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Sewing operator training manual

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Sewing operator training manual

  1. 1. SEWING OPERATOR TRAINING MANUAL Documented By – Sushant Kumar
  2. 2. 1 GENERAL IDEA OF EACH DEPARTMENT IN FACTORY 1. Explain the number of department present in the factory. 2. Location of each department. 3. Name of the head of each department. 4. Explain the function of each department according to the sequence of their work. 5. Importance of each department. DIFFERENT TYPES OF MACHINE AND THEIR FUNCTION 1. Show different machine present in the training centre. 2. Explain the function of each machine. 3. Show the type of stitch which each machine can perform. 4. Explain the use of machine at which part of garment. LEARNING OF MEASUREMENT: 1. Show the measuring tape. Show the centimetre scale and inches scale on measuring tape. 2. Teach the concept of millimetre and centimetre. Show that 1 cm = 10 cm. let the person count the division between a cm. 3. Read one cm marks. One-cm marks are longer marks that are found near the larger number designating centimetres. 4. Read half cm marks. Half centimetre mark in centred between two one cm marks and is usually has the second longest marks on the scale. 5. Read one inch marks. One-inch marks are longer marks that, for spacing reasons, are usually found near but not on the large numbers designating inches. If it’s difficult to distinguish these lines on the top half of the tape, look at the bottom, where the lines will be extra-long. 6. Read half an inch. A half-inch mark is centred between two one-inch marks and is usually has longest or second longest marks on the top half of the tape. There are 2 of these per inch. 7. Read a quarter of an inch. Lines marking a quarter of an inch often aren’t distinguished from the eighth-inch marks (explained in the next step). There are 4 of these per inch.
  3. 3. 2 8. Read an eighth of an inch. Lines marking an eighth of an inch are often the same length as quarter-inch marks. There are 8 of these per inch. 9. Read a sixteenth of an inch. The sixteenth-inch marks are usually the shortest lines on the measuring tape. There are 16 of these per inch 10.Show the measurement scale present on the sewing machine. NOMENCLATURE OF MACHINE PARTS: 1. Point out and name parts in groups of three and question the trainee at the end of each group.  Bobbin wind  Thread stand  Machine hand wheel  Belt  Motor  Treadle  Bobbin  Bobbin case  Bobbin case tension spring  Bobbin case latch  Needle bar  Needle  Machine Feed  Pressure foot  Knee Lifter  Tension discs  Thread take-up  Throat plate 2. May teach any other part names if trainer feel necessary. 3. Have the trainees point out and name each part taught. 4. Repeat until each trainee can do this without error
  4. 4. 3 PROPER POSTURE FOR SITTING AT MACHINE 1. Show and tell the trainees how to sit at the machine. 2. Place each trainee to your left at least three feet away from you, so that he or she may better view your entire posture at the machine. 3. Place both feet squarely on the treadle, about three inches apart. 4. The torso should be directly in the centre line of each needle and about six inches from the table edges. 5. The upper part of the torso should be slightly forward. 6. The forearm should be positioned on the table, the upper arms hanging free and in a natural position. 7. The hands should be placed palms down in a semi cupped position, with the wrist and finger tips down on the machine bed. 8. The finger should be about two inches from the front edges of the pressure foot to the left and right of the machine. 9. Stress these positions one at a time and question the operator after he or she has a mental picture of your entire position. 10.Impress upon the trainees that they must be relaxed, especially in the arms, fingers, legs, and back. 11.Have the trainees sit in this position and correct their errors in posture. 12.If there is a tendency not to be able to cup their fingers but to rigidly extend them on the machine bed then they are tense. Call this their attention immediately. 13.Question the trainees on all points of posture and be they are relaxed and feel natural in sitting position.
  5. 5. 4 MACHINE RUNNING AND SPEED CONTROL: This step should be performed without thread as well as without needle. The purpose of this operation is let trainees get familiar with the machine as well as to control machine speed. 1. Show the trainees how to switch on the machine. 2. Sit in a proper posture and run the machine first at full speed & then at variable speed. 3. Let trainees observe the machine running procedure. 4. Run the machine at a very slow speed for 5 minutes & let them see how the trainer is controlling machine speed. 5. Now let trainees operate the machine. Let them run at full speed for 2 minutes. 6. Ask trainees to gradually reduce their speed. Perform this step until trainees learn reducing speed gradually. It should be kept in mind that the reduction of speed should be done in a smooth manner; it should not be a sudden speed change. 7. Let them reduce the slowest speed to the level which trainer showed in beginning. Let the trainees run the machine at this level for 5 minutes in a controlled manner. Stop after five minutes and again repeat the operation until trainees learn to control the speed. 8. Now tell operator to stop the machine and now start the machine at a very slow speed and gradually increase the speed. The increase of speed should be done in very smooth manner. Repeat this operation until trainees learn to increase the speed in smooth manner.
  6. 6. 5 INSERTING THE NEEDLE INTO THE NEEDLE BAR Shut off the machine switch, stress that this switch must always be off when working on the needle, and remove the needle from the needle bar with a screw driver. 1. The instructor should hold the needle and explain A. Shank of the needle B. Eye of the needle C. Groove of the needle 2. Hold the needle in your right hand between the thumb and forefinger, at the base of the shank where the groove begins. Now rotate the needle back and forth several times. Do this operation slowly in front of the trainees. Now have them do this several times. 3. Show the trainees how to insert the needle into the needle bar. 4. Stress the fact that the groove must be directly facing; to the left of the sewing machines head for most of the plain sewing machines. 5. Have the trainees perform these steps and review each step with them. 6. Explain the hazards of running a needle into their fingers while making this change. 7. Stress shutting off the machine motor when changing a needle. 8. Have the trainee practice inserting the needle. 9. Check and correct errors.
  7. 7. 6 Paper Exercise
  8. 8. 7 EXERCISE: 1
  9. 9. 8 EXERCISE: 1 1. Objective of this exercise is to achieve maximum paddle control at maximum velocity. 2. Place paper under the machine so that the dotted line lies directly under the needle. 3. Hold the paper with the thumb under the paper. 4. Maintain fingers away from needle at all the times. 5. Sew at maximum speed without leaving boundary. 6. Stop at the end of the column with the needle at top position (1 stitch tolerance). 7. Raise the foot and slide the paper to the next column. 8. Place paper under the machine so that the dotted line lies directly under the needle. 9. Sew the second line until end. 10.Raise the foot and slide paper to next column. 11.Stop the chronometer when apprentice set paper on the third column. 12.Trainees should not tear the paper. 13.The stitch line should remain straight and within the column limits.
  10. 10. 9 EXERCISE: 2
  11. 11. 10 EXERCISE: 2 1. The objective of this exercise is to achieve precise stops at maximum speed. 2. Place the paper under the machine so that the dotted line lies directly under the needle. 3. Sew at maximum speed without leaving boundary. 4. Stop at the end of the 1st column with the needle at top position. 5. Raise the foot and slide the paper to the next column. 6. Place paper under the machine so that the dotted line lies directly under the needle. 7. Sew the second line until the end. 8. Raise the foot and slide paper to the next column. 9. Trainees should not tear the paper. 10.The stitch line should remain straight and within the column limits.
  12. 12. 11 EXERCISE: 3
  13. 13. 12 EXERCISE: 3 1. The objective of this exercise is to stitch in straight line at maximum velocity. 2. Place the paper under the machine so that the dotted line lies directly under the needle. 3. Sew at maximum speed in a straight line within boundaries. 4. Stop with the pedal at the end of the rectangle with the needle at the top position. 5. Make sure the stitches do not leave the rectangle. 6. Lift the machine’s foot and slide paper so that the second dotted line lies directly under the needle. 7. Sew at maximum speed in a straight line within boundaries. 8. Stop with the pedal once the apprentice has reached the end of the rectangle, keeping the needle in the top position. 9. Lift the machine’s foot and slide paper so that the third dotted line lies directly under the needle. 10.The stitch line should remain straight and within the boundaries,
  14. 14. 13 EXERCISE: 4
  15. 15. 14 EXERCISE: 4 1. Objective of this exercise is to teach trainees about change in direction with needle down. 2. Place paper under the machine so that the dotted line lies directly under the needle. 3. Sew at maximum speed in a straight line so that stitches lie over dotted line. 4. Stop with needle in down position when the apprentice reaches square. 5. Lift the foot and turn the paper 90° clockwise. 6. Lower machines foot and sew towards Next Square. 7. Stop with needle I down position when the apprentice reaches square. 8. Lift the foot and turn the paper 90° clockwise. 9. Sew at maximum speed in a straight line so that stitches lie over dotted line and stop when the last square is reached. 10.Lift the foot and place paper to start second cycle. 11.Do not tear paper. 12. Make turns with needle at down position and within square limits.
  16. 16. 15 EXERCISE: 5
  17. 17. 16 EXERCISE: 5 1. Objective of this exercise is to improve skill of trainees on change in direction with needle down. 2. Place paper under the machine so that the start point lies directly under the needle. 3. Sew at maximum speed in a straight line so that stitches lie over line. 4. Stop with needle in down position when reaches triangle point. 5. Lift the foot and turn the paper. 6. Lower machines foot and continue. 7. Do not tear paper. 8. Make turns with needle at down position.
  18. 18. 17 EXERCISE: 6
  19. 19. 18 EXERCISE: 6 1. Objective of this exercise is to use to test the skill gained by the above five exercise. 2. Place paper under the machine so that the start point lies directly under the needle. 3. Sew at maximum speed in a straight line so that stitches lie over line. 4. Stop with needle in down position when reaches point. 5. Lift the foot and turn the paper 6. Lower machines foot and continue. 7. Do not tear paper. 8. Make turns with needle at down position 9. As this is the final test maximum efficiency should be achieved, there should be minimum deviation from line as well as turning point should be strictly followed.
  20. 20. 19 EXERCISE: 7
  21. 21. 20 EXERCISE: 7 1. The objective of this exercise is to teach trainees to sew in curve with one hand. 2. Place paper under the machine so that the line lies directly under the needle. 3. Sew at maximum speed following the curved line using only the left hand on the paper, turning the wrist. 4. Stop at the end of the line with the needle on the top position. 5. Slide the paper with the left hand while the machine is at the uppermost position. 6. Place paper under the machine so that the line lies directly under the needle to start second cycle. 7. Don’t tear the paper 8. Maintain margin at +/-1/16” with respect to the line. 9. Sew without stopping.
  22. 22. 21 EXERCISE: 8
  23. 23. 22 EXERCISE: 8 1. Objective of this exercise is to teach to sew in circle. 2. Place the paper under the machine so that he line lies directly under the needle. 3. Sew at maximum speed following the curved line without stopping, turning the paper to form an eight. 4. Using index finger to pivot paper. 5. Stop at the end with the needle on top position. 6. Turn and slide the paper while the machine foot is at the uppermost position towards the next cycle. 7. Place paper under the machine so that the line lies directly under the needle. 8. Don’t tear the paper. 9. Maintain margin at +/- 1/16” with respect to line. 10.Sew without stopping.
  24. 24. 23 EXERCISE: 9
  25. 25. 24 EXERCISE: 9 1. The objective of this exercise is to extend the training on sewing curve. 2. Place paper under the machine so that the line lies directly under the needle. 3. Sew at maximum speed following the curved line without stopping. 4. Use index fingers to pivot paper. 5. Stop at the end with the needle on the top position. 6. Place paper under the machine so that the line lies directly under the needle. 7. Don’t teat paper. 8. Maintain margin at +/- 1/16” with respect to line. 9. Sew without stopping,
  26. 26. 25 EXERCISE: 10
  27. 27. 26 EXERCISE: 10 1. The objective of this exercise is to do the final practise of straight line & curve stitching with stopping of needle at a particular point. 2. Place paper under the machine so that the line lies directly under the needle. 3. Sew at maximum speed following the line without stopping. 4. Use index fingers to pivot paper. 5. Stop at the end with the needle on the down position. 6. Place paper under the machine so that the line lies directly under the needle. 7. Don’t tear paper.
  28. 28. 27 EXERCISE: 11
  29. 29. 28 EXERCISE: 11 1. Objective of this exercise is to stitch in straight line on over-lock machine. 2. Place the paper under the machine so that the line lies directly under the pressure foot. 3. Sew at maximum speed in a straight line within boundaries. 4. Stop with the paddle at the end of the line. 5. Lift the machine’s foot and slide paper so that the second line lies directly under the pressure foot. 6. Sew at maximum speed in a straight line within boundaries. 7. Stop with the paddle once apprentice has reached the end of the rectangle, keeping the needle in top position. 8. Don’t tear paper. 9. The stitch should remain straight and within boundaries.
  30. 30. 29 EXERCISE: 12
  31. 31. 30 EXERCISE: 12 1. Objective of this exercise is to learn how to do exact stop on over-lock machine. 2. Place the paper under the machine so that the line lies directly under the pressure foot. 3. Sew at maximum speed in a line within boundaries. 4. Stop with the paddle at the end of the straight line with the needle and turn 120°and stitch correspondingly… 5. Make sure the stitches don’t leave the rectangle 6. Lift the machine’s foot and slide paper so that the second line lies directly under the pressure foot. 7. Stop with the paddle once apprentice has reached the end of the line, keeping in the top position. 8. Lift the machine’s foot and slide paper so that the third dotted line lies directly under the pressure foot. 9. Don’t tear paper. 10.The stitch should remain straight and within boundaries.
  32. 32. 31 EXERCISE: 13
  33. 33. 32 EXERCISE: 12 1. The objective of this exercise is to learn sewing curves on over- lock machine. 2. Place paper under the machine so that the line lies directly under the pressure foot. 3. Sew at maximum speed in a line within boundaries. 4. Slow the machine at the starting point of curve and rotate the paper along the curve line and stitch on the line along the curve. 5. Complete the stich along the line 6. Don’t tear the paper
  34. 34. 33 FUNDAMENTALS OF THREADING THE MACHINE At this point of skill development, trainee is ready to thread the machine and wind the bobbin 1. Describe and show the trainee the type of thread and the number and colour designation inside the cone. 2. Show the spool position on the thread stand. 3. Point out and show how to thread the top pin and thread retainer. 4. Question the trainees and have them demonstrate the steps. 5. Describe the tension and its functions 6. Question the trainees to be sure they understand about tension & its function 7. Show how to adjust thread tension, take-up spring and thread take-up and describe their functions. 8. Have the trainees demonstrate and explain steps up to this point. 9. Show and explain the remaining thread guides. 10.Point out the needle and demonstrate how to thread it. 11.Repeat the entire demonstration. 12.Have the trainees describe and demonstrate how to thread the machine completely 13.Have them practice until they are proficient. 14.Fellow up and correct any errors. HOW TO THREAD THE BOBBIN WINDER 1. Demonstrate and explain how to thread the bobbin winder. 2. Stress the importance of getting the thread in the bobbin winder tension. Click the tension discs just as you did on the tension of the machine. 3. Have trainees thread the bobbin winder on the machine and correct any errors patiently 4. Permit the trainers to practice several times. Show how to engage the bobbin winder to the belt drive. 5. Question the trainees and let them explain the steps to you as they do the job.
  35. 35. 34 BOBBIN LOADING Place the trainee to your left during this demonstration. 1. Place the bobbin in the bobbin case allowing 5” of the thread to hang from the end of the wound bobbin. 2. Grasp the thread between the thumb and forefinger. 3. Pull the thread to the bobbin case slot and lay the thread flat on top of bobbin case next to the bobbin case spring. 4. Pull down and away on the thread until it clicks into the proper position under the tip of the bobbin case tension spring. 5. Leave about 5” of thread hanging from the bobbin case and break off any surplus. 6. Repeat this demonstration several times and question the trainee on each step. Have the trainee tell you how to do the job. Patently correct all errors. 7. Have the trainee perform this job alone several times until it is done in a smooth manner. BOBBIN CASE INSERTION INTO HOOK ASSEMBLY 1. Place trainee on your left. 2. Open the sliding plate to the left of the machine feed. 3. Have the bobbin case and bobbin ready to insert into the hook. 4. Re-stress to the trainee that 5” of thread must be hanging from the bobbin case. 5. Hold the bobbin case in the left hand between the thumb and the first two fingers with the bobbin case latch toward the palm of the hand. 6. Be sure that the overhang of the thread is over the latch and that the large case opening is held up. 7. Stress that as the case is inserted toward the hook, when the hand travels under the table, the case must be tilted slightly upward to that the bobbin will not fall out. 8. Now insert the bobbin case into the hook, making sure that the trainee is in position to see your action clearly,
  36. 36. 35 9. As you complete the demonstration, make certain that the trainee hears the bobbin case click into position in the hook. This is the most important phase of the instruction. 10.Warn the trainee that if the case does not click in the hook, the machine will not sew , the case will become jammed and the needle and the case will be damaged 11.Continue to have the trainee watch closely as you remove the bobbin case latch and pull out the bobbin case from hook. (Tilt the bobbin case upward again as you pull it out.) 12.Question the trainee on all points covered and have him/her instruct you on the method completely. Correct errors and repeat the demonstration slowly and explain s you go from step to step. Have the trainee sit down at the machine and practice. 13.After this job has been mastered with the sliding plate open, close the plate and demonstrate loading blindly. Do the job several times and stress that the bobbin case must click into the hook. 14.Trainee must practice for at least 10 minutes until he/she does the job smoothly. BRINGING THE BOBBIN THREAD UP WITH THE TOP THREAD 1. Place the trainee on your left, sit in a normal sewing position and release the motor break (Motor switch off). 2. Place both feet on the treadle and push forward slightly with the toes, keeping the feet on the treadle.(Motor still switch off) 3. Have the trainee observe your foot motions on the treadle as you slowly move it forward with your toes and downward with your heel. 4. Have the trainee sit down and do this exercise permitting the trainee to watch his / her foot motion on the treadle. 5. Instruct the trainee to push down with the heel on the treadle and with the palm of the right hand to grasp the rim of the hand wheel on the top side. Warn of the hazard of catching fingers under the belt. 6. Instruct the trainee to try to move the hand wheel toward him/her and explain that this is the direction the machine runs.
  37. 37. 36 7. The trainee will note that the hand wheel is locked. 8. By having the trainee release heel pressure and by applying slight toe pressure on the treadle the hand wheel will turn freely. 9. Question the trainee on all points and let him/her practice, releasing and locking the hand wheel by the heel and toe method several times. Practice this exercise until it is mastered. 10.Demonstrate the exercise with the machine motor on. Show the point at which the hand wheel starts to turn. Have the trainee place a hand on the hand wheel as you slowly engage the clutch. This gives the trainee the feel of the clutch. 11.Have the trainee practice the above exercise with the power on until he/she can free the hand wheel without engaging the clutch stress control. 12.Have the trainee rise and stand on your left. 13.Sit again in a normal sewing position. Thread the machine quickly and load the bobbin case into the hook. 14.Release about 10” to 12” of thread from the needle holding the thread in your left hand. 15.Be sure the needle bar is up and the thread take-up is at the highest point. 16.Release the break and turn the hand wheel slowly toward you, allowing the needle to descend into the hook.
  38. 38. 37 MACHINE CONTROL STITCHING BACK TACKING This exercise develops the trainee’s spatial perception, which will improve his/her ability to do the following.  Correlate the foot on the break as needle goes one stitch past the line width;  Use the knee against the knee lift to raise the pressure foot;  Manually move the material back and forth while keeping it no more than the space of ¼ “ directly even across the mark. The following is suggested breakdown for teaching the job. Be sure that the knee lifter is adjusted to the comfort of the trainee before starting this exercise. 1. Show the trainee how the job appears on a training mat. 2. Stress that the job requires co-ordination with the eyes, fingers, right thigh and feet. 3. Describe a tack and its function: a tack is for reinforcement of a seam ad to ensure against the stitches pulling back or ravelling. 4. By activating the knee lifter slightly, just enough to remove downward pressure from the pressure foot on the mat, move the mat back and forth using only finger motion. The fingers should be cupped, wrist down on the table. 5. The finger of the left hand should be to the left of the pressure foot almost touching its edge. The fingers of the right hand should be to the right side of the pressure foot in the same relative position as the left hand. 6. Stress that the pressure foot should not be lifted too high. The pressure foot must lift only enough to release pressure from the mat. 7. When the trainee can do this part of the job satisfactorily, turn the machine switch on and have him/her apply just enough pressure to the treadle to run the machine slowly, repeating operation. 8. The trainee should practice tacking back and forth in a piece of material for 15 to 20 minutes.
  39. 39. 38 9. When the trainee had mastered tacking back and forth in one spot, have him/her use this technique in running a full length 3/8” seam, tacking at the start and end of the seam. 10.Stress releasing knee pressure from the knee lifter after the tack cycle if there is a tendency for a trainee to continue to actuate the knee lifter after the tacking is completed, take corrective action. HANDLING AND SEWING This exercise involving pieces of fabric (6”*7 ½”), folded in the centre and then sewn around the edge with ¼; seam. Training elements are provided to develop a continuous group of smooth flowing movements in picking up a piece, folding it on the way to the needle, starting it under the needle with a back tack, sewing down to the end, turning the piece around to again go under the needle, sewing across the folded edges, then turning around again to go under the needle, then sew down the edge, bar tack at the end, clip the thread and dispose in stack. 1. As the trainee starts to practice, he/she learn to count as he/she picks up the piece and folds it on the way to place under the needle. Because this take much practice, it is advisable to do this exercise without threading the needle. 2. By the time the trainee has completed a stack of 12 clothes (along with the count); he/she will be handling much faster. 3. The trainee receives constant supervision while learning to pick up and position, turning, tack and dispose. The trainee is taught to place the forefinger of his/her left hand (the guide finger) on the right bottom edge, and to sew full speed to the bottom, after bar tacking at the start.
  40. 40. 39 4. After turning around and sewing along the bottom, again the trainee users the guide finger to indicate where the seam will stop as well as the direction of the seam. 5. The trainee learns that sewing to the guide finger and stopping sharply is a speed skill as well as quality monitoring practice. 6. After the trainee has had sufficient practice, he/she is given a stack of 20 clothes for the test. The trainee must sew these in time of four minutes with a minimum of 14 cloths with quality. The tack at both sides must be satisfactory, the ½” seam allowance must be maintained and there must not be any pucker in the seams. 7. If the trainee fails, the test must be taken again after more practice. HANDLING AND SEWING (SEPARATE PIECES) 0In this second part of handling and sewing two pieces of fabric are sewn together. When finished they are the same size as the previous project. For practice, the scraps from previous step may be cut if available. 1. The trainee is issued two stack of fabric and places one on each side of the throat plate. 2. The trainee picks up and matches a cloth from each stack, position them under the needle and sews the same seam pattern as pervious step, however the trainees now sews off the fabric without lifting the pressure foot. The edge of the pieces of fabric must be kept even. 3. The trainee learns to use both hands moving symmetrically in picking up the pieces. Matching them evenly and keeping them even while sewing every seam, without any puckered seams. 4. Two stacks of 20 clothes are issued to the trainee who must sew these in four minutes with at least 14 acceptable qualities. The finished parts are retained for the test on the next part of the step.
  41. 41. 40 TRIMMING, TURNING AND TOPSTITCHING. 1. The trainee is issued the 20 flaps from the test in the previous project and is timed while clipping the corners, turning the flaps and punching out the turned corners. The test must be completed in 2 ½ minutes. 2. The trainee will develop the skill of leaving the needle down at each turning spot and making a neat turn. 3. The trainee receives a stack of 20 flaps, which have been turned, to top stitch as a test, The 20 flaps must be completed in four minutes with a minimum of 14 flaps sewn with good quality. HANDLING AND SEWING SEAM TYPES The trainee will be instructed and make six type of seams with the single needle lockstitch machine. This exercise involves 12 pieces of fabric 6”*7 ½ “. At the end of this exercise, the trainee will stack and tuck the six seams together. Simple seam: This basic machine seam is the nucleus of seam. This is a simple seam joining two pieces of material together with a single stitch. It is used primarily to join side seam in service coats, trousers, sleeves, etc. Seam type1: This type of seam is commonly called a hem. It is made by turning the edge of the material, folding it back over the body of the material and sewing the portion so turned with one row of stitches along the edge of the fold, as shown in the chart. This seam is used in sewing the bottom of shirts. Making cuffs on trousers or edging different types of materials.
  42. 42. 41 Seam Type 2: this seam is formed by turning the edge of one piece of material and lapping it over the other piece and uniting them with one row of stitches 1/16” from the edge of the folded material. In this way, the edge of the material on the outer surface will be concealed. This seam is used to sew on the placket of shirt sleeves and can also be used when making a simple patch, etc. Seam type 3: this seam utilizes the simple seam in its construction. In forming this type of seam, the pieces of material shall be first sewed with the simple seam and then the top piece is turned back and stitched down with one row of stitches as shown in the illustration in the seam construction above. It is used mainly for replacing worn-out pocket flap. Seam type 4: This seam is formed by turning the edge of both pieces of material and lapping them and uniting them with two rows of stitches, which also will secure the turned portions, in this way the edge of both pieces of material shall be stitched and what is important, concealed. The purpose of such a seam is to prevent the edge of the material from ravelling or fraying. Seam type 5: this type is formed by joining a strip to the body material using the basic seam. This strip is then folded over the body material and united with the row of stitches. The outer edge is then folded and stitched to the under surface of the body material. This seam is used primarily when sewing cuff on shirt sleeves.
  43. 43. 42 CONTOUR SEAMING, NOTCH, TURN & TOPSTITCH. The trainee has developed skill in sewing straight lines and controlling seam allowances with straight edges. Now the trainee will learn to sew in a contour and maintain a ¼” seam by positioning and handling the parts while sewing the curve. The trainee is issued a set of practise cloth cut for this exercise. The instructor must slow how to make the first pocket in this order: 1. Pick up 2. Fold pocket lining right side out. 3. Seam raw edge from step to folding edges of pocketing. 4. Notch folded pocket at top of step 5. Turn pocket 6. Force out edges, 7. Topstitch ¼” from edges.
  44. 44. 43 EASING IN THE FULLNESS STRAIGHT One of the most neglected steps in developing trainee skill is the easing in the fullness in certain operations such as setting sleeves. The development of this skill is purposely delayed until the trainee first develops the control skills. The first exercise in easing in fullness can be done with the use of two pieces of fabric of different lengths and marked or notched for required fullness. 1. The trainee picks up the two pieces of material with the longest fabric on the bottom, matches these unevenly and positions them under the needle. The trainee holds back on the shorter top piece with his/her right hand, which allows the first two marks on the two clothes to be even as the trainee sews down the strip of fabric. The other marks on the two clothes must also be made to end evenly. 2. The trainee must practice this exercise until he/she gets the “feel” of the feed dog pulling the bottom piece of fabric and senses the strength to be used in holding back the top strip. 3. After sufficient practice the trainee is time sewing the 12 set of fabric which must be joined with all marks matched in 1.5 minutes. If the trainee fails, he/she must have more practice and then be given two more tests for the opportunity to pass to the next part. CURVED The second part of this step is joining two pieces of curved strips of marked fabric. This is a considerably more difficult skill than the sewing of two straight strips.
  45. 45. 44 1. In practicing easing in fullness of the two curved clothes, the trainee uses the left hand to assist and guide the longer cloth through the feed dog. 2. After sufficient practice, the trainee is issued stacks of 12 pieces of each marked fabric. One shorter than the other, and its timed on joining the pieces. The 12 sets of pieces must be joined together with all marks coming out evenly in the time 2.5 minutes.

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