Long term dynamics of macro-invertebrate biological traits with climate change [Alexander Milner]

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Long term dynamics of macro-invertebrate biological traits with climate change. Presented by Alexander Milner at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's Mountains" conference in Perth, Scotland in September 2010.

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Long term dynamics of macro-invertebrate biological traits with climate change [Alexander Milner]

  1. 1. Long term dynamics of macro- invertebrate biological traits with climate change.Alexander M. Milner, Anne E. Robertson & Lee E. Brown
  2. 2. Glacier retreatMost regions of the world haveseen decreases in glacial mass overthe last 50-60 yearsAlong the Gulf of Alaska, retreathas been particularly extensiveand rapidHere, ice sheet/glacier retreatdates back to ~1750 (LIA) Dyurgerov & Meier, 2005 - PNAS
  3. 3. 1892Over 130 km spatial scale we have a 230 year temporal scale
  4. 4. Glacial river ecosystemsGlacier-fed rivers are cold, unstablehabitats typically dominated byChironomidaeGlacial stream ecosystem studies mainlyadopt space-for-time substitutesBut... Wolf Point Creek (Alaska) studiedannually since 1978  ice sheet hasdisappeared, new stream has formed andfloodplain vegetated
  5. 5. 1972
  6. 6. 1993
  7. 7. Catchment glacial cover – 70-0% in 28yearsSignificant water temperature increaseSignificant turbidity (suspendedsediment) decrease
  8. 8. Macroinvertebrate succession
  9. 9. Progressive community change linked to deglacierization 0% Percent Glacierization 100%
  10. 10. Trait dynamics and functional diversityThe identity, abundance and range of species traits appears to be considerablymore important than species number in determining the effects of ‘biodiversity’on many ecosystem functioning (Diaz & Cabido. 2001. TRENDS Ecol & Evol)How does functional (trait) diversity change following deglacierization?Trait database of Poff et al. 2006 – J.N. Am. Benthol. Soc.)-20 traits, 61 modalities- four groups of traits: life history,mobility, morphology and ecology- binary coding- mostly genus level designations
  11. 11. Trait dynamics and functional diversity
  12. 12. Trait dynamics and functional diversity
  13. 13. 1892Over 130 km spatial scale we have a 230 year temporal scale
  14. 14. 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0 1 0 1 Stonefly StoneflyGull Lake Gull LakeWolf Point Wolf Point Nunatak Nunatak Reid Reid None Weak Strong Head of Head of Tindell Tindell Low (<1km) High (>1km) Ice Valley Ice ValleyVivid Lake Vivid Lake Oyester Oyester Catcher Catcher North North Fingers Fingers South South Berg Bay Berg Bay Adult dispersal South South Swimming abilityRush Point Rush Point Carolus Carolus river river changes throughout Glacier Bay Longer-term Space for time 35 to 220 years of development
  15. 15. 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0 1 0 1 Stonefly StoneflyGull Lake Gull LakeWolf Point Wolf Point Nunatak Nunatak Reid Reid Large Small Warm Head of Head of Medium Cold/cool Tindell Tindell Cool/warm Ice Valley Ice ValleyVivid Lake Vivid Lake Oyester Oyester Catcher Catcher North North Fingers Fingers South South Berg Bay Berg Bay South SouthRush Point Rush Point Carolus Carolus river river Body Size Thermal preference
  16. 16. Concept of filtersdeterminingcommunitystructure atdifferent degreesof glacierization 75% glacierization 0% glacierization
  17. 17. SUMMARYSignificant reductions in cold stenotherms, insects withlong dispersal distance and collector gathers over time inWolf Point Creek. No significant change in body size overthe 30 year period.Over the longer 200 year term some increases in bodysize and increases in low dispersal distance and strongswimming ability.Significant increase in functional diversity over 30 years inWolf Point Creek but then a levelling off despite continuedincrease in taxonomic richness – functional redundancyalthough taxa richness has increased?Even though the taxa in stream communities shift withclimate change, the functioning within the communitymay remain the same.
  18. 18. AcknowledgementsElizabeth FloryKieran MonaghanIan PhillipsAmanda VealMike McDermottUS National ParkService.

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