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Smart antenna systems

1) Smart antennas use antenna arrays that can change their radiation patterns in response to the signal environment to improve wireless system performance. 2) There are two main types of smart antennas: phased beam antennas which form a finite number of fixed patterns, and adaptive array antennas which can form an infinite number of patterns. 3) Adaptive array antennas can direct their main beam toward the desired signal while suppressing interference by adapting their pattern, allowing them to customize coverage for each user.

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SMART ANTENNAS
PRESENTATION BY
apoorva k. Shetti
2bu09ec006
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
Lect. AMARJEETSINGH THAKUR
SMARTANTENNA
INTRODUCTION
Omni directional and directional antennas.
Omni directional antenna Directional antenna
coverage pattern coverage pattern
Antenna is electrical device which converts electric power into
electromagnetic waves or vice versa
WHAT IS A SMART ANTENNA ?
A smart antenna consists of an antenna array, that
changes the array pattern in response to signal
environment to improve the performance of a
communication system.
SMART ANTENNA DESCRIPTION
 In actual, antennas are not Smart
Antenna, systems are smart.
A smart antenna system combines an
antenna array with digital signal to
transmit and receive in an adaptive,
spatially sensitive manner.
In other words, such a system can
automatically change the directionality
of its radiation patterns in response to
its signal environment.
This can dramatically increase the
performance characteristics (such as
capacity) of a wireless system
AIMS OF SMART ANTENNAS?
A smart antenna is a multi-element antenna where
the signals received at each antenna element are
intelligently combined to improve the performance
of the wireless system
To maximize the antenna gain in the desired
direction.
To minimize the gain in directions of interferers
Increase signal range
Suppress interfering signals
Combat signal fading
Increase the capacity of wireless systems
WHAT MAKES SMART ANTENNAS
SMART?
A simple antenna works for a simple RF environment.
 Smart antenna solutions are required as the number
of users, interference, and propagation complexity
grow.
 Their smarts reside in their digital signal-processing
facilities

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Smart antenna systems

  • 1. SMART ANTENNAS PRESENTATION BY apoorva k. Shetti 2bu09ec006 UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Lect. AMARJEETSINGH THAKUR SMARTANTENNA
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Omni directional and directional antennas. Omni directional antenna Directional antenna coverage pattern coverage pattern Antenna is electrical device which converts electric power into electromagnetic waves or vice versa
  • 3. WHAT IS A SMART ANTENNA ? A smart antenna consists of an antenna array, that changes the array pattern in response to signal environment to improve the performance of a communication system.
  • 4. SMART ANTENNA DESCRIPTION  In actual, antennas are not Smart Antenna, systems are smart. A smart antenna system combines an antenna array with digital signal to transmit and receive in an adaptive, spatially sensitive manner. In other words, such a system can automatically change the directionality of its radiation patterns in response to its signal environment. This can dramatically increase the performance characteristics (such as capacity) of a wireless system
  • 5. AIMS OF SMART ANTENNAS? A smart antenna is a multi-element antenna where the signals received at each antenna element are intelligently combined to improve the performance of the wireless system To maximize the antenna gain in the desired direction. To minimize the gain in directions of interferers Increase signal range Suppress interfering signals Combat signal fading Increase the capacity of wireless systems
  • 6. WHAT MAKES SMART ANTENNAS SMART? A simple antenna works for a simple RF environment.  Smart antenna solutions are required as the number of users, interference, and propagation complexity grow.  Their smarts reside in their digital signal-processing facilities
  • 7. TYPES OF SMART ANTENNA PHASED BEAM ANTENNA - a finite number of fixed ,predefined patterns. ADAPTIVE ARRAY ANTENNA - an infinite number of patterns
  • 8. PHASED BEAM ANTENNAS  This systems form multiple fixed beams with heightened sensitivity in particular directions. When incoming signal detected it determines the beam which is best aligned based on SOI and switches to that beam to communicate with user. As the mobile unit moves throughout the cell, the switched-beam system detects the signal strength and continually switches the beams as necessary.
  • 9.  There will be numerous amount of fixed beams amongst which one beam will turn on or will be steered towards the wanted signal. This can be done only with the help of adjustment in the phase.  An example of a phased beam antenna in Alaska EXAMPLE
  • 10. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE PBA Figure : Block diagram of Switched beam systems  PSN, which forms multiple beams looking in certain directions.  RF Switch actuates the right beam in the desired direction.  The PSN subdivides sector into many narrow beams, then each beam is considered as individual sector serving user or group of users.
  • 11. OPERATING PRINCIPLE  The selection of right beam is made by control logic which is governed by an algorithm. The algorithm which scans all the beams and selects the one strongest receiving signal based on a measurement made by the detector. The overall goal of the switched-beam system is to increase the gain according to the location of the user.
  • 12. ADAPTIVE ARRAY ANTENNAS In this type of antenna, there will be a change in the beam pattern according to the movement of the wanted user and the movement of the interference They can direct the main beam toward the SOI(Signal Of Interest) while suppressing the antenna pattern in the direction of the interferers. It can customize an appropriate radiation pattern for each individual user.
  • 13. COVERAGE PATTERN  This provides optimal gain while simultaneously identifying, tracking, and minimizing interfering signals. Figure- Adaptive Array System Coverage Pattern
  • 14. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AAS Figure : Block diagram of Adaptive array systems  D/C : Converts from RF to IF.  ADC : Converts Analog to Digital for further processing.  W’s : It contains amplification and phase information
  • 15. COMPARISION OF PHASED BEAM ANTENNA AND ADAPTIVE ARRAYS CRITERIA PHASED BEAM ADAPTIVE ARRAYS INTEGERATION • Easy to implement • Low cost • Transceiver complexity • High cost RANGE/COVERAGE • More coverage compared to conventional systems • Less coverage compared to adaptive array • More coverage compared to switched beam system INTERFERENCE REJECTION •Difficulty in distinguishing between desired signal and interferer • Does not react to the movement of Interferers. • Focusing is narrower • Capable of nulling interfering signals
  • 17. SMART ANTENNAS FOR BASE STATIONS The idea of smart antennas is to use base station antenna patterns that are not fixed, but adapt to the current radio conditions  Can be visualized as the antenna directing a beam toward the communication partner only
  • 18. SPACE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS Among the most sophisticated utilization of smart antenna technology is SDMA. It employs advanced technique to, in effect, locate and track fixed and mobile terminals, adaptively steering transmission signal toward user and interferers. Beams are sliced to keep different users in different beams at the same frequency which allows reuse of frequency. This technology achieves superior levels of interference suppression and reduces RF pollution.
  • 20. SPECIFICATIONS OF SDMA  More than one user can be allocated to the same physical communications channel simultaneously in the same cell  This is the next step in an evolutionary path towards increasing the capacity of cellular systems
  • 21. ADVANTAGES OF SMART ANTENNA  Enhance coverage through Range extension.  Fully controllable by software so less manual operations.  Reduction in transmitted power loss.  Reduce co-channel interference (CCI) and multipath interference.  Provides high security.  Improve system capacity.  Compatibility, it can be applied to various multiple access techniques such as TDMA,FDMA ,and CDMA.
  • 22. SMART ANTENNA’S DRAWBACKS  Their transceivers are much more complex than traditional base station transceivers.  Expensive. Diversity
  • 23. OTHER APPLICATIONS OF SAS: Cellular and wireless networks Electronic warfare (EWF) as a countermeasure to electronic jamming Satellite systems
  • 24. CONCLUSION Smart antennas are the intelligent antenna systems that vastly improve the efficiency of wireless transmission. SAS can achieve  High transmission data rate  Increased Coverage area  Effectively reducing multipath and co channel interference.  They are software-controllable, remotely configurable.  Promising technology to resolve the traffic capacity . Hence smart antenna system is indeed a modern age marvel