Children and disasters - Building resilience through education


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Children and disasters - Building resilience through education

  1. 1. Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  2. 2. Children and disasters: Building resilience© The United Nations Children`s Fund (UNICEF) and The United NationsInternational Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), December 2011 through education 3The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed here are those of theauthors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UNICEF and UNISDR, or anyof the agencies involved in this report. These organizations cannot guarantee theaccuracy of the data included in this paper. The boundaries, colours, denominationsand other information shown or mentioned in this paper or any map reported do notimply on the part of those organizations any judgment of the legal status of anyterritory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  3. 3. Preface Preface The present report is the outcome of ISDR Europe and Central Asia offices a collaborative initiative between the and UNICEF Central and Eastern Eu- United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) rope and Commonwealth of Independ- Regional Office for Central and Eastern ent States regional office have agreed Europe and Commonwealth of Independ- to join forces to support progress in this ent States (CEECIS), and the United Na- HFA priority area in the regions of South tions International Strategy for Disaster Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth Reduction (UNISDR) offices for Europe of Independent States. This report was and Central Asia. prepared in support of that initiative. The objectives are: The CEECIS region has a history of major disasters caused by natural hazards, in- to provide a brief overview of major cluding earthquakes, floods and extreme hazards and disaster risk in the temperatures. These frequently devas- CEECIS region; tating events affect all of the popula- to conduct a review of national tions of the countries involved, with se- disaster risk reduction structures vere social and economic consequences and key legislation; for the most vulnerable people, children, to conduct a review of current women and elderly. However, the impact disaster risk reduction activities of these natural hazards could be drasti- related to education undertaken by cally reduced if appropriate disaster risk national agencies and activities by reduction strategies at regional, national UNISDR and UNICEF1; and community level were put in place. to conduct a review of on-going UNICEF country programmes and The aim of this report is to further con- UNISDR activities to facilitate the tribute to the process of building resil- effective implementation of disaster ience of nations and communities in the risk reduction initiatives, strategies CEECIS region, providing an overview of and programmes. the national situation vis-à-vis disaster risk reduction strategies. This report builds on the Hyogo Frame- work for Action, which is promoted and Knowledge and education are recog- supported by UNISDR and UNICEF. It fo- nized as key components of disaster risk cuses on the importance of education in Preface management and were made a priority disaster prevention, as advanced in the area in the Hyogo Framework for Action 2006-2007 World Campaign on Disaster (HFA) 2005-2015: Building the Resilience Reduction under the slogan Disaster Risk of Nations and Communities to Disas- Reduction Begins at School. It provides ters. Goal 2 of the Millennium Develop- general information on national educa- ment Goals discusses the importance of tion and disaster risk reduction activities primary education in lowering poverty, and makes recommendations on how to while Priority 3 of the HFA focuses on support and build on local and national increasing resilience and building a cul- initiatives to reduce the risk of disasters ture of safety and resilience at all levels through education. The report is aimed at through the use of knowledge, innovation government representatives, United Na- and education. tions and other actors, and practitioners operating in the context of education, Within this framework, and as part of disaster risk and sustainable develop- the broader International Strategy for ment. Disaster Reduction (ISDR) partnership in disaster risk reduction (DRR), UN-4 5 1 Without being exhaustive or comprehensive, reference is also made to ongoing programmes related to education and DRR undertaken by UNCT.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  4. 4. Executive Summary Executive Summary This report analyses disaster risk reduc- included elements of disaster risk reduc- tion in the context of education at coun- tion in the formal education system, while try level. It reviews existing documents, in others certain activities are undertak- including country-level reports and HFA en by national and international organiza- National Reports, to develop an under- tions. Nonetheless, despite some promis- standing of current national economic ing signs of the adoption of elements of environments, legislation, awareness, disaster risk reduction significant capac- capacity and institutional mechanisms ity gaps remain and several countries related to disaster risk reduction and dis- would undoubtedly benefit from further aster management. Various project doc- encouragement and support in this area. uments prepared at country, regional and global level were also reviewed, as were Integration of disaster risk reduction into documents prepared by United Nations education is a long-term process which agencies, and national and international aims to ensure that knowledge about organizations working in the area. Data hazards, risks and appropriate safety sources include the Centre for Research behaviour is deeply embedded within on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) communities, with children as “agents of Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT). change”. To achieve this there is a need to promote knowledge of disaster man- Most countries in the region2 covered by agement and behavioural change with re- the report have undergone major politi- gard to disaster risks through both formal cal, social, economic and administrative and non-formal education, while at the change and this is reflected in the legisla- same time reinforcing partnerships and tive and institutional aspects of disaster encouraging cooperation on disaster risk risk management. In many countries leg- reduction policies and practices. islation is in the process of development and adoption and some structures are yet The report concludes with some propos- to be established. In some cases there is als on potential areas of cooperation and a shift from military to civil administration collaboration, exploring potential syner- in disaster management structures, while gies between stakeholders and building in many countries even though much new on results already achieved. After an disaster risk management legislation has overview of risk vulnerability, existing been passed the laws are yet to be fully legal and institutional structures and ac- Executive Summary implemented or enforced. Furthermore, tivities undertaken by national authori- many countries of the region lack com- ties, as well as a consideration of on-go- prehensive national disaster management ing UNICEF programmes and UNISDR’s plans or clear definitions of the roles and presence, a series of recommendations responsibilities of different departments. are presented on how successes in the Overall, there is a need to shift the focus field of education for disaster risk re- from response to disaster preparedness duction already achieved can be further and prevention. Incorporating disaster consolidated. risk reduction into educational activities at the policy and operational levels will encourage this shift. However, when consideration moves to the level of inclusion of disaster risk re- duction in education sectors a similarly diversified picture emerges. In some countries the government has already6 7 2 The reference ‘region’ for Central Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States refers to the geographical regional coverage used by UNICEF. In the context of UNISDR, it refers more to South Eastern Europe (SEE) and Central Asia.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  5. 5. Acknowledgements Acknowledgements Children and Disasters: Building Resil- (Programme Officer, Disaster Reduction ience through education was commis- Programme in Central Asia) and Ms. Asel sioned jointly by the UNICEF Regional Omoeva (National Programme Officer, Office for CEECIS and UNISDR offices Kyrgyzstan); Focus Humanitarian As- for Europe and Central Asia. The report sistance: Mr. Malik Ajani, Jr. (Programme has benefited from the contributions of Officer, Tajikistan); Central Asian Insti- many individuals across the region and tute of Applied Geosciences: Dr. Bo- therefore appreciation goes to each and lot Moldobekov (Co-Director), Ms. Lira every one of them. Joldubaeva (Senior Scientific Adviser) and Ms. Aykanysh Omuralieva (Interpret- Acknowledgements go, first and fore- er, Kyrgyzstan); NGO Man and Element: most, to HFA Focal Points and National Ms. Svetlana Tuleyeva (Director, Kaza- Platform Coordinators3 who took time khstan); UNICEF Tajikistan: Mr. Salohid- to revise and provide information for the din Shamsiddinov (Programme Assistant, report, and to the National HFA Coordi- Child Protection, Tajikistan); Committee nators and the UNICEF office represent- of Emergency Situations and Civil De- atives in the region for their time and ex- fence of Tajikistan: Mr. Kholiknazarov pertise in reviewing the relevant chapters Sultonnazar and Mr. Jomiev Mahmadali; and providing invaluable information and Act Central Asia: Ms. Gulbarchin Suyu- inputs through the online consultations. nova (Representative, Kyrgyzstan); UNICEF Kyrgyzstan: Mr. Tim Schaffter The author would like to gratefully ac- (Representative); United Nations Resi- knowledge the organizers and par- dent Coordinator Unit: Ms. Aynura Alym- ticipants of both events attended - the bekova (United Nations Disaster Reduc- Community-Based Disaster Risk Man- tion Adviser, Kyrgyzstan). agement Workshop, based on the Hyogo Framework for Action, in Bishkek, Kyr- At the South-Eastern Europe Civil Mili- gyzstan; and the South Eastern Europe tary Emergency Planning Council’s An- Civil Military Emergency Planning Coun- nual Meeting and Working Groups Work- cil’s Annual Meeting and Working Groups shop on Civil-Military Emergency Planning Workshop on Civil-Military Emergency and Preparedness Development in the Planning and Preparedness Development SEE Region: in the SEE Region, in Sarajevo, Bosnia Acknowledgements and Herzegovina - for their flexibility to Ministry of Security of Bosnia and Herze- accommodate the last-minute registra- govina: Mr. Samir Agic (Assistant Minister tions and for their understanding and co- and Head of Civil Protection Sector) and operation during meetings and interviews Mr. Milivoje Popovic (Head of Depart- which were held well after regular ses- ment for International Cooperation and sions4. Coordination within the Civil Protection Sector); Ministry of Internal Affairs of The list of interlocutors includes: Montenegro: Mr. Zoran Begovic (Assist- ant Minister and Head of Emergency Sit- At the Community-Based Disaster Risk uations and Civil Protection Department); Management Workshop: National Protection and Rescue Direc- torate of Croatia: Ms. Arabela Vahtaric UNISDR Central Asia office: Ms. Goul- (Head of International Cooperation Divi- sara Pulatova (Senior Advisor) and Mr. sion); Ministry of Interior, General Direc- Abdurahim Muhidov (Project Coordinator, torate for Civil Emergency of Albania: HFA); Swiss Agency for Development Mr. Bujar Kapllani (Chief of Civil Protec- and Cooperation: Mr. Matthias Anderegg tion Coordination Sector) and Mr. Salih8 9 3 An HFA focal point is defined as the “person officially designated by the State as the primary contact for the implementation of the HFA” (UNISDR. Hyogo Framework for Action. Available at: http://www.eird. org/wikien/index.php/Hyogo_Framework_for_Action_(HFA). 4 Note -The list below includes titles and names as per the missions in 2009-2010.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  6. 6. Acknowledgements Kelmendi (Director of Planning and Coor- for their significant contributions to the dination CE); Ministry of Defence, Admin- report, as well as to Ms. Lely Djuhari istration for Civil Protection and Disaster (UNICEF RO CEECIS) for her guidance Relief of Slovenia: Mr. Branko Dervodel and support in the design and layout of (Deputy Director General) and Ms. Na- the report. tasa Horvat (Senior Advisor for Interna- tional Relations); Prime Ministry, General A sincere appreciation is expressed to Directorate of Emergency Management Deputy Regional Director Ms. Kirsi Madi, of Turkey: Mr. Hasan Ipek (General Di- Ed­ cation Advisor Mr. Philippe Testot- u rector) and Mr. Mehmet Bayazit, Mr. Ferry, Emergency Chief Ms. Andrea Fatih Akman and Mr. Adil Ciftci (Assist- James and Communication Chief Mr. ant Prime Ministry Experts); Macedonian John Budd from UNICEF RO CEECIS Protection and Rescue Directorate: Mr. as well as Head of the UNISDR Region- Kosta Jovcevski (Director) and Ms. Dus- al Office for Europe Ms. Paola Albrito. ka Celeska (Chief of Staff); Macedonian Without their guidance and support, this Crisis Management Centre: Mr. Urim Ve- report may not have been possible. jseli (Head of Department for NATO and International Cooperation); Ministry of Financial contribution was also given by Emergencies and Affairs of Population Global Facility for Disaster Reduction Protection from Consequences of Cher- and Recovery. Last but not least, much nobyl Catastrophe of Ukraine: Mr. Igor appreciation goes to the Government of Kusliy (Deputy of Director); Ministry of the Netherlands for financial assistance State Policy for Disasters and Accidents through its global grant to UNICEF for of Bulgaria: Ms. Antoaneta Boycheva the Education in Emergencies and Post- (Head of International Cooperation, Crisis Transition programme, which sup- NATO and EU Department); and Ministry ported the preparation of the initial re- of Interior and Administrative Reform, port. General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations: Brigadier-General Liviu-Viorel Every reasonable effort has been made Nemes (General Inspector’s First Depu- to verify the accuracy of data and of all ty) and Mr. Vlad Petre (Expert Officer). the information presented in this report. The opinions expressed in this publication UNICEF and UNISDR wish to thank Mr. are those of the contributing authors and Sergej Anagnosti, who was the author of do not necessarily reflect the policies or the initial report that formed the basis for the views of UNICEF or UNISDR. this publication. We would also like to acknowledge the dedication and commitment of Mr. Asim Rehman (UNICEF RO CEECIS) and Ste- fanie Dannenmann-Di Palma (UNISDR Europe) in coordinating the design, re- view and finalization of the report. Special thanks go to Ms. Goulsara Pula- tova and Ms. Erin Tanner (UNICEF RO CEECIS), Mr. Ranjith George (UNISDR Europe Consultant), Mr. Demetrio Inno- centi (UNISDR Europe) and Mr. Abdu- rahim Muhidov (UNISDR Central Asia)10Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  7. 7. Table of contents Table of contents Preface ...................................................................... 4 Executive Summary ............................................... 6 Acknowledgements ................................................. 8 Abbreviations ............................................................14 Background ............................................................ 18 Methodology .......................................................... 22 Data Issues and Terminology Used ..................... 25 Brief Country Profiles ...................................... 28 Albania ........................................................ 32 Armenia ...................................................... 38 Azerbaijan ................................................. 46 Belarus ....................................................... 54 Bosnia and Herzegovina ....................... 58 Bulgaria ...................................................... 65 Croatia ....................................................... 70 Georgia ...................................................... 78 Kazakhstan ............................................... 88 Kyrgyzstan ................................................ 98 Moldova ..................................................... 108 Montenegro ............................................. 112 Romania .................................................... 117 Russia ........................................................ 123 Serbia ......................................................... 128 Kosovo under Security Council Resolution 1244 ........................................134 Slovenia .................................................... 138 Tajikistan ................................................... 142 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia ............................................... 150 Turkey ...................................................... 157 Turkmenistan .......................................... 165 Table of contents Ukraine ...................................................... 172 Uzbekistan ............................................... 176 Conclusions and Recommendations .............................................. 183 End Notes ............................................................ 18812 13Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  8. 8. Abbreviations Abbreviations ABSD Area-Based Social Development ADRC Asian Disaster Reduction Centre AFAD Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency AL-DRMAP Albania Disaster Risk Mitigation and Adaptation Project ARCS Armenian Red Cross Society ARNAP Armenian National Platform ARS Armenian Rescue Service AzRC Azerbaijan Red Crescent Society BiH Bosnia and Herzegovina CAC DRMI Central Asia and Caucasus Disaster Risk Management Initiative CADRI Capacity for Disaster Reduction Initiative CAIAG Central Asian Institute of Applied Geosciences CCA/UNDAF Common Country Assessment/UN Development Assistance Framework CEE Central and Eastern Europe CEP Civil-Emergency Planning CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CMEP SEE Civil Military Emergency Planning Council for South Eastern Europe CMT Centroid-Moment-Tensor CoE Council of Europe CoES Committee of Emergency Situations CORE Cooperation for Rehabilitation Programme CPAP Country Programme Action Plan CPESS Civil Protection and Emergency Situations Service CRED Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters DFID Department for International Development DIPECHO Disaster Preparedness ECHO DKKV German Committee for Disaster Reduction DMI State Meteorological Service DMT Disaster Management Team DPPI Disaster Preparedness and Prevention Initiative DRMP Disaster Risk Management Project DRR Disaster Risk Reduction DSI Directorate General of State Hydraulic Works Abbrevations EADRCC Euro-Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Centre ECHO European Commission Humanitarian Aid department ECO Economic Cooperation Organization EFDRR European Forum for Disaster Risk Reduction EIEI Directorate General of Electrical Power Resources Survey and Development Administration EMD Emergency Management Department EM-DAT Global Database on Disasters EMERCOM Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters ENDP Education for Natural Disaster Preparedness ESSC Emergency Situation State Council EU European Union EU-MIC European Union Monitoring and Information Centre EUR-OPA European and Mediterranean Major Hazards Agreement FAO Food and Agriculture Organization (United Nations) FTI Fast Track Initiative FYR of Macedonia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia14 15Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  9. 9. Abbreviations Abbreviations GDP Gross Domestic Product TESIS Advanced Technologies and Systems for the Knowledge-based Information GEF SGP Global Environment Facility’s Small Grants Program Society GFDRR Global Facility for Disaster Risk Reduction UN United Nations GIES General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations UNCT United Nations Country Team GIS Geographic Information Systems UNDAC United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination GNI Gross National Income UNDAF United Nations Development Assistance Framework GSHAP Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Programme UNDP United Nation Development Programme HFA Hyogo Framework for Action UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization IEMS Integrated Emergency Management System UNFPA United Nations Population Fund IFRC International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies UNHCR The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees IPAP Individual Partnership Action Plan UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund ISDR International Strategy for Disaster Reduction UNIFEM United Nations Development Fund for Women ITU Istanbul Technical University UNISDR United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Secretariat MCS Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg scale UNRCCA United Nations Regional Centre for Preventive Diplomacy for Central Asia MDG Millenium Development Goal US United States MERY Ministry of Education, Research and Youth USAEC Unique System for Alarming and Emergency Coordination MES Ministry of Emergency Situations USAID United States Agency for International Development MEST Ministry of Education, Science and Technology UN-SPIDER United Nations Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Manage- METU Middle East Technical University ment and Emergency Response MEY Ministry of Education and Youth WB World Bank MoE Ministry of Education WHO World Health Organization MoES Ministry of Emergency Situations and Civil Defence WMO World Meteorological Organization MoU Memorandum of Understanding NATO North-Atlantic Treaty Organization NBC Nuclear, Biological, Chemical NGO Non-Governmental Organization NP National Platform NPRD National Protection and Rescue Directorate NSC National Security Council OCHA Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (United Nations) OFDA Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance PMP Prevention, Mitigation, and Preparedness PPES Preparedness, Planning and Economic Security PPRD Programme on Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural and Man- made Disasters REACT Rapid Emergency Assessment and Coordination Team RCSK Red Crescent Society of Kyrgyzstan RCST Red Crescent Society of Turkmenistan RSES Prevention and Elimination of Emergency Situations SDC Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SEECP South East European Cooperation Process SEEDRMAP South Eastern Europe Disaster Risk Management and Adaptation Program SEEDRMI South Eastern Europe Disaster Risk Management Initiative SEM Sector for Emergency Management SEESIM Southeastern Europe Simulation SPO State Planning Organization SSPR State System for Prevention of and Response to emergency situations TEMAD Turkey Emergency Management General Directorate16 17Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  10. 10. Background Background The CEECIS region is highly diversified. Countries in the region are committed From a geo-political standpoint it con- to increasing knowledge and education nects the European Union (EU) - with towards risk reduction, as evidenced Romania and Bulgaria as the most recent by the increased number of high-level EU members - through the Caucasus and events in the region covering risk reduc- Central Asia to China; and from Turkey tion issues; increased activities on re- to Russia. In terms of socio-economic silience; the development of reports on indicators the diversity is pronounced. It achievements and challenges in moving ranges from Tajikistan, which has a GNI forward the subject (HFA reports); as per capita of US$600; through Russia, well as the adaptation of planned activi- which is a member of the Group of Eight ties and new legislation. Countries with a leading industrialized nations; to Croatia nominated HFA official and established and Slovenia, with GNI per capita of National Platform (national coordinating US$13,570 and US$24,010 respective- mechanisms towards risk reduction) are ly5. particularly engaged in this topic. There are a total of seven National Platforms6 However, despite their size and diversity in the CEECIS region, while several other many countries of the CEECIS region countries have informed UNISDR that share various common characteristics, they are in the process of developing including geophysical, social and political them. contexts. In terms of natural hazards, all countries of the region are vulnerable to One of the most important lessons to flooding and almost all are at risk from emerge from the series of devastating earthquakes, sometimes – such as the disasters worldwide over the past decade 1988 Spitak earthquake in Armenia which is that education and knowledge have the killed 25,000 people - of devastating power to save lives. In Let Our Children proportions. Teach Us!7 it was estimated that roughly 1 billion children aged 1-14 live in coun- In response to the rising number of dis- tries with high seismic risk, which puts asters and the increased commitment of several hundred million children at risk nations and communities to implement while they are attending schools. In the disaster risk reduction activities in the CEECIS region, where earthquake haz- context of the Hyogo Framework for ards are present in almost all countries,Background Action, UNISDR coordinates international the proportion of children at risk is very efforts in disaster risk reduction and pro- high. Furthermore, schools are equally vides guidance for the implementation of vulnerable to damage or destruction dur- the HFA, and also monitors its implemen- ing natural hazards such as strong winds, tation and reports regularly on progress; landslides and floods. advocates for greater investment in dis- aster risk reduction actions to protect Education and knowledge for disaster people’s lives and assets; campaigns to risk reduction appear as the third priority build global awareness of disaster risk in the HFA, fostering the “use of knowl- reduction benefits and empower people edge, innovation and education to build a to reduce community vulnerabilities to culture of safety and resilience at all lev- hazard impacts; and informs and con- els”, the overall target being to contribute nects people by providing services and to a drastic shift in mentalities and per- practical tools - such as the disaster risk ceptions as well as a behavioural change reduction community website Preven- towards a more proactive preventative tionWeb, publications on good practices, approach to disasters. Children, as “to- country profiles and policy advice. morrow’s leaders” and key “agents for 19 5 From World Bank key development data and statistics; all figures correct as of 2008. 6 The seven Countries with National Platforms in the CEECIS region are Armenia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kazakhstan, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey and Russia. 7 Let Our Children Teach Us! A Review of the Role of Education and Knowledge in Disaster Risk Reduction, prepared by Ben Wisner on behalf of the ISDR system-Thematic Cluster/Platform on Knowledge and Education (Supported by: Action Aid, Council of Europe, UNISDR, DFID, UNESCO, and ProVention Consortium Secretariat). Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  11. 11. Background Background change”, are recognized as the primary programmes and the amount of educa- occur, and also what to do before, during targets of these efforts. tional material on disaster risk reduction and after they strike. is substantial in the CEE and CIS region Through the 2006 - 2007 UNISDR World and many lessons learned can be drawn While it is clear that education has a piv- Campaign on Disaster Reduction the from each country’s experience in this otal role to play in relief, rehabilitation theme Disaster Risk Reduction Begins area. Experience in knowledge-sharing and reconstruction, the report finds that at School was developed to engage and is further embedded in the city campaign gaps remain in the focus on and support mobilize key stakeholders at the local, promoted by UNISDR: My City is Getting for education in disaster risk reduction, national, regional and international levels Ready. Many cities in the region have prevention and mitigation. It is therefore in promoting the integration of disaster embedded the campaign. Presently, 25 critical to embark on programmes and risk reduction as part of school curricu- cities form part of the campaign, includ- initiatives that would begin to address la and in facilitating the development of ing 18 cities from Serbia, two each from these shortcomings. disaster-resilient schools and retrofitting Armenia and Turkey and one each from of school buildings to withstand natural Tajikistan, Kosovo9 and Croatia.10 hazards. Since 1990, UNICEF has made ma- The 2011 Global Assessment Report jor contributions in helping countries to on Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR11) 8 achieve the goal of education for all. In points out that disasters affect children’s the CEECIS region, UNICEF works to- medium-term development when schools wards increasing children’s and adoles- are destroyed or damaged and house- cents’ access to education, improving hold assets and livelihood assets are lost. the quality of education, expanding ac- When children are forced out of school, cess to early-childhood education and this can cause infant malnutrition which promoting emergency preparedness in can further lead to poor educational the education sector. Advocacy for the achievement and greater propensity to right of all children to education in emer- disease. gencies is at the core of UNICEF’s work in education, as well as measures to re- Education for disaster risk reduction also store learning opportunities to children contributes to world efforts in achieving affected by emergencies such as disas- Target 2 of the Millennium Development ters caused by natural hazards or tech- Goals on Achieving Universal Primary nological accidents. Education, as well as the goals of the United Nations Decade of Education for Increasingly, UNICEF is supporting ini- Sustainable Development (2005 - 2014) tiatives to predict and prevent disasters led by the United Nations Educational, and be better prepared should they oc- Scientific and Cultural Organization cur. This new emphasis was spurred in (UNESCO), which aims at the develop- part by the devastation and loss of life ment of the concept of Education for caused by the Indian Ocean earthquake Natural Disaster Preparedness (ENDP) and tsunami in December 2004 as well and the overall integration of ENDP into as the potential disaster posed by avian sustainable development strategies. and pandemic influenza. UNICEF recog- nises the key role that education can play The state of development and advance- in reducing the risks posed by disasters ment in integrating disaster risk reduction and is helping to build capacities by pro- within school curricula of course varies viding education and training to help with according to the level of development, prediction, prevention and preparedness capacities and political commitment for emergencies. Through this training granted by governments to the issue of children are learning what disasters are, education. The number of activities and when and where they are most likely to20 21 8 9 Kosovo under UN SCR 1244/99. 10 To find out more on the campaign visit and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  12. 12. Methodology Methodology The information contained in this report (SEEDRMI)11; Risk Assessment for Cen- is based on a variety of sources and is tral Asia and Caucasus: Desk Study Re- aimed at providing an overall picture of view, developed within the context of the education related to disaster risk reduc- Central Asia and Caucasus Disaster Risk tion issues in the region, and at sharing a Management Initiative (CAC DRMI); and few good practices which can be used to the Structure, Role and Mandate of Civil determine the main recommendations of Protection in Disaster Risk Reduction for future activities. Meetings were held and South Eastern Europe, developed within direct communication was established the context of the South Eastern Europe with key representatives of national and Disaster Risk Mitigation and Adaptation international organizations and authori- Programme (SEEDRMAP). ties active in disaster risk reduction and disaster management, and other United It should be noted that given the limited Nations agencies. Such first-hand infor- availability of information the activities mation was supplemented by a desk re- which are included should be considered view of existing studies by international as representative rather than compre- agencies, governments, governmental hensive. Due to the vast number of inter- and non-governmental organizations, and national organizations and regional ac- data from a wide spectrum of sources. tors, this report covers only the UNICEF and UNISDR engagement in the CEECIS Data on disasters due to natural haz- region. A more comprehensive study was ards was principally taken from EM-DAT, beyond the scope of this report. and complemented with data from other sources. Historic data on the number of Nevertheless, given the extent of the disaster events, including number of peo- range of material collated and the number ple killed and affected and economic of key representatives contacted, the losses incurred, was also assessed from report provides a solid assessment of 1980 to 2010, and information examined exposure to disaster risk at country and from global databases including the Dis- regional level, including an examination of aster Risk Index tool of the United Na- current legislation and institutional mech- tions Development Programme (UNDP), anisms towards disaster prevention and and World Bank statistics. Information preparedness, and a review of disaster was provided by key representatives of risk reduction activities undertaken in tar- Methodology national disaster management authori- geted countries and the role of education ties, and national and international organ- in this. izations active in disaster risk reduction. United Nations agencies were consulted. The report provides for each country brief presentations of its disaster risks In addition to those provided by UNICEF – hazards and vulnerabilities - and insti- and UNISDR, numerous other documents, tutional framework for disaster manage- including country programme documents ment. Disaster risk reduction activities re- and Asian Disaster Reduction Centre lated to education and those undertaken (ADRC) country reports, were exam- by national authorities and international ined. The following publications launched and national organizations have also by the World Bank and UNISDR were been portrayed and presented. consulted extensively: Risk Assessment for South Eastern Europe: Desk Study The presence and areas of engagement Review, developed within the context of other United Nations agencies and na- of the South Eastern Europe Disaster tional and international partners has been Risk Mitigation and Adaptation Initiative viewed to explore possible areas of col-22 23 11 In the CEE and CIS region, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are FTI recipient countries.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  13. 13. Methodology Data Issues and Terminology Used laboration, and to avoid the risk of dupli- cation and overlapping. The conclusions and recommendations are the result of a careful analysis of in- formation collected and interviews held with stakeholders, both governmental and non-governmental. Data Issues and Terminology Used24 25Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  14. 14. Data Issues and Terminology Used Before progressing to the country over- for economic loss data, which is scanty views, certain data issues and terminol- in EM-DAT. ogy require clarification. The majority of countries in the CEECIS Disasters due to natural hazards are region were formed during the early time- and space-reference events. His- 1990s, some of them even more recent- toric data plays a crucial role for hazard ly. Retrospective country-specific data and vulnerability assessment and analyz- on the EM-DAT database does not ex- ing historic events and losses helps in un- tend beyond their inaugurations. derstanding the risks faced by a country or region. The vulnerability of a country The 2011 Global Assessment Report on to disasters is often measured in terms Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR11)13 high- of the total number of events, the number lights that at present, most countries do of people killed or affected, and the eco- not systematically account for the low nomic losses. But it should be noted that severity – high frequency losses and the the impact diffusion of an event often cost of recurrent disaster losses. extends far beyond the visible physical damage. Country-level reports and other docu- ments were also reviewed to gain an un- The report has used the standard termi- derstanding of hazards and their impact nology developed by UNISDR12. on targeted countries, but this data was used only as supplementary information The report uses data from a variety of due to standardization issues. sources: national governments, humani- tarian and disaster relief agencies, spe- cialist agencies, the media and insurance company reports. It also uses data pub- lished in the EM-DAT database for infor- mation on disasters due to natural haz- ards. However, it should be noted that in order for a disaster to be entered into the EM-DAT database at least one of the following criteria has to be fulfilled: 10 or more people reported killed; 100 people reported affected; declaration of a state of emergency; or call for international assistance. It should also be noted that disasters such as earthquakes often have long re- turn periods and data representing such events does not necessarily appear in the data window covered by EM-DAT. In such cases other sources of informa- tion have been used wherever possible to assess the impacts of such disasters. Supplementary sources have also been referred to in several country profiles26 27 12 13 and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  15. 15. Brief Country28 Profiles 29Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  16. 16. * The official name is Kosovo under UNSCR 1244.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  17. 17. Brief Country Profiles: Albania Brief Country Profiles: Albania Hazards and disasters The occurrence of different disasters in overview the country over the period shows that Albania was most vulnerable to mete- Albania’s geographical position and the orological hazards. A flood in September nature of its topography mean that the 2002 affected nearly 17,000 families, in- country is frequently affected by intense undated 30,000 hectares of agricultural precipitation, making it most vulnerable to land, damaged 494 houses and caused floods. In terms of number of events, EM- reported damage of US$17.5 million. DAT shows (Table 1) that from 1980 to A more recent flood in 2010 affected 2010 floods accounted for 39 per cent 4,000 families. In terms of victims, the of disasters, with earthquakes account- 1989 - 1991 drought affected almost the ing for 17 per cent. The country is also entire nation. vulnerable to natural hazards including landslides, droughts, extreme tempera- During the last 30 years, EM-DAT re- tures, wildfires, wind storms, epidemics ports four earthquakes, killing one per- and avalanches. son and affecting 7,945 others. Accord- ing to a scenario analysis carried out in Table 1 Albania: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 -2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss of events (US$) Drought 1 4.34 0 3,200,000 0 Earthquake 4 17.39 1 7,945 0 Albania Epidemic 2 8.69 7 292 0 Extreme 3 13.04 71 7,235 0 temperature Flood 9 39.13 19 136,984 24,673,000 Mass Movement 1 4.34 57 26 0 (landslide) Wildfire 1 4.34 0 75 0 Wind Storm 2 8.69 8 525,000 0 Total 23 100 163 3,877,557 24,673,00032 33Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education