Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
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Ig2 task 1 work sheet

  1. 1. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 1 Produce a glossary of terms specific to the methods and principles of sound design and production. Using a provided template, you must research and gather definitions specific to provided glossary terms. Any definitions must be referenced with the URL link of the website you have obtained the definition. You must also, where possible, provide specific details of how researched definitions relate to your own production practice. Name: Thomas Mcdonagh RESEARCHED DEFINITION (provide short internet researched definition and URL link) DESCRIBE THE RELEVANCE OF THE RESEARCHED TERM TO YOUR OWN PRODUCTION PRACTICE? SOUND DESIGN METHODOLOGY Foley Artistry "A sound effects technique for synchronous effects or live effects" http://filmsound.org/foley/ A Foley Artist is a person who creates (or re-creates) sounds for movies. For example, if the sound of an actor's footsteps were not recorded well or lost when the voice was re-recorded, a Foley artist will recreate them. In fact, except for dialogue and music, almost all the sounds you hear in Hollywood films is Foley sound.Foley artists work in a Foley studio, a room with many props, a viewing screen and recording equipment. The artist watches the film and creates the sound in real time. In most cases several different tracks are recorded, for example: A "move track", which includes the sounds of general movement, clothes swishing, etc. Footsteps "Specifics" — individual sound effects for particular actions on screen, e.g. fights, etc. http://www.mediacollege.com/employment/film/foley-artist.html Sound Libraries A sample library is a collection of digital sound recordings, known as samples, for use by composers, arrangers, performers, and producers of music. The sound files are loaded into a sampler - either hardware or computer-based - which is then used to create music. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sample_library SOUND FILE FORMATS Uncompressed Compressed files take up less storage space and can be transferred to These are the type files that are made
  2. 2. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 2 other computers more quickly than uncompressed files. You can work with compressed files and folders in the same way that you work with uncompressed files and folders. You can also combine several files into a single compressed folder. This makes it easier to share a group of files http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/compress- uncompress-files-zip-files#1TC=windows-7 in reaper before you render them .wav Waveform Audio File Format (WAVE, or more commonly known as WAV due to its filename extension) (rarely, Audio for Windows[9]) is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing an audio bitstream on PCs. It is an application of the Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF) bitstream format method for storing data in "chunks", and thus is also close to the 8SVX and the AIFF format used on Amiga and Macintosh computers, respectively. It is the main format used on Windows systems for raw and typically uncompressed audio. The usual bitstream encoding is the linear pulse-code modulation (LPCM) format. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WAV I normally render the audio sounds I have done in Reaper .aiff udio Interchange File Format (AIFF) is an audio file format standard used for storing sound data for personal computers and other electronic audio devices. The format was developed by Apple Inc. in 1988 based on Electronic Arts' Interchange File Format (IFF, widely used on Amiga systems) and is most commonly used on Apple Macintosh computer systems. The audio data in a standard AIFF file is uncompressed pulse-code modulation (PCM). There is also a compressed variant of AIFF known as AIFF-C or AIFC, with various defined compression codecs. Unlike the better-known lossy MP3 format, AIFF is uncompressed (which aids rapid streaming of multiple audio files from disk to the application), and is lossless. Like any uncompressed, lossless format, it uses much more disk space than MP3—about 10MB for one minute of stereo audio at a sample rate of 44.1 kHz and a bit depth of 16 bits. In addition to audio data, AIFF can include loop point data and the musical note of a sample, for use by hardware samplers and musical applications.
  3. 3. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 3 The file extension for the standard AIFF format is .aiff or .aif. For the compressed variants it is supposed to be .aifc, but .aiff or .aif are accepted as well by audio applications supporting the format. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audio_Interchange_File_Format .au .smp An ".smp" file may be one of several different types of audio file. For example, it could be a SampleVision audio sample file. This 16-bit audio file was originally used by Turtle Beach SampleVision; you can open it with Adobe Auction, Sound Forge Pro or Awave Studio. It could also be a sample file for AdLib Gold, a PC sound card released in 1992; Scream Tracker, a mid-1990s music editing program; or Swell. Reason, a music recording and production program, uses the ".smp" extension for sampler instrument patches. An ".smp" file may also be an image file used by Xionics Document Technologies, a company that develops software for copying, scanning, printing and related tasks. This black-and-white image file is very rare. You can open it with the freeware program XnView. In addition, the photo editing program PhotoExpress uses the extension ".smp" for gallery files showcasing a number of photos. Several file types used in editing or viewing images use the ".smp" file extension. For example, the program IDRISI Taiga uses it extension for palette files. These files store color information for satellite images, which are stored in the ."rst" format. PhotoImpact, an image editing program, uses the ".smp" extension for files storing the program's presets. An ".smp" file may be a playlist for Sprintbit Playlist Manager, a program used to create and manage playlists of music and video files. It could also be a project file for Screensaver Maker, a program for creating your own screensavers. Finally, it could be an email message file for the email program IMail Server. Due to the number of different programs that use the ".smp" extension, no listing may be complete
  4. 4. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 4 http://www.ehow.com/info_12198596_file-smp.html Lossy Compression In information technology, "lossy" compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations (or partial data discarding) for representing the content that has been encoded. Such compression techniques are used to reduce the amount of data that would otherwise be needed to store, handle, and/or transmit the represented content. The different versions of the photo of the dog at the right demonstrate how the approximation of an image becomes progressively coarser as more details of the data that made up the original image are removed. The amount of data reduction possible using lossy compression can often be much more substantial than what is possible with lossless data compression techniques. Using well-designed lossy compression technology, a substantial amount of data reduction is often possible before the result is sufficiently degraded to be noticed by the user. Even when the degree of degradation becomes noticeable, further data reduction may often be desirable for some applications (e.g., to make real-time communication possible through a limited bit-rate channel, to reduce the time needed to transmit the content, or to reduce the necessary storage capacity). Lossy compression is most commonly used to compress multimedia data (audio, video, and still images), especially in applications such as streaming media and internet telephony. By contrast, lossless compression is typically required for text and data files, such as bank records and text articles. In many cases it is advantageous to make a master lossless file that can then be used to produce compressed files for different purposes; for example, a multi-megabyte file can be used at full size to produce a full-page advertisement in a glossy magazine, and a 10 kilobyte lossy copy can be made for a small image on a web page. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lossy_compression .mp3 The name of the file extension and also the name of the type of file for MPEG, audio layer 3. Layer 3 is one of three coding schemes (layer 1, I used these to download audio sounds from YouTube to listen to
  5. 5. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 5 layer 2 and layer 3) for the compression of audio signals. Layer 3 uses perceptual audio coding and psychoacoustic compression to remove all superfluous information (more specifically, the redundant and irrelevant parts of a sound signal. The stuff the human ear doesn't hear anyway). It also adds a MDCT (Modified Discrete Cosine Transform) that implements a filter bank, increasing the frequency resolution 18 times higher than that of layer 2.The result in real terms is layer 3 shrinks the original sound data from a CD (with a bit rate of 1411.2 kilobits per one second of stereo music) by a factor of 12 (down to 112- 128kbps) without sacrificing sound quality.Because MP3 files are small, they can easily be transferred across the Internet. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/M/MP3.html AUDIO LIMITATIONS Sound Processor Unit (SPU) A sound card (also known as an audio card) is an internal computer expansion card that facilitates the input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs. The term sound card is also applied to external audio interfaces that use software to generate sound, as opposed to using hardware inside the PC. Typical uses of sound cards include providing the audio component for multimedia applications such as music composition, editing video or audio, presentation, education and entertainment (games) and video projection.Sound functionality can also be integrated onto the motherboard, using basically the same components as a plug-in card. The best plug-in cards, which use better and more expensive I would have automatically used these sice they are incide the computer
  6. 6. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 6 components, can achieve higher quality than integrated sound. The integrated sound system is often still referred to as a "sound card". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_processing_unit Digital Sound Processor (DSP) Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) take real-world signals like voice, audio, video, temperature, pressure, or position that have been digitized and then mathematically manipulate them. A DSP is designed for performing mathematical functions like "add", "subtract", "multiply" and "divide" very quickly.Signals need to be processed so that the information that they contain can be displayed, analyzed, or converted to another type of signal that may be of use. In the real-world, analog products detect signals such as sound, light, temperature or pressure and manipulate them. Converters such as an Analog-to-Digital converter then take the real-world signal and turn it into the digital format of 1's and 0's. From here, the DSP takes over by capturing the digitized information and processing it. It then feeds the digitized information back for use in the real world. It does this in one of two ways, either digitally or in an analog format by going through a Digital- to-Analog converter. All of this occurs at very high speeds. http://www.analog.com/en/content/beginners_guide_to_dsp/fca.html Random Access Memory (RAM) RAM (pronounced ramm) is an acronym for random access memory, a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly; that is, any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes. RAM is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices, such as printers. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/R/RAM.html You always use ram whenever you do anything on the computer Mono Audio Mono (Monaural or monophonic sound reproduction) has audio in a single channel, often centered in the “sound field”. i.e. and stereo (Stereophonic) are classification of sound.
  7. 7. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 7 http://www.diffen.com/difference/Mono_vs_Stereo Stereo Audio Stereophonic sound or, more commonly, stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of directionality and audible perspective. This is usually achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration of two or more loudspeakers (or stereo headphones)in such a way as to create the impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural hearing.[1] Thus the term "stereophonic" applies to so-called "quadraphonic" and "surround-sound" systems as well as the more common two-channel, two-speaker systems. It is often contrasted with monophonic, or "mono" sound, where audio is in the form of one channel, often centered in the sound field (analogous to a visual field). Stereo sound is now common in entertainment systems such as broadcast radio and TV, recorded music and the cinema. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereophonic_sound Used this when listen to my sounds in reaper Surround Sound Surround sound is a technique for enriching the sound reproduction quality of an audio source with additional audio channels from speakers that surround the listener (surround channels), providing sound from a 360° radius in the horizontal plane (2D) as opposed to "screen channels" (centre, [front] left, and [front] right) originating only from the listener's forward arc. Surround sound is characterized by a listener location or sweet spot where the audio effects work best, and presents a fixed or forward perspective of the sound field to the listener at this location. The technique enhances the perception of sound spatialization by exploiting sound localization; a listener's ability to identify the location or origin of a detected sound in direction and distance. Typically this is achieved by using multiple discrete audio channels routed to an array of loudspeakers. There are various surround sound based formats and techniques, varying in reproduction and recording methods along with the number and positioning of additional channels. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereophonic_sound I used this when i was using my surround sound Direct Audio (Pulse Code Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent
  8. 8. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 8 Modulation – PCM) sampled analog signals. It is the standard form of digital audio in computers, Compact Discs, digital telephony and other digital audio applications. In a PCM stream, the amplitude of the analog signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, and each sample is quantized to the nearest value within a range of digital steps. Linear pulse-code modulation (LPCM) is a specific type of PCM where the quantization levels are linearly uniform.[5] This is in contrast to PCM using, for instance, A-law algorithm or μ-law algorithm where quantization levels vary as a function of amplitude. Though PCM is a more general term, it is often used to describe data encoded as LPCM. PCM streams have two basic properties that determine their fidelity to the original analog signal: the sampling rate, which is the number of times per second that samples are taken; and the bit depth, which determines the number of possible digital values that each sample can take http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulse-code_modulation AUDIO RECORDING SYSTEMS Analogue log (or analogue) recording (Greek, ana is "according to" and logos "relationship") is a technique used for the recording of analog signals which among many possibilities include audio frequency, analog audio and analog video information for later playback. Analog recording methods store signals as a continual wave in or on the media. The wave might be stored as a physical texture on a phonograph record, or a fluctuation in the field strength of a magnetic recording. This is different from digital recording of which among many possibilities include digital audio and digital video, which digital signals are represented as data or discrete numbers . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analog_recording Digital Mini Disc ulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. It is the standard form of digital audio in computers, Compact Discs, digital telephony and other digital audio applications. In a PCM stream, the amplitude of the analog signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, and each sample is quantized to the nearest value within a range of digital steps. Linear pulse-code modulation (LPCM) is a specific type of PCM where
  9. 9. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 9 the quantization levels are linearly uniform.[5] This is in contrast to PCM using, for instance, A-law algorithm or μ-law algorithm where quantization levels vary as a function of amplitude. Though PCM is a more general term, it is often used to describe data encoded as LPCM. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulse-code_modulation Compact Disc (CD) Compact Disc Digital Audio (CDDA or CD-DA) is the standard format for audio compact discs. The standard is defined in the Red Book, one of a series of "Rainbow Books" (named for their binding colors) that contain the technical specifications for all CD formats. The Red Book specifies the physical parameters and properties of the CD, the optical "stylus" parameters, deviations and error rate, modulation system (eight-to- fourteen modulation, EFM) and error correction facility (cross- interleaved Reed–Solomon coding, CIRC), and the eight subcode channels. These parameters are common to all compact discs and used by all logical formats, such as CD-ROM. The standard also specifies the form of digital audio encoding: 2-channel signed 16-bit Linear PCM sampled at 44,100 Hz. Although rarely used, the specification allows for discs to be mastered with a form of emphasis. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compact_Disc_Digital_Audio Digital Audio Tape (DAT) DAT (Digital Audio Tape) is a standard medium and technology for the digital recording of audio on tape at a professional level of quality. A DAT drive is a digital tape recorder with rotating heads similar to those found in a video deck. Most DAT drives can record at sample rates of 44.1 kHz, the CD audio standard, and 48 kHz. DAT has become the standard archiving technology in professional and semi-professional recording environments for master recordings. Digital inputs and outputs on professional DAT decks allow the user to transfer recordings from the DAT tape to an audio workstation for precise editing. The compact size and low cost of the DAT medium makes it an excellent way to compile the recordings that are going to be used to create a CD master. http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/DAT-Digital-Audio-Tape MIDI MIDI short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a technical standard that describes a protocol, digital interface and connectors and allows a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers and other related devices to connect and communicate with one
  10. 10. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 10 another.[1] A single MIDI link can carry up to sixteen channels of information, each of which can be routed to a separate device. MIDI carries event messages that specify notation, pitch and velocity, control signals for parameters such as volume, vibrato, audio panning, cues, and clock signals that set and synchronize tempo between multiple devices. These messages are sent to other devices where they control sound generation and other features. This data can also be recorded into a hardware or software device called a sequencer, which can be used to edit the data and to play it back at a later time.[2]:4 MIDI technology was standardized in 1983 by a panel of music industry representatives, and is maintained by the MIDI Manufacturers Association (MMA). All official MIDI standards are jointly developed and published by the MMA in Los Angeles, California, US, and for Japan, the MIDI Committee of the Association of Musical Electronics Industry (AMEI) in Tokyo.Advantages of MIDI include compactness (an entire song can be coded in a few hundred lines, i.e. in a few kilobytes), ease of modification and manipulation and choice of instruments http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIDI Software Sequencers Realtime sequencers record the musical notes in real-time as on audio recorders, and play back musical notes with designated tempo, quantizations, and pitch. For editing, usually "punch in/punch out" feature originated in the tape recording is provided, although it requires enough skills to obtain desired result. For detailed editing, possibly another visual editing modes under graphical user interface may be more suitable. Anyway, this mode provides usability similar to the audio recorder already familiarized by musicians, and it is widely supported on software sequencer, DAW, and built-in hardware sequencers. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_sequencer Software Plug-ins Though software plug-ins might not make your room smell as nice as the scented ones you stick in an outlet, they are still useful. A software plug-in is an add-on for a program that adds functionality to it. For example, a Photoshop plug-in (such as Eye Candy) may add extra filters that you can use to manipulate images. A browser plug-in (such as Macromedia Flash or Apple QuickTime) allows you to play certain multimedia files within your Web browser. VST plug-ins add effects for audio recording and sequencing programs such as Cubase and Logic I used plug ins while making my audio in reaper
  11. 11. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 11 Audio. Most graphics and audio programs today support plug-ins since they are a convenient way to expand the capabilities of the program. Though some plug-ins may be shipped with the program, most are developed by third-parties and are sold separately. Because companies that make browser plug-ins are often competing for a standard (such as Flash and QuickTime), these plug-ins are usually available as free downloads from the Internet http://www.techterms.com/definition/plugin MIDI Keyboard Instruments A Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) keyboard is a musical instrument like a piano keyboard. The MIDI portion indicates that the instrument has a communication protocol built in that allows it to communicate with a computer or other MIDI-equipped instrument.The MIDI interface is now so easy to implement that almost all keyboards sold today are some type of MIDI keyboard. This ranges from a simple 100 US dollar (USD) MIDI keyboard sold at the local department store to a 30,000 USD grand piano with a built-in controller. Every type can connect to any other type of musical instrument that sports a MIDI interface. The 30,000 USD instrument will sound much better than the 100 USD instrument, but both can be controlled by the computer or other instrument in the sameway.http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-midi- keyboard.htm#didyouknowout I always use this in reaper as this is the only to make the sounds I want AUDIO SAMPLING File Size Constraints - Bit- depth In digital audio, there has to be a certain value set for describing the resolution of the sound data (samples) that is to be captured and stored in an audio file -- this attribute is called Bit Depth. Similarly for video files (images, videos), this measurement range is also used to determine the resolution of a picture -- the higher the bit depth (e.g. 16 bit versus 24 bit) the better the image will be. This attribute is exactly the same for digital audio and thus a higher bit depth will give a much more detailed sound recording. File Size Constraints - Sample The file size limitation of a 32bit application is 2GB. In a way i would use this because when
  12. 12. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 12 Rate The maximum duration of a single audio file can be calculated like this: 16 Bit = 2 Byte Stereo = 2 channels 192 KHz = 192000 samples per second 2 * 2 * 192000 Bytes/sec = 768000 Bytes/sec 60 sec * 768000 Bytes = 46080000 Bytes/min = ~44 MB/min 44 MB * 46 min = ~2GB Additional Information Maximum duration of a single file at different sample frequencies (stereo, 16-bit): 44,1 KHz: ~203 min (10 MB/min) 48 KHz: ~186 min (11 MB/min) 88,2 KHz: ~101 min (20 MB/min) 96 KHz: ~93 min (22 MB/min) 192 KHz: ~46 min (44 MB/min) https://www.ableton.com/en/articles/maximum-file-size/ i make the sounds i would not be able to make it to big but in reaper the files are very small

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