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URBAN PLANNING
ASSIGNMENT 4
YAMINI
1BQ16AT117
VIII C
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
1. What is Industrialization? Impact of industrial
revolution? What is Utopian Vision Model
town? Explain with the concepts of Utopian
Model towns by Tony Garnier and J S
Buckingham.
WHAT IS INDUSTRIALIZATION AND IMPACT
The industrial revolution was a period from the 18th
to 19th
century where major
changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation and technology had a
major effect on the socio-economic and cultural conditions of the times. Was seen in
countries across Europe like England and United States.
Industrialization is a major shift from an agricultural economy to one based on
industry.
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
: NEW MACHINES
Throughout the Industrial Revolution there were several new inventions and machines
transformed the time era, such as telegraph, cotton gin, steam engine and telephone.
: GROWTH OF INDUSTRY
 As demand for cloth grew inventors came up with new machines and factories
were eventually built.
 New machines and factories increased production.
 By 1850s, factories began to be powered by coal and steam engine.
: URBANIZATION
 The migration of large population to cities.
 Changing in farming, rising population and an increase in demand for workers
led people to move farms to cities to work in factories.
 Small towns near natural resources and cities near factories grew instantly.
IMPACT
 Transportation through steam engines made communication and trade
between places possible.
 Class tension: Rise in middle class.
Large Gaps between rich and the poor.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
 Working conditions: Long hours. Little pay.
Unsafe working conditions and environment.
 Living conditions: No safety and Hygiene.
 Cities: Increase in size and Increase in number of factories.
HOUSING
 Tenement: A substandard, multi-family dwelling, usually old and occupied by the
poor.
 Built cheaply.
 Multiple stories.
 No running water.
 No toilet or proper sanitation.
 Sewer in the middle of the street. Garbage and trash thrown on roads.
 Crowded living.
 Breeding ground for diseases.
 Pollution from factory nearby
UTOPIAN VISION MODEL TOWN
Utopia, in its original meaning, is a socio-political system that does not exist in the real
world, but has the potential to be materialized. The realization of the project might
indicate that it is no longer utopian.
Utopian concepts of society and ideas prescribing how to organize space in which this
society is supposed to function developed as a negation of the existing socio-economic
reality and a critical evaluation of prevailing inter human relations. These conceptions
were also attempts at improving negative features of genuine political systems. All this
suggests that utopian visions of cities – created in different historical periods – reflect
problems typical of a given period.
Ideas propagated by urban theory and practice inherent in utopian models of cities
from different epochs include:
– the process of geometrization of urban tissue as an expression of a perfect spatial
form.
– the drive to return to nature in order to enable residents of the city to benefit from
green areas, – the rule of creating housing areas with the best environmental and
health conditions, – the tendency to spatially separate areas of the city having different
functions, but also creating divisions between various occupational and social groups,
– the idea of housing megastructures.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
CONCEPT OF UTOPIAN TOWN BY:
TONY GARNIER
Tony Garnier was a French architect and city planner. He studied on sociological and
architectural problems. His basic idea included the separation of spaces by function
through zoning into several categories.
Tony Garnier first produced plan for the ideal industrial town in 1904. In industrial city
of Tony Garnier, he determines general standards of city and with these standards. He
developed some designs that supplied people’s materially and morally needs.
Garnier ‘s proposal was an industrial city for approx. 35.000 inhabitants situated on an
area in southeast France on a plateau with high land and a lake to the north, a valley
and river to the south.
He envisaged a town of segregated uses with:
 Residential area
 A train station quarter
 An industrial zone
Garnier tries to take into account all aspects of the city including governmental,
residential, manufacturing and agricultural practices. The various function of the city
was clearly related, but separated from each from by location and patterns.
The city of labour divided into Four Main Functions:
1. Work
2. Housing
3. Health
4. Leisure
The public area at the heart of the city was grouped into three sections:
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
 Administrative services and assembly halls
 museum collections
 sport facilities
Region of station is centre of the city and it includes all public trade facilities together.
A railway passes between the factory and the city, which is on a plateau, and further up
are the medical facilities.
The residential area is made up of rectangular blocks running east-west which gives
the city its characteristic elongated form. This is the location of the houses and the
houses was situated into the large green areas to benefit from sun and fresh air. The
residential districts are the first attempt towards passive solar architecture.
Garnier had energy efficiently in mind as the city was to be powered by a hydroelectric
station with a dam which was located in the mountains along with the hospital.
Medical practice of that time was almost totally without the tools and treatments not
in common use, but it had become apparent that sunshine and pure air were helpful
in overcoming many diseases. There was a movement toward breaking down big
hospitals into units called pavilions, thus giving patients close relationship to these
amenities and making them feel more relaxed than if they were in a huge crowded
environment.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
The materials used are concrete for the foundations and walls, and reinforced concrete
for floors and ceilings. All-important buildings are constructed of reinforced
concrete.
Another innovation that reflect on the city plan is equality between people. He
designed with the Theory of Socialism, without law courts, police stations, jail or
church. Tony Garnier was the socialist person.
J S BUCKINGHIAM
Sketch of thee Plan of a Model town
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
It has greatest degree of the order, symmetry, space and healthfulness, in the largest
supply of air and light, and is the most perfect system of drainage, with the comfort
and convenience of all classes; the due proportion of accommodation to the probable
numbers and circumstances of various ranks; ready accessibility to all parts of the
town, under continuous shelter from sun and rain, when necessary; with the
disposition of the public buildings in such localities as to make them easy of approach
from all quarters, and surrounded with space for numerous avenues of entrance and
exit. A large intermixture of grass lawn, garden ground and flowers and an abundant
supply of water – the whole to be united with as much elegance and economy.
Features found in this city
1. Outer margin of square is a mile and has the first range of buildings containing
1000 dwellings, 250 on each side having 20’ frontage and 60’ depth with 60’ of
ornamental garden ground on one front and colonnade of 20’ broad on other.
These are habitations of working class.
2. Inner front of outer square is subdivided into 8 right angled triangles, by the
intersection of 8 principle avenues of entrance into town has colonnade of light
gothic order, sustaining a roof, level with windows of first floor forming a
continuous balcony of 20’ wide, serving for an open promenade in fine weather
and covering the same space below of 20’ wide with flagstone pavement for
promenade in rain or sun.
3. Open space of 100’ in breadth.
4. Continuous covered gallery of arcade 100’ wide.
5. From covered galleries to next row of dwelling in open space covered by a grass
lawn of 150’ in breadth.
These would form the dining halls/restaurants with kitchens in the area floor.
Dining rooms on ground floor and drawing rooms on upper floor. Public bath in
two stories and reading rooms above. Infant schools having gym on ground floor
and school on upper floor.
6. Third square consists of dwellings of larger size ie 140 separate houses or 560
dwellings each with 28’ frontage, 56’ deep and 74’ of garden ground.
Higher than working class.
Apartments
7. Colonnade of gothic order supporting a roof serving as a balcony of open
promenade.
8. Next is row of buildings in open street of 100’.
9. Second covered gallery or arcade forming bazaar for stores or shops of all kinds.
10. Public spaces like grass lawn, dining hall/restaurant, drawing rooms, public bath,
reading room, school for youths.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
11. Fifth square of building 74 dwelling on each side of square.
for professional class.
12. Colonnade of ionic order.
13. Open street of 100’
14. Covered gallery for public promenade.
15. Open space of grass lawn with public spaces for richer inhabitants.
16. Seventh row of dwellings 30 on each side of square.
for superior ranks of professional persons and wealthy capitalists and their
families.
17. Colonnade of Corinthian order with flat roof and balcony above.
18. Grand outer square: planted trees, lawn, flower gardens.
Has Churches, Museums, Galleries for public meeting, Music halls, Libraries,
Schools and colleges.
19. Grand Inner square: 6 mansions on each side. Residences for Govt. members and
more opulent capitalists.
20.Colonnade of Composite order.
2.What are trends in urbanization of post-
industrial India? Explain with an example of
Bhubaneswar and Jamshedpur.
Trends in urbanization
Urbanization has entered a fast phase in the post-independence period. There has
been nearly three fourth increase in the population, from62 million in 1951 to 159 million
in 1981.
Three factors have influenced to the rapid growth of the urban cities:
 Natural increase of the urban population.
 Due to in-migration from villages to cities.
 Expansion of urban boundaries.
The major changes that have occurred in India during the post-independence
period is:
 The building of new administrative cities such as CHANDIGARH,
BHUBANESHWAR, JAMSHEDPUR AND GANDHINAGAR
 The construction of new industrial cities near major cities.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
 The rapid growth cities.
 Increase in slums in major cities and emergence of rural urban fringe.
 The introduction of city planning and general improvement in the civic
amenities
BHUBANESHWAR
Bhubaneshwar, the name is derived from the principal deity Tri-Bhubaneshwar or
Bhubaneshwar. It has two divisions namely The Old Town and The New Capital.
These stages have affected the structures of the city:
 The temple town
 The new capital
 Growth of institutions
 Developments in organised sector
 The present Bhubaneshwar
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
OLD TOWN
 Mixed land use
Contains specimens of Kalinga architecture
 Known as temple town for the rich cultural heritage with a strong regional
economic base.
 The old city is feature by conglomeration of temples, monuments, mandaps,
heritage ponds, etc. Initially, the old city had 1000 temples and at present, the
total temples are limited to 320.
THE SHIFT
The post war reconstruction committee proposed Bhubaneshwar as the ideal site for
capital because of its history, availability of space and geographical advantages.
NEW CAPITAL
 The master plan for the new township was prepared by Dr. Otto. H.
Koenigsberger in 1948 to shape the city in serving as an administrative centre for
the state, on the basis of the concept of Neighbourhood Unit Planning.
 The site was considered based on fertility and the slope since it gives natural
drainage.
The ground slopes from west to east and is divided into two parts intersected by
the railway line.
 The western part is the high land with fertile soil that permits the growth of
forest and eastern part is low with alluvial soil suitable for agriculture.
 Koenigsberger’s design laid the city in linear pattern with a central artery
forming a main spine to which neighbourhood units were attached and was
designed for 40,000 people.
 Neighbourhood units had all the major amenities and each unit could house the
population up to 6000.
 Initially there was 4 units. Because of the growing population the units were
increased to 11.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
THIS PLANNED CITY HAD
 A unique local identity and sense of place.
 Clean natural environment including water and air.
 Regular blocks divided in to uniform plots.
 Straight streets intersecting at right angles.
 Rectilinear plots according to predetermined units of measurement.
(Symmetrical layout/grid planning)
 Administrative and Government offices planned to be in one unit of space
 Capital complex consisting of Secretariat, Legislative Assembly, High Court, Raj
Bhavan, MLA Quarters, Ministers Quarters, etc.
 Commercial complex.
 Open, accessible and well-kept public spaces and parks.
 Hospitals, schools, open grounds for meetings, etc.
 Green belts and water bodies to be Eco friendly.
JAMSHEDPUR
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
 Contract was awarded to the Pittburgh firm of Julian Kennedy and Axel Sahlin
for designing and engineering works of Tata steel plant.
 They built original colony between 1909-12 for housing managers and skilled
workers.
 It had stratified pattern of housing on high Grondon the ridge drives on the
north-west and western fringes of the steel plant to ensure protection from
factory dust.
 Colony was laid out in the grid iron as steel production grew so did population
and old Kennedy plan became obsolete.
 Fredrick temple became the chief engineer for planning of Jamshedpur
principles of temple’s planning
 Gravitational sewerage system.
 Street system adapted to contours.
 Parkway system in natural drains.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
 Housing of 12 units per acre.
 Advocated problem of housing by improving the sanitation and preserving the
infrastructure Otto Keonigsberger‘s plan .
 Garden suburb on the forested slopes of Dalma hills for 200 medium income
families.
 All bungalows and cottages disappeared behind tree foliage.
3.Discuss the type of city planning in Islamabad
and Brasilia.
ISLAMABAD
 New capital for Pakistan was necessary following the independence of India in
1947 and the inevitable partition into India and Pakistan.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
 Islamabad is planned according to a hierarchical system of communities of
various classes, each class comprising the functions corresponding to its size.
 These communities are properly served by a major transportation system
developed within wide corridors of a grid-iron configuration, surrounding and
defining the higher class communities.
 Local and collector low speed roads, wide sidewalks, pedestrian roads and
bicycles lanes within the lower class “human communities” provide access to the
major transportation system.
 The above hierarchical system of communities and transportation facilities,
contributes to the reduction of travel distances/times and accidents, and to the
promotion of “green transport” (walking, cycling, public transport).
 The overall plan is based on the “dyna metro polis” concept, giving the possibility
of continuous expansion with the least possible adverse effects in traffic and,
generally, in the functioning of the Metropolis.
 Both Islamabad and Rawalpindi, central cores and residential areas, may expand
dynamically.
Zone 1
This zone constitutes sectors up to the existing alignment of the G.T. road from the
point of intersection of G.T. road with Shahrah-Kashmir to the point of the Nicolson
Monument inclusive of sector H14, H-15, H-16, H-17, I-14, I-15, I-16, I-17
Zone 2
The zone consists of an area bounded by G.T. road in the north & north east, north of
Shahrah-e-Kashmir and Capital limits in the west, comprising residential sectors G15
(part), G-16, G-17, F-15 (part), F-16, F-17, E-15 (part), E16, E-17, D-16, D-17, C-17, AND B-17.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
Zone 3
Margallah Hills National Park as notified under section 21 of the Islamabad Wild Life
(Protection, Preservation, Conservation & Management) Ordinance. 1979, Other
protected ranges, forest areas and un-acquired land falling between the Margallah
Hills & north of Murree Road shall constitute this zone.
Zone 4
This zone comprises Islamabad Park and rural periphery wedged between Murree
road towards north and Lehtrar road towards south and extending beyond Simly road
upto the ICT limits in the north east. This zone excludes the part of Margallah Hills
National Park and Rawal Lake.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
Zone 5
This zone comprises areas falling south of Islamabad Park and extending upto outer
limits of ICT towards south, south west and south east.
SECTORS OF ISLAMABAD
1. Series A, B, and C are still underdeveloped. The D series has seven sectors (D-11 to
D17), of which only sector D-12 is completely developed.
2. This series is located at the foot of Margalla Hills. The E Sectors are named from
E-7 to E17.
3. Many foreigners and diplomatic personnel are housed in these sectors. Sectors
E-8 and E-9 contain the campuses of three Defence Universities: Bahria
University, Air University, and the National Defence University.
4. F series contains sectors F-5 to F-17; some sectors are still under-developed.
5. F-5 is an important sector for the software industry in Islamabad, as the two
software technology parks are located here.
6. The entire F-9 sector is covered with Fatima Jinnah Park.
7. The Centaurus complex will be one of the major landmarks of the F-8 sector. G
sectors are numbered G-5 through G-17.
8. Some important places include the Jinnah Convention Centre and Serena Hotel
in G-5, the Red Mosque in G-6, and the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, the
largest medical complex in the capital, located in G-8.
9. The H sectors are numbered H-8 through H-17.
10. The H sectors are mostly dedicated to educational and health institutions.
11. National University of Science and Technology covers a major portion of sector
H-12.
12. International Islamic University cover the whole sector H-10.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
13. The I sector are numbered from I-8 to I-18.
14. With the exception of I-8, which is a well-developed residential area, these
sectors are primarily part of the industrial zone. Currently two sub-sectors of I-9
and one sub-sector of I-10 are used as industrial areas. CDA is planning to set up
Islamabad Railway Station in Sector I-18 and Industrial City in sector I-17.
BRAZILIA
Brasilia was planned from scratch as an ideal city and built on an empty plateau.
Niemeyer was the architect and Lucio Costa the urban planner. The idea was, in
Niemeyer's words, "to build a new capital to bring progress to the interior of Brazil".
Purpose of Brasilia-For new development, to relieve the pressure of overpopulation
from the Old capital Rio de Janeiro and to create a renewed sense of national pride. A
Completely modern 21st century city.
CONCEPT
• Intended to provide Brasilia with the dignity of a capital city.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
• BRASILIA has two axis crossing at right angle; monumental axis (the fuselage of the
plane) intersecting in the centre of the city with a residential axis (the wings of an
airplane).
• to adapt this design to the local topography, the natural drainage of the area, one of
the axis wars curved in order to make it fit into equilateral triangle.
VEHICULAR CIRCULATION
• Secondary Roads: controls heavy vehicular traffic
• Traffic: controlled by roads that would either go on a platform, underground, or under
the platform.
•Clover shaped Turn-offs: circulate in the different districts without creating an
intersection.
PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION
Independent Paths:
• local pathway systems were created for each district (residential, commercial,
administrative districts)
• Separated from vehicular circulation.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
Residential Administrative Entertainment Commercial
MONUMENTAL AXIS
 Plaza of 3 powers
 Esplanade of the ministers
 Cathedral
 Cultural area
 Amusement section
 Banks n offices
 Commercial areas
 Hotels
 Radio and tv towers
 Sports
 Municipal plaza university
RESIDENTAIL AXIS
 Twin houses
 Super blocks
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
 Residential zone
 Embassies and legations
 Individual residence north
 Individual residence south
 Sub-urban residences
GREEN AREA
Wide open green area in front of residential areas
4. Differentiate the planning principles of
Medieval and pre-colonial towns in India.
TOWN PLANNING IN MEDIEVAL PERIOD:
 Medieval period in India was a transitional time and it was not possible under the
unstable political conditions for the planned and systematic urban growth. Only
fortress towns under the patronage of chieftains and petty rulers could grow.
 Towns along the main routes of travel, and by the river-side had trade in food
grains, cloth, swords, carpets, perfumes and several other handicraft articles.
 Small urban centres was the ‘rule’, and only capitals were having busy life.
 It was only under the rule of Akbar that the disturbed urban life was
reconstituted and redeveloped.
All centres – ‘dasturs’ (districts) as well as ‘parganas’ (tehsils) beside capitals in
nature were also ‘garrison towns’ where armies were invariably stationed for
protection.
 Medieval towns, whether in India or anywhere else, were walled, encircled by an
outside moat.
The town resembled “an island when its gates were locked at sundown”.
 Medieval town site was either on a hill flanked on the other side by a water body,
or it was guarded by a ring of mounds.
 Medieval town used to have its first nucleus often as a fortress of walled property
of a landlord, its internal roads being controlled to connect the market place
lying directly before the gate of the castle or place of worship.
Nucleus of the town was “the stage on which were enacted the daily drama of
buying and selling, religious pageant, tournament and procession”.
 Urban centres of the medieval times were surrounded by agricultural land, and
farmers and labourers commonly were having their dwellings near or outside
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
the town limit. The areas within the walls of a town near its bound were
occupied by artisan castes engaged in handicrafts.
EXAMPLE: Shahjahanabad
PRECOLONIAL TOWNS IN INDIA
 Colonization brought urbanization
 It rose density in urban centres and rise of suburb
 Arrival of railways accelerated urban growth
 Calcutta, Bombay and Madras grew rapidly and became sprawling cities in 1911,
the capital of British empire was
 Shifted from Calcutta to new Delhi
 Foundation stone for new Delhi was laid by king George V and queen Mary at
Delhi durbar on December in 1911 and completed in 1935, New Delhi was
designed by the architect Edwin Lutyens
 Example: The planning of the New Delhi was towards the south designed with
all the streets crossing at right angles, much like in New York.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
REFERENCES
Slide share
Google images
Research Paper: In search of an ideal city: the influence of utopian ideas on urban planning
https://senacatal.wordpress.com/2016/03/06/tony-garnier-from-an-industrial-city/
http://urbanplanning.library.cornell.edu/DOCS/buckham.htm
https://www.slideshare.net/kollirajesh75/bhubaneswar-an-ideal-capital-city
https://www.slideshare.net/sbhui1/tata-upload
Research Paper: The wandering maps in the city of Bhubaneshwar
Research paper: Jamshedpur: Planning an Ideal Steel City in India On behalf of: Society for American City and Regional Planning History
https://www.academia.edu/30956247/BRASILIA_CITY_Brazil_-_City_Planning_Concepts
https://www.academia.edu/28716657/TOWN_PLANNING_IN_INDIA_-ANCIENT_AGE_-MEDIEVAL_AGE_-MODERN_AGE

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Industrialization and its impacts

  • 2. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 1. What is Industrialization? Impact of industrial revolution? What is Utopian Vision Model town? Explain with the concepts of Utopian Model towns by Tony Garnier and J S Buckingham. WHAT IS INDUSTRIALIZATION AND IMPACT The industrial revolution was a period from the 18th to 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation and technology had a major effect on the socio-economic and cultural conditions of the times. Was seen in countries across Europe like England and United States. Industrialization is a major shift from an agricultural economy to one based on industry. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION : NEW MACHINES Throughout the Industrial Revolution there were several new inventions and machines transformed the time era, such as telegraph, cotton gin, steam engine and telephone. : GROWTH OF INDUSTRY  As demand for cloth grew inventors came up with new machines and factories were eventually built.  New machines and factories increased production.  By 1850s, factories began to be powered by coal and steam engine. : URBANIZATION  The migration of large population to cities.  Changing in farming, rising population and an increase in demand for workers led people to move farms to cities to work in factories.  Small towns near natural resources and cities near factories grew instantly. IMPACT  Transportation through steam engines made communication and trade between places possible.  Class tension: Rise in middle class. Large Gaps between rich and the poor.
  • 3. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117  Working conditions: Long hours. Little pay. Unsafe working conditions and environment.  Living conditions: No safety and Hygiene.  Cities: Increase in size and Increase in number of factories. HOUSING  Tenement: A substandard, multi-family dwelling, usually old and occupied by the poor.  Built cheaply.  Multiple stories.  No running water.  No toilet or proper sanitation.  Sewer in the middle of the street. Garbage and trash thrown on roads.  Crowded living.  Breeding ground for diseases.  Pollution from factory nearby UTOPIAN VISION MODEL TOWN Utopia, in its original meaning, is a socio-political system that does not exist in the real world, but has the potential to be materialized. The realization of the project might indicate that it is no longer utopian. Utopian concepts of society and ideas prescribing how to organize space in which this society is supposed to function developed as a negation of the existing socio-economic reality and a critical evaluation of prevailing inter human relations. These conceptions were also attempts at improving negative features of genuine political systems. All this suggests that utopian visions of cities – created in different historical periods – reflect problems typical of a given period. Ideas propagated by urban theory and practice inherent in utopian models of cities from different epochs include: – the process of geometrization of urban tissue as an expression of a perfect spatial form. – the drive to return to nature in order to enable residents of the city to benefit from green areas, – the rule of creating housing areas with the best environmental and health conditions, – the tendency to spatially separate areas of the city having different functions, but also creating divisions between various occupational and social groups, – the idea of housing megastructures.
  • 4. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 CONCEPT OF UTOPIAN TOWN BY: TONY GARNIER Tony Garnier was a French architect and city planner. He studied on sociological and architectural problems. His basic idea included the separation of spaces by function through zoning into several categories. Tony Garnier first produced plan for the ideal industrial town in 1904. In industrial city of Tony Garnier, he determines general standards of city and with these standards. He developed some designs that supplied people’s materially and morally needs. Garnier ‘s proposal was an industrial city for approx. 35.000 inhabitants situated on an area in southeast France on a plateau with high land and a lake to the north, a valley and river to the south. He envisaged a town of segregated uses with:  Residential area  A train station quarter  An industrial zone Garnier tries to take into account all aspects of the city including governmental, residential, manufacturing and agricultural practices. The various function of the city was clearly related, but separated from each from by location and patterns. The city of labour divided into Four Main Functions: 1. Work 2. Housing 3. Health 4. Leisure The public area at the heart of the city was grouped into three sections:
  • 5. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117  Administrative services and assembly halls  museum collections  sport facilities Region of station is centre of the city and it includes all public trade facilities together. A railway passes between the factory and the city, which is on a plateau, and further up are the medical facilities. The residential area is made up of rectangular blocks running east-west which gives the city its characteristic elongated form. This is the location of the houses and the houses was situated into the large green areas to benefit from sun and fresh air. The residential districts are the first attempt towards passive solar architecture. Garnier had energy efficiently in mind as the city was to be powered by a hydroelectric station with a dam which was located in the mountains along with the hospital. Medical practice of that time was almost totally without the tools and treatments not in common use, but it had become apparent that sunshine and pure air were helpful in overcoming many diseases. There was a movement toward breaking down big hospitals into units called pavilions, thus giving patients close relationship to these amenities and making them feel more relaxed than if they were in a huge crowded environment.
  • 6. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 The materials used are concrete for the foundations and walls, and reinforced concrete for floors and ceilings. All-important buildings are constructed of reinforced concrete. Another innovation that reflect on the city plan is equality between people. He designed with the Theory of Socialism, without law courts, police stations, jail or church. Tony Garnier was the socialist person. J S BUCKINGHIAM Sketch of thee Plan of a Model town
  • 7. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 It has greatest degree of the order, symmetry, space and healthfulness, in the largest supply of air and light, and is the most perfect system of drainage, with the comfort and convenience of all classes; the due proportion of accommodation to the probable numbers and circumstances of various ranks; ready accessibility to all parts of the town, under continuous shelter from sun and rain, when necessary; with the disposition of the public buildings in such localities as to make them easy of approach from all quarters, and surrounded with space for numerous avenues of entrance and exit. A large intermixture of grass lawn, garden ground and flowers and an abundant supply of water – the whole to be united with as much elegance and economy. Features found in this city 1. Outer margin of square is a mile and has the first range of buildings containing 1000 dwellings, 250 on each side having 20’ frontage and 60’ depth with 60’ of ornamental garden ground on one front and colonnade of 20’ broad on other. These are habitations of working class. 2. Inner front of outer square is subdivided into 8 right angled triangles, by the intersection of 8 principle avenues of entrance into town has colonnade of light gothic order, sustaining a roof, level with windows of first floor forming a continuous balcony of 20’ wide, serving for an open promenade in fine weather and covering the same space below of 20’ wide with flagstone pavement for promenade in rain or sun. 3. Open space of 100’ in breadth. 4. Continuous covered gallery of arcade 100’ wide. 5. From covered galleries to next row of dwelling in open space covered by a grass lawn of 150’ in breadth. These would form the dining halls/restaurants with kitchens in the area floor. Dining rooms on ground floor and drawing rooms on upper floor. Public bath in two stories and reading rooms above. Infant schools having gym on ground floor and school on upper floor. 6. Third square consists of dwellings of larger size ie 140 separate houses or 560 dwellings each with 28’ frontage, 56’ deep and 74’ of garden ground. Higher than working class. Apartments 7. Colonnade of gothic order supporting a roof serving as a balcony of open promenade. 8. Next is row of buildings in open street of 100’. 9. Second covered gallery or arcade forming bazaar for stores or shops of all kinds. 10. Public spaces like grass lawn, dining hall/restaurant, drawing rooms, public bath, reading room, school for youths.
  • 8. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 11. Fifth square of building 74 dwelling on each side of square. for professional class. 12. Colonnade of ionic order. 13. Open street of 100’ 14. Covered gallery for public promenade. 15. Open space of grass lawn with public spaces for richer inhabitants. 16. Seventh row of dwellings 30 on each side of square. for superior ranks of professional persons and wealthy capitalists and their families. 17. Colonnade of Corinthian order with flat roof and balcony above. 18. Grand outer square: planted trees, lawn, flower gardens. Has Churches, Museums, Galleries for public meeting, Music halls, Libraries, Schools and colleges. 19. Grand Inner square: 6 mansions on each side. Residences for Govt. members and more opulent capitalists. 20.Colonnade of Composite order. 2.What are trends in urbanization of post- industrial India? Explain with an example of Bhubaneswar and Jamshedpur. Trends in urbanization Urbanization has entered a fast phase in the post-independence period. There has been nearly three fourth increase in the population, from62 million in 1951 to 159 million in 1981. Three factors have influenced to the rapid growth of the urban cities:  Natural increase of the urban population.  Due to in-migration from villages to cities.  Expansion of urban boundaries. The major changes that have occurred in India during the post-independence period is:  The building of new administrative cities such as CHANDIGARH, BHUBANESHWAR, JAMSHEDPUR AND GANDHINAGAR  The construction of new industrial cities near major cities.
  • 9. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117  The rapid growth cities.  Increase in slums in major cities and emergence of rural urban fringe.  The introduction of city planning and general improvement in the civic amenities BHUBANESHWAR Bhubaneshwar, the name is derived from the principal deity Tri-Bhubaneshwar or Bhubaneshwar. It has two divisions namely The Old Town and The New Capital. These stages have affected the structures of the city:  The temple town  The new capital  Growth of institutions  Developments in organised sector  The present Bhubaneshwar
  • 10. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 OLD TOWN  Mixed land use Contains specimens of Kalinga architecture  Known as temple town for the rich cultural heritage with a strong regional economic base.  The old city is feature by conglomeration of temples, monuments, mandaps, heritage ponds, etc. Initially, the old city had 1000 temples and at present, the total temples are limited to 320. THE SHIFT The post war reconstruction committee proposed Bhubaneshwar as the ideal site for capital because of its history, availability of space and geographical advantages. NEW CAPITAL  The master plan for the new township was prepared by Dr. Otto. H. Koenigsberger in 1948 to shape the city in serving as an administrative centre for the state, on the basis of the concept of Neighbourhood Unit Planning.  The site was considered based on fertility and the slope since it gives natural drainage. The ground slopes from west to east and is divided into two parts intersected by the railway line.  The western part is the high land with fertile soil that permits the growth of forest and eastern part is low with alluvial soil suitable for agriculture.  Koenigsberger’s design laid the city in linear pattern with a central artery forming a main spine to which neighbourhood units were attached and was designed for 40,000 people.  Neighbourhood units had all the major amenities and each unit could house the population up to 6000.  Initially there was 4 units. Because of the growing population the units were increased to 11.
  • 11. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 THIS PLANNED CITY HAD  A unique local identity and sense of place.  Clean natural environment including water and air.  Regular blocks divided in to uniform plots.  Straight streets intersecting at right angles.  Rectilinear plots according to predetermined units of measurement. (Symmetrical layout/grid planning)  Administrative and Government offices planned to be in one unit of space  Capital complex consisting of Secretariat, Legislative Assembly, High Court, Raj Bhavan, MLA Quarters, Ministers Quarters, etc.  Commercial complex.  Open, accessible and well-kept public spaces and parks.  Hospitals, schools, open grounds for meetings, etc.  Green belts and water bodies to be Eco friendly. JAMSHEDPUR
  • 12. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117  Contract was awarded to the Pittburgh firm of Julian Kennedy and Axel Sahlin for designing and engineering works of Tata steel plant.  They built original colony between 1909-12 for housing managers and skilled workers.  It had stratified pattern of housing on high Grondon the ridge drives on the north-west and western fringes of the steel plant to ensure protection from factory dust.  Colony was laid out in the grid iron as steel production grew so did population and old Kennedy plan became obsolete.  Fredrick temple became the chief engineer for planning of Jamshedpur principles of temple’s planning  Gravitational sewerage system.  Street system adapted to contours.  Parkway system in natural drains.
  • 13. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117  Housing of 12 units per acre.  Advocated problem of housing by improving the sanitation and preserving the infrastructure Otto Keonigsberger‘s plan .  Garden suburb on the forested slopes of Dalma hills for 200 medium income families.  All bungalows and cottages disappeared behind tree foliage. 3.Discuss the type of city planning in Islamabad and Brasilia. ISLAMABAD  New capital for Pakistan was necessary following the independence of India in 1947 and the inevitable partition into India and Pakistan.
  • 14. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117  Islamabad is planned according to a hierarchical system of communities of various classes, each class comprising the functions corresponding to its size.  These communities are properly served by a major transportation system developed within wide corridors of a grid-iron configuration, surrounding and defining the higher class communities.  Local and collector low speed roads, wide sidewalks, pedestrian roads and bicycles lanes within the lower class “human communities” provide access to the major transportation system.  The above hierarchical system of communities and transportation facilities, contributes to the reduction of travel distances/times and accidents, and to the promotion of “green transport” (walking, cycling, public transport).  The overall plan is based on the “dyna metro polis” concept, giving the possibility of continuous expansion with the least possible adverse effects in traffic and, generally, in the functioning of the Metropolis.  Both Islamabad and Rawalpindi, central cores and residential areas, may expand dynamically. Zone 1 This zone constitutes sectors up to the existing alignment of the G.T. road from the point of intersection of G.T. road with Shahrah-Kashmir to the point of the Nicolson Monument inclusive of sector H14, H-15, H-16, H-17, I-14, I-15, I-16, I-17 Zone 2 The zone consists of an area bounded by G.T. road in the north & north east, north of Shahrah-e-Kashmir and Capital limits in the west, comprising residential sectors G15 (part), G-16, G-17, F-15 (part), F-16, F-17, E-15 (part), E16, E-17, D-16, D-17, C-17, AND B-17.
  • 15. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 Zone 3 Margallah Hills National Park as notified under section 21 of the Islamabad Wild Life (Protection, Preservation, Conservation & Management) Ordinance. 1979, Other protected ranges, forest areas and un-acquired land falling between the Margallah Hills & north of Murree Road shall constitute this zone. Zone 4 This zone comprises Islamabad Park and rural periphery wedged between Murree road towards north and Lehtrar road towards south and extending beyond Simly road upto the ICT limits in the north east. This zone excludes the part of Margallah Hills National Park and Rawal Lake.
  • 16. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 Zone 5 This zone comprises areas falling south of Islamabad Park and extending upto outer limits of ICT towards south, south west and south east. SECTORS OF ISLAMABAD 1. Series A, B, and C are still underdeveloped. The D series has seven sectors (D-11 to D17), of which only sector D-12 is completely developed. 2. This series is located at the foot of Margalla Hills. The E Sectors are named from E-7 to E17. 3. Many foreigners and diplomatic personnel are housed in these sectors. Sectors E-8 and E-9 contain the campuses of three Defence Universities: Bahria University, Air University, and the National Defence University. 4. F series contains sectors F-5 to F-17; some sectors are still under-developed. 5. F-5 is an important sector for the software industry in Islamabad, as the two software technology parks are located here. 6. The entire F-9 sector is covered with Fatima Jinnah Park. 7. The Centaurus complex will be one of the major landmarks of the F-8 sector. G sectors are numbered G-5 through G-17. 8. Some important places include the Jinnah Convention Centre and Serena Hotel in G-5, the Red Mosque in G-6, and the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, the largest medical complex in the capital, located in G-8. 9. The H sectors are numbered H-8 through H-17. 10. The H sectors are mostly dedicated to educational and health institutions. 11. National University of Science and Technology covers a major portion of sector H-12. 12. International Islamic University cover the whole sector H-10.
  • 17. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 13. The I sector are numbered from I-8 to I-18. 14. With the exception of I-8, which is a well-developed residential area, these sectors are primarily part of the industrial zone. Currently two sub-sectors of I-9 and one sub-sector of I-10 are used as industrial areas. CDA is planning to set up Islamabad Railway Station in Sector I-18 and Industrial City in sector I-17. BRAZILIA Brasilia was planned from scratch as an ideal city and built on an empty plateau. Niemeyer was the architect and Lucio Costa the urban planner. The idea was, in Niemeyer's words, "to build a new capital to bring progress to the interior of Brazil". Purpose of Brasilia-For new development, to relieve the pressure of overpopulation from the Old capital Rio de Janeiro and to create a renewed sense of national pride. A Completely modern 21st century city. CONCEPT • Intended to provide Brasilia with the dignity of a capital city.
  • 18. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 • BRASILIA has two axis crossing at right angle; monumental axis (the fuselage of the plane) intersecting in the centre of the city with a residential axis (the wings of an airplane). • to adapt this design to the local topography, the natural drainage of the area, one of the axis wars curved in order to make it fit into equilateral triangle. VEHICULAR CIRCULATION • Secondary Roads: controls heavy vehicular traffic • Traffic: controlled by roads that would either go on a platform, underground, or under the platform. •Clover shaped Turn-offs: circulate in the different districts without creating an intersection. PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION Independent Paths: • local pathway systems were created for each district (residential, commercial, administrative districts) • Separated from vehicular circulation.
  • 19. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 Residential Administrative Entertainment Commercial MONUMENTAL AXIS  Plaza of 3 powers  Esplanade of the ministers  Cathedral  Cultural area  Amusement section  Banks n offices  Commercial areas  Hotels  Radio and tv towers  Sports  Municipal plaza university RESIDENTAIL AXIS  Twin houses  Super blocks
  • 20. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117  Residential zone  Embassies and legations  Individual residence north  Individual residence south  Sub-urban residences GREEN AREA Wide open green area in front of residential areas 4. Differentiate the planning principles of Medieval and pre-colonial towns in India. TOWN PLANNING IN MEDIEVAL PERIOD:  Medieval period in India was a transitional time and it was not possible under the unstable political conditions for the planned and systematic urban growth. Only fortress towns under the patronage of chieftains and petty rulers could grow.  Towns along the main routes of travel, and by the river-side had trade in food grains, cloth, swords, carpets, perfumes and several other handicraft articles.  Small urban centres was the ‘rule’, and only capitals were having busy life.  It was only under the rule of Akbar that the disturbed urban life was reconstituted and redeveloped. All centres – ‘dasturs’ (districts) as well as ‘parganas’ (tehsils) beside capitals in nature were also ‘garrison towns’ where armies were invariably stationed for protection.  Medieval towns, whether in India or anywhere else, were walled, encircled by an outside moat. The town resembled “an island when its gates were locked at sundown”.  Medieval town site was either on a hill flanked on the other side by a water body, or it was guarded by a ring of mounds.  Medieval town used to have its first nucleus often as a fortress of walled property of a landlord, its internal roads being controlled to connect the market place lying directly before the gate of the castle or place of worship. Nucleus of the town was “the stage on which were enacted the daily drama of buying and selling, religious pageant, tournament and procession”.  Urban centres of the medieval times were surrounded by agricultural land, and farmers and labourers commonly were having their dwellings near or outside
  • 21. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 the town limit. The areas within the walls of a town near its bound were occupied by artisan castes engaged in handicrafts. EXAMPLE: Shahjahanabad PRECOLONIAL TOWNS IN INDIA  Colonization brought urbanization  It rose density in urban centres and rise of suburb  Arrival of railways accelerated urban growth  Calcutta, Bombay and Madras grew rapidly and became sprawling cities in 1911, the capital of British empire was  Shifted from Calcutta to new Delhi  Foundation stone for new Delhi was laid by king George V and queen Mary at Delhi durbar on December in 1911 and completed in 1935, New Delhi was designed by the architect Edwin Lutyens  Example: The planning of the New Delhi was towards the south designed with all the streets crossing at right angles, much like in New York.
  • 22. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 REFERENCES Slide share Google images Research Paper: In search of an ideal city: the influence of utopian ideas on urban planning https://senacatal.wordpress.com/2016/03/06/tony-garnier-from-an-industrial-city/ http://urbanplanning.library.cornell.edu/DOCS/buckham.htm https://www.slideshare.net/kollirajesh75/bhubaneswar-an-ideal-capital-city https://www.slideshare.net/sbhui1/tata-upload Research Paper: The wandering maps in the city of Bhubaneshwar Research paper: Jamshedpur: Planning an Ideal Steel City in India On behalf of: Society for American City and Regional Planning History https://www.academia.edu/30956247/BRASILIA_CITY_Brazil_-_City_Planning_Concepts https://www.academia.edu/28716657/TOWN_PLANNING_IN_INDIA_-ANCIENT_AGE_-MEDIEVAL_AGE_-MODERN_AGE