and cities with blocks, play in the sand, construct contraptions on the woodworking bench, and draw murals with chalk on the sidewalk. Constructive play allows children to experiment with objects; find out combinations that work and dont work; and learn basic knowledge about stacking, building, drawing, damming, and constructing. It also gives children a sense of accomplishment and empowers them with control of their environment. Children who are comfortable manipulating objects and materials also become good at manipulating words, ideas, and concepts. Fantasy Play Children learn to abstract, to try out new roles and possible situations, and to experiment with language and emotions with fantasy play. In addition, children develop flexible thinking; learn to create beyond the here and now; stretch their imaginations; use new words and word combinations in a risk-free environment; and use numbers and words to express ideas, concepts, dreams, and histories. In an ever-more technological society, lots of practice with all forms of abstraction-time, place, amount, symbols, words, and ideas-is essential. Games With Rules Developmentally, most children progress from an egocentric view of the world to an understanding of the importance of social
  6. 6. contracts and rules. Part of this development occurs as they learn that games like Follow the Leader, Red Rover, Simon Says, baseball, and soccer cannot function without everyone adhering to the same set of rules. This "games with rules" concept teaches children a critically important concept-the game of life has rules (laws) that we all must follow to function productively (Wardle, 1987).But Why Play?Play opponents argue that the ever increasing amount of informationand skills needed by young children require direct teacher instructionto specific goals and objectives. They believe we cannot afford totake valuable time away from important academic activities to allowchildren to hide in a fantasy world of play. But play is, in fact, themost efficient, powerful, and productive way to learn the informationyoung children need.First, children progress through stages of play, and through levels(complexity) of play. As children master new concepts and practicethem through repetitive play, they progress to the next level. Inessence, children create their own curriculum. Because children liketo learn new information and want to master new tasks (everwatched a child persist in learning to ride a bike?) and because theyhate to be bored, children self-diagnose what they know and whatthey can learn next.Play provides the ultimate curriculum for social, physical, andcognitive advancement. Secondly, by using materials, interactionswith others, and mastery of tasks and skills to progress throughlevels of play, children develop a sense of control of theirenvironment and a feeling of competence and enjoyment that theycan learn. Finally, play provides a natural integration between all thecritical brain functions and learning domains that are often missingwith discrete teacher instruction. Recent brain research shows thatthis integration is very important to development (Shore, 1997). Playis also a very effective way for children to accumulate a vast amountof basic knowledge about the world around them, knowledge neededfor later learning in language, math, science, social studies, art, andmedicine. When playing with sticks in the sand a child learns aboutthe properties of sand, how posts are used for building, the waymaterials must be retained from rivers, roads, and mountainsides,the effect of moisture on materials, the impact of wind and the natureof gravity, and ways of creating patterns, shapes, and lines bydrawing in the sand. A child playing with tadpoles in a pond learnsabout the cycle of life, the properties of water including sinking andfloating, the effect of cold water on the bodys thermal system, andconcepts related to water safety and drowning. Children engaged insocio-dramatic play experiment with words, phrases, and idioms theyhave heard and learn new and more complex ways to expressthemselves.Role of the TeacherSomehow the phrase, "free play" has entered our vocabulary. "Freeplay" means play free of structure and adult involvement. This isunfortunate, because adults have a variety of critical roles in
  7. 7. supporting childrens play. These roles include providing materialsthat encourage high-quality play, structuring environments, modelingplay (like when the teacher becomes a participant in a socio-dramatic activity), and introducing children to new play opportunities(girls on the workbench and boys in the dramatic play area).Vygotskys idea of scaffolding (Berk & Winsler, 1995) is particularlyuseful in explaining the role of the teacher in extending play. Further,his concept of the use of private speech by children to structure,extend, and expand their own play, illustrates childrensinternalization of teacher scaffolding. The teacher does, in fact, havea central role in childrens play.ConclusionTo succeed in an ever-more complex and technological world, ourchildren need a solid foundation based on play. We must be verycareful about accelerating them too quickly into abstract skills andisolated concepts (Wardle, 1996). Lots of play at an early ageenables children to develop the wide, integrated foundation requiredfor future academic success. It also will develop in our children alove of learning, a love that is desperately needed by children whocan look forward to a minimum of 13 years of formal education.Francis Wardle, Ph.D., teaches for the University of Phoenix(Colorado) and is the executive director for the Center for the Studyof Biracial Children. He is also the author of the book, TomorrowsChildren.ReferencesBerk, L.E., & Winsler, A. (1995).Scaffolding childrens learning:Vvgotsky and early childhood education. Washington, DC: NAEYC.Johnson, J.E., Christie, J.F., & Yawkey, T.D. (1999).Play and earlychildhood development.(2nd ed.). New York: Longman.Kagan, S.L., & Cohen. N.E. (1997). Not by chance. Creating an earlychildhood and education system for Americas children.New Haven,CT: Yale University Press.Shore, R., (1997).Rethinking the brain. New insights into earlydevelopment. New York: Families and Work Institute.Wardle, F. (1987). Getting back to the basics of childrens play. ChildCare Information Exchange, Sept., 27-30.Wardle, F (1996).Of labels, skills, and concepts. Urbana, Ill. ERICClearinghouse.
  8. 8. Constructive Play Constructive play is when children manipulate their environment to create things. This type of play occurs when children build towers and cities with blocks, play in the sand, construct contraptions on the woodworking bench, and draw murals with chalk on the sidewalk. Constructive play allows children to experiment with objects; find out combinations that work and dont work; and learn basic knowledge about stacking, building, drawing, damming, and constructing. It also gives children a sense of accomplishment and empowers them with control of their environment. Children who are comfortable manipulating objects and materials also become good at manipulating words, ideas, and concepts.But Why Play?Play opponents argue that the ever increasing amount of information and skills needed by young childrenrequire direct teacher instruction to specific goals and objectives. They believe we cannot afford to takevaluable time away from important academic activities to allow children to hide in a fantasy world of play.But play is, in fact, the most efficient, powerful, and productive way to learn the information young childrenneed.First, children progress through stages of play, and through levels (complexity) of play. As children masternew concepts and practice them through repetitive play, they progress to the next level. In essence,children create their own curriculum. Because children like to learn new information and want to masternew tasks (ever watched a child persist in learning to ride a bike?) and because they hate to be bored,children self-diagnose what they know and what they can learn next.Play provides the ultimate curriculum for social, physical, and cognitive advancement. Secondly, by usingmaterials, interactions with others, and mastery of tasks and skills to progress through levels of play,children develop a sense of control of their environment and a feeling of competence and enjoyment thatthey can learn. Finally, play provides a natural integration between all the critical brain functions andlearning domains that are often missing with discrete teacher instruction. Recent brain research showsthat this integration is very important to development (Shore, 1997). Play is also a very effective way forchildren to accumulate a vast amount of basic knowledge about the world around them, knowledgeneeded for later learning in language, math, science, social studies, art, and medicine. When playing withsticks in the sand a child learns about the properties of sand, how posts are used for building, the waymaterials must be retained from rivers, roads, and mountainsides, the effect of moisture on materials, theimpact of wind and the nature of gravity, and ways of creating patterns, shapes, and lines by drawing inthe sand. A child playing with tadpoles in a pond learns about the cycle of life, the properties of waterincluding sinking and floating, the effect of cold water on the bodys thermal system, and concepts relatedto water safety and drowning. Children engaged in socio-dramatic play experiment with words, phrases,and idioms they have heard and learn new and more complex ways to express themselves.http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=127 How Dramatic Play Can Enhance Learning By Marie E. Cecchini MS Dramatic play can be defined as a type of play where children accept and assign roles, and then act them out. It is a time when they break through the walls of reality, pretend to be someone or something different from themselves, and dramatize situations and actions to go along with the roles they have chosen to play. And while this type of play may be viewed as frivolous by some, it remains an integral part of the developmental learning process by allowing children to develop skills in such areas as abstract thinking, literacy, math, and social studies, in a timely, natural manner. The Proper Environment In many classrooms the dramatic play area has traditionally been centered in “housekeeping”. However, when we actually watch children play, we see them reinventing scenes that might take place in other areas of life such as gas stations,
  9. 9. building sites, department stores, classrooms, or libraries. This should tell us, that inorder to derive the full benefit from dramatic play as it relates to learning, earlyeducators should “set the stage” throughout the classroom.Setting the StageAny dramatic play area should be inviting. Presentation alone should inspire creativeand imaginative play. This should be an area where the children can immediately takeon a role and begin pretending. In establishing these areas, you will want to considerthe following.1. Each area should incorporate a variety of materials that encourage dramatic play,such as hats, masks, clothes, shoes, tools, vehicles, etc. You can include bothteacher-made and commercial materials. The types of materials you supply willdepend on the “theme” of the area.2. Part of your materials list for each area should include items that stimulate literacyactivities, like reading and writing. Paper, pencils, a chalk board, wipe-off board,address books, and greeting cards are all examples of materials that might be used topromote the development of literacy skills.3. Materials should be developmentally appropriate and allow for both creativity andflexibility in play. This includes materials that can be used by all children (unisex) andthose that may be used in more than one way (a table as a table, or with a blanketover it, as a dog house).4. The goal of all areas should be to reinforce grade level appropriate physical,cognitive, and social skills.Finally, try to change the materials (or props, as they are sometimes called) on aregular basis. Different materials on occasion will enhance the area, spark newinterest in a much used area, and allow the children to incorporate new experiences intheir play.The Dramatic Play Skill SetThere are basically six skills children work with and develop as they take part indramatic play experiences.Role Playing – This is where children mimic behaviors and verbal expressions ofsomeone or something they are pretending to be. At first they will imitate one or twoactions, but as time progresses they will be able to expand their roles by creatingseveral actions relevant to the role they are playing.Use of Materials/Props – By incorporating objects into pretend play, children canextend or elaborate on their play. In the beginning they will mainly rely on realisticmaterials. From there they will move on to material substitution, such as using a ropeto represent a fire hose, and progress to holding in their hands in such as way toindicate that they are holding an actual hose.Pretending/Make-Believe – All dramatic play is make-believe. Children pretend to bethe mother, fireman, driver, etc. by imitating actions they have witnessed others doing.As the use of dramatic play increases, they begin to use words to enhance anddescribe their re-enactments. Some children may even engage in fantasy, where thesituations they are acting out aren‟t pulled from real-life experiences.Attention Span/Length of Time – Early ventures into the field of dramatic play mayonly last a few minutes, but as the children grow, develop, and experience more, theywill be able to incorporate additional actions and words, which will lengthen the timethey engage in such activities.Social Skills/Interaction – Dramatic play promotes the development of social skillsthrough interaction with others, peers or adults. As children climb the social skill ladderof development through play, they will move from pretending at the same time withoutany actual interaction, to pretending that involves several children playing differentroles and relating to each other from the perspective of their assigned roles.Communication – Dramatic play promotes the use of speaking and listening skills.
  10. 10. When children take part in this type of play, they practice words they have heard others say, and realize that they must listen to what other “players” say in order to be able to respond in an appropriate fashion. It also teaches them to choose their words wisely so that others will understand exactly what it is they are trying to communicate. Dramatic Play and Development Dramatic play enhances child development in four major areas. Social/Emotional – When children come together in a dramatic play experience, they have to agree on a topic (basically what “show” they will perform), negotiate roles, and cooperate to bring it all together. And by recreating some of the life experiences they actually face, they learn how to cope with any fears and worries that may accompany these experiences. Children who participate in dramatic play experiences are better able to show empathy for others because they have “tried out” being that someone else for a while. They also develop the skills they need to cooperate with their peers, learn to control their impulses, and tend to be less aggressive than children who do not engage in this type of play. Physical – Dramatic play helps children develop both gross and fine motor skills – fire fighters climb and parents dress their babies. And when children put their materials away, they practice eye-hand coordination and visual discrimination. Cognitive – When children are involved in make-believe play, they make use of pictures they have created in their minds to recreate past experiences, which is a form of abstract thinking. Setting a table for a meal, counting out change as a cashier, dialing a telephone, and setting the clock promote the use of math skills. By adding such things as magazines, road signs, food boxes and cans, paper and pencils to the materials included in the area, we help children develop literacy skills. When children come together in this form of play, they also learn how to share ideas, and solve problems together. Language – In order to work together in a dramatic play situation, children learn to use language to explain what they are doing. They learn to ask and answer questions and the words they use fit whatever role they are playing. Personal vocabularies grow as they begin to use new words appropriately, and the importance of reading and writing skills in everyday life becomes apparent by their use of literacy materials that fill the area. Dramatic play engages children in both life and learning. Its‟ real value lies in the fact that it increases their understanding of the world they live in, while it works to develop personal skills that will help them meet with success throughout their lives. Marie is the author of five books. She continues to write articles for parents and teachers.TEKNIK SIMULASI Simulasi ditakrifkan sebagai satu situasi yang diwujudkan hampir menyerupai keadaan sebenar yang memerlukan pelajar berinteraksi sesama sendiri berdasarkan peranan masing-masing bagi membuat keputusan menyelesaikan masalah, isu atau tugasan semula. Melalui teknik ini para pelajar dapat menggunakan kemahiran belajar seperti mengumpulkan maklumat, menjalankan temuramah dengan individu tertentu dan mencatat isi-isi penting. Dalam proses ini pelajar digalakan untuk memberi pendapat, cadangan, membuat keputusan dan menyelesaikan masalah berdasarkan peranan yang dipertanggungjawabkan. Memberi peluang kepada pelajar mengalami sendiri situasi dan masalah.
  11. 11. Melalui teknik ini pelbagai kemahiran dapat digabungjalinkan dan dipertingkatkan terutamanya dalam kemahiran lisan membaca dan menulis. Dapat menwujudkan pelabagi aktiviti menarik yang menjadi sumber motivasi kepada pelajar untuk meneruskan proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran.TEKNIK MAIN PERANAN Main peranan bermaksud melakonkan sesuatu situasi atau masalah atau peristiwa yang dianggap penting. Pelajar diberi peranan dan bertindak sebagai watak-watak yang ditentukan dalam satu situasi yang disediakan. Main peranan ialah dramatisasi yang tiada kaitan atau penghafalan skrip, dimana pelakon-pelakon cuba menyelesaikan atau menjelaskan situasi kepada kepada pelajar- pelajar lain supaya mempraktikan kepada diri mereka berdasarkan peranan yang dimainkan secara spontan. Proses ini biasanya dimulakan dengan pemikiran masalah yang sesuai. Masalah ini dikemukakan kepada pelajar dengan cara membacakannya atau memperlihatkannya melalui filem, televisyen, mendengar rakaman dan sebagainya.TEKNIK DRAMA Sering digunakan dalam kaedah komunikatif dan kaedah yang berasaskan pendekatan induktif iaitu kaedah terus, elektif dan audiolingual. Tujuan utama adalah untuk melatih pelajar menggunakan unsur bahasa, unsur paralinguistik (jeda, nada dan intonasi) dan bukan linguistik (mimik muka, gerak tangan, kepala dan dll) dengan berkesan dalam sesuatu interaksi bahasa atau perbuatan. Penggunaannya dapat mendorong dan merangsang pelajar untuk menghubungkan perasaannya dengan matapelajaran yang dipelajarinya. Pelajar bebas meluahkan sesuatu, membuat penemuan, memberi dan berkongsi sesuatu. Drama berperanan sebagai ragam pembelajaran iaitu sebagai salah satu alat bantu pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Dapat menimbulkan keseronokan dan keberkesanan pembelajaran kepada pelajar, disamping dapat menyuburkan sahsiah pelajar.http://bobezani.tripod.com/teknik.htm1. 1: PERANAN MAIN DALAM PROSES PEMBELAJARAN KANAK-KANAKKonsep dan Peranan MainKonsep main boleh dijelaskan sebagai “… tingkah laku dinamik, aktif dan konstruktifyang telah disebatikan dalam diri kanak-kanak. Ia merupakan satu keperluan dalamalam kanak-kanak, dari peringkat bayi sehingga peringkat remaja” (Brewer, 2001,m.s.144).Sudah tentu anda masih ingat pengalaman bermain semasa anda di bangku sekolah.Pengalaman tersebut masih meninggalkan perasaan kegembiraan, kebebasan dan
  12. 12. emosi yang menenangkan jiwa. Sebenarnya dari perspektif psikologi, kesemuaperasaan ini memberi kesediaan kognitif kepada individu tersebut untuk belajar padatahap optimum. Maka sebagai pendidik, kita harus bawa unsur keseronokan ini kedalam bilik darjah.Bermain merupakan aktiviti di dalam kehidupan seharian kanak-kanak. Melalui aktivitibermain, kanak-kanak belajar berkenaan diri sendiri dan hubungan dengan alampersekitarannya. Main adalah proses di mana pembelajaran berlaku, main ialah tugasbelajar kanak-kanak. Oleh yang demikian, ibu-bapa, orang dewasa dan guru perlumemahami peranan dan kepentingan main dalam proses pembelajaran kanak-kanak disekolah rendah. Tanpa pengetahuan dan kefahaman tentang konsep ini, maindianggap tidak mendatangkan faedah dan hanya membuang masa dan tenaga sahaja.Pengalaman Langsung Melalui BermainCara pembelajaran terbaik untuk kanak-kanak belajar tentang dunia mereka adalahmelalui pengalaman langsung. Ibu bapa tidak akan berkata, “Jangan tengok labahlabahini, baca buku tentang labah-labah.”Seseorang akan memahami apa yang diperkatakan oleh orang lain berdasarkanpengalaman mereka. Kanak-kanak mungkin mempunyai pengalaman langsung yangterhad, guru dan ibubapa harus mengaturkan peluang untuk kanak-kanakmengalaminya. Oleh itu proses pembelajaran adalah lebih berkesan bagi kanak-kanakyang masih dalam peringkat perkembangan Operasi Konkrit (7-12 tahun) untukmengalami persekitaran pembelajaran yang berunsurkan hands-on, penglibatan daneksperiential. Pengalaman langsung yang paling asas dan semula jadi ialah bermain.1. 2: KEPENTINGAN MAIN DALAM PROSES PEMBELAJARAN KANAKKANAKMengapa Bermain?Mengikut Piaget (1962), kanak-kanak memerlukan aktiviti bermain kerana:1. Main memberikan peluang kepada kanak-kanak meluahkan idea, perasaan danemosi2. Main dapat mewujudkan perasaan tenang dan menghiburkan hati3. Main menyediakan saluran untuk kanak-kanak menggunakan tenaga yangberlebihan4. Main membolehkan kanak-kanak menyediakan diri ke arah kedewasaan ataukematangan5. Main memberikan peluang kepada kanak-kanak belajar menyelesaikan pelbagaibentuk masalah (kognitif, motor, sosial) yang menyumbang kepadaperkembangan intelek6. Main membudayakan proses pembelajaran termasuk mengulang, latihan, latihtubi, peniruan, penerokaan, penemuan, perkaitan, membuat huraian, rumusan,mensintesis dan menguji7. Main membantu dalam pembentukan jati diri, ketrampilan diri, pemupukan nilaimurni seperti motivasi intrinsik, penglibatan, ketahanan, kemahiran interpersonal,keyakinan diri dan berani bertindak.Kepentingan dan Faedah BermainSecara umum, bermain boleh membantu kanak-kanak dalam perkembangan fizikal,perkembangan sosioemosi, perkembangan kognitif dan perkembangan bahasa.1. Perkembangan FizikalKanak-kanak menguasai kawalan motor halus dan motor kasar melalui bermain.Kemahiran motor kasar yang dapat dikembangkan melalui aktiviti seperti berlaribebas, melompat, memanjat, menendang, mengangkat, membaling danmenyambut (bola). Ini memberi kesedaran kepada kanak-kanak tentang fungsibadan sendiri, kegunaan ruang dan arah tujuan.
  13. 13. Aktiviti membutang, mewarna, melukis, menampal dan mencantum dapatmengembangkan kemahiran motor halus dan koordinasi mata-tangan. Kemahiranmanipulatif dapat dibina melalui aktiviti seperti mencucuk benang ke dalam manik,jigsaw puzzles, mengikat reben, kraft tangan dan membentuk menggunakan doh.2. Perkembangan SosioemosiSemasa bermain, kanak-kanak berpeluang belajar berinteraksi dengan orang lainsecara positif, mengajak kanak-kanak keluar daripada pola egosentrik, mengambilkira pandangan rakan, menghormati hak orang lain, bersabar dan bertolak ansur.Mereka dapat belajar untuk menangguh kehendak semerta diri (delayedgratification) untuk mencapai matlamat jangka panjang. Dengan itu main memberipeluang kepada kanak-kanak membina konsep kendiri yang positif, keyakinan diriserta melahirkan sentimen dan menstabilkan emosi.Aktiviti main peranan seperti berpura-pura menjadi doktor dan pesakit atau menaikibas olok-olok memberi latihan kepada kanak-kanak untuk menguasai pengetahuandari persekitaran serta membantu perkembangan kemahiran bersosialisasi.Permainan imaginatif seperti ini memberi latihan kepada kanak-kanak mengenalialam dewasa. Mereka belajar bekerjasama untuk mencapai matlamat kumpulan.3. Perkembangan Kognitif dan BahasaBermain juga dapat membantu memperkembangkan kebolehan kognitif sepertimengenal pasti, mengkategori, membuat urutan, memerhati, membezakan,meramal, membuat rumusan, dan membuat perbandingan.Akiviti seperti membina blok, permainan bahasa, permainan dam, puzzle, teka-teki,nyanyian dan congkak membantu mengembangkan kemahiran bahasa, matematikdan sains serta berfikir secara logik dan kreatif. Kanak-kanak juga dapatmeningkatkan kemahiran penggunaan bahasa dalam persekitaran yang relaks,semulajadi dan seronok.3. Main KonstruktifPiaget dan Inhelder (1969) menjelaskan mainan konstruktif sebagai peningkatandaripada mainan simbolik di mana kanak-kanak perlu membuat penyesuaian atauciptaan untuk menyelesaikan masalah/menghasilkan sesuatu. Sebagai contoh,kanak-kanak menggunakan kotak, bongkah, kertas, pasir, doh dan sebagainyasecara bergabung atau berasingan untuk membina menara, kereta kotak, istanapasir, „figurine’ dan hasilan kreatif yang lain.Main konstruktif melibatkan bermain untuk membina pengetahuan dan mengenalidunia. Bahan-bahan di persekitaran diguna pakai secara kreatif dan fungsionaluntuk menghasilkan ciptaan mengikut daya kreativiti.Main konstruktif memberi kepuasan dan kebanggaan kepada kanak-kanak terhadaphasilan mereka. Kanak-kanak mempunyai kebebasan untuk memilih dan membuatkeputusan serta bertanggunjawab terhadap benda yang ingin dihasilkan.Guru perlu mengaturkan peluang untuk main konstruktif di kalangan pelajar keranaia merupakan aktiviti yang melibatkan aras pemikiran tinggi, mencerakinpersekitaran untuk menghasilkan sesuatu yang bermakna.CIRI-CIRI MAIN1. Motivasi intrinsik (intrinsic motivation)Keinginan untuk bermain berlaku secara semulajadi dan datang dari dalam diriindividu itu sendiri. Seringkali kanak-kanak bermain untuk keseronokan dankepuasan diri, bukannya disebabkan oleh ganjaran luar.2. Bebas untuk memilih (freedom of choice)Main tidak boleh dipaksa. Pemilihan jenis permainan harus datang dari keputusan
  14. 14. kanak-kanak sendiri. Kanak-kanak sendiri pilih apa, cara dan bila hendak bermain.Dengan itu kanak-kanak dapat meneroka cara bermain serta menjelajah alamsekeliling serta menyesuaikan dirinya dengan persekitarannya. Peranan guru ialahuntuk menyediakan persekitaran yang memberangsangkan dengan sekatan yangminima.3. Proses penyesuaian yg menyeronokkan (pleasure adaptation)Semasa bermain kanak-kanak melalui proses penyesuaian diri dengan persekitaran,peraturan, budaya, keperluan hidup dan lain-lain peranan yang dijangkakan. Mainsosiodrama atau simbolik seperi main perang, doktor, kahwin dan lain-lainmenyediakan peluang kepada kanak-kanak membuat penyesuaian yangmenyeronokkan berdasarkan budaya hidup di dalam atau luar masyarakatnya.4. Penglibatan Aktif (active involvement)Apabila kanak-kanak bermain, pergerakan badan diperlukan. Mereka menggunakanmotor kasar dan motor halus. Mereka juga membuat manipulasi terhadap bahanbahan.Mereka melibatkan diri secara aktif berinteraksi dengan rakan danpersekitaran.155. Penerokaan (exploration)Kedua-kedua jenis main, sosial dan kognitif, terdapat ciri penerokaan sepertimeneroka alat permainan, tempat permainan, cara berkomunikasi, dan persekitaran.Setiap peristiwa/ bahan/ rakan merupakan pengalaman baru dan mempunyaikelainanMembuka dan memasang alat permainan merupakan penerokaan. Kanak-kanakmeneroka cara menggunakan fungsi alat permainan dengan efisien. Aktiviti berlari,memanjat, melompat dan membuai di taman permainan merupakan penerokaanpersekitaran fizikal dari segi ruang, jarak, kelajuan dan arah.6. Simulasi (Simulation)Main merupakan bentuk simulasi jika ia dilakukan menyerupai situasi sebenar.Lakonan dan main peranan yang disediakan dengan kostum dan props yang miripkepada senario sebenar dapat memberi kefahaman dan penghayatan pelakon(kanak-kanak) merasakan watak yang dimainkan.Bermain Dalam Persekitaran Sekolah Rendah (Brewer, 2001)Konsep main dalam persekitaran sekolah rendah adalah berbeza dengan persekitaranprasekolah. Kadang-kadang guru berpendapat peluang pembelajaran akademikmungkin terjejas jika kanak-kanak sekolah rendah menghabiskan masa untuk bermain.Sebenarnya main membantu dalam perkembangan kebolehan akademik mereka. Apayang penting ialah kebijaksanaan guru untuk mengenal pasti pengalaman main yangbersesuaian dengan peringkat umur kumpulan kanak-kanak tertentu.Kanak-kanak sekolah rendah belajar daripada aktiviti main seperti membuat binaandaripada pelbagai bahan, mencipta alat/mainan daripada bahagian-bahagian terbuang,mereka robot dan model, yang lebih berbentuk penerokaan, pengujian hipotesis secarasaintifik. Semasa bermain, kanak-kanak berpeluang untuk berbual, memberi pendapat,mempertahankan idea, memujuk dan memberi penerangan. Pengalaman mainan pupetatau lakonan muzikal menyediakan kanak-kanak untuk memperkembangkan bahasalisan serta menyalurkan idea secara simbolik – yang merupakan asas kepadakemahiran membaca. Guru perlu memastikan terdapatnya peluang, masa, bahan-bahandan juga peraturan yang bersesuaian untuk mengendalikan aktiviti main sambil belajar.Aktiviti bermain dalam persekitaran sekolah rendah boleh dilihat sebagai satu kontinumyang bermula daripada main bebas kepada main terancang kepada main terkawal.1. Main Bebas (Free Play)Main bebas merupakan tingkah laku yang dimotivasikan secara intrinsik, aktif dan
  15. 15. menyeronokkan, tanpa matlamat nyata. Kanak-kanak memilih daripadakepelbagaian bahan yang ada untuk main bebas. Peranan guru ialah untukmenyediakan persekitaran yang memberangsangkan dengan sekatan yang minima.162. Main Terancang (Guided Play)Main terancang mempunyai unsur-unsur main bebas tetapi unsur-unsur berkenaantelah dirancang oleh guru dengan rapi untuk mencapai matlamat tertentu. Gurumengenal pasti bahan tertentu dan kanak-kanak membuat pilihan. Aktiviti inidijalankan bawah bimbingan guru. Contohnya, dalam subjek matematik, gurumenggunakan permainan Monopoli untuk memperkukuhkan pembelajaran konsepnombor, tambah, tolak dan kemahiran membuat keputusan.3. Main Terarah (Directed Play)Permainan ini ditetapkan oleh guru seperti yang diarah atau ditetapkan mengikutperaturan atau undang-undang. Guru memberi arahan dan kanak-kanakmenyempurnakan tugasan tersebut, contohnya, nyanyian sambil melakukan aksiseperti “Kalau rasa gembira tepuk tangan,” mainan dalam bulatan seperti “Follow theleader” dan sebagainya.Peranan Guru Dalam Proses MainGuru memilih pengalaman main untuk disepadankan dengan matlamat program• Jika matlamat menekankan penemuan – mainan bebas• Jika ia memerlukan kanak-kanak untuk meneroka konsep – mainan terbimbing• Jika guru ingin pelajar mempamerkan kemahiran khusus – mainan terarahGuru perlu membuat pemerhatian tentang kelakuan kanak-kanak, memberi bantuan dimana dan jika perlu. menyediakan persekitaran yang kaya dan aktiviti perlu ditukar dan diubahsusunannya dari semasa ke semasa merangsang main dengan menunjukkan minat dan sokongan terhadap tindakankanak-kanak bertindak balas terhadap minat kanak-kanak atau berkongsi pengalaman.Hormati pemikiran kanak-kanak dan sistem peraturannya. kemukakan soalan-soalan fokus, berikan maklumat bila dikehendaki oleh kanakkanak. mencelah pada masa yang sesuai. Pencelahan tidak berbentuk halangan untukmematikan semangat dan minat kanak-kanak menilai untuk mengesan perkembangan dan keperluan kanak-kanak,merekodkan tingkahlaku, pencapaian dan perkembangan kanak-kanak dari17aspek fizikal, emosi, intelek, sosial dan bahasa. Data-data yang diperolehidijadikan asas perancangan bagi setiap individu

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