Represent the invisible


Published on

Published in: Design, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • We’ve been talking about designing the hybrid city. But I’d like to take a bit diversion from that. Today, I would like to talk about representation of design or design processes. Representation is an essential intellectual activity for designing. Normally designing accompanying with many kinds of representations. This representation itself have been developed and affected to the profession. We can see the good example in architectural practice. Architectural drawing was invented in 500 years ago by Alberti. After this invention, architects manipulated not physical material to intervene space but drew its representation on 2D paper. It have worked quite well. But as many of you know, today it faced to big change.
  • With the help of computation, people can visualize the scene that have not been possible to see before. Like this image, this building is represented not only physical substance but also its invisible phenomena reside in it, such as sounds, temperature, and movement of people. just to name a few. They play a pivotal role in designing and constructing the innovative architecture. Then, my question is that can we see those unseen characteristic of cities? What should we see to intervene a better city? Today, I am going to talk about how to see people’s behavior pattern and the motivation that drive them to move. and how it is related with the physical city itself.
  • We have very good medium to represent a city. a city map. Everyone is quite familiar with that. you can see it everywhere in everyday life.
  • It is an elaborated version of a city map. It is adopted form the urban design 101 textbook. a city is comprised of functional layers having physical configuration.but what it is missed here is that human being living in this space. Perhaps they are too small to be illustrated in this drawing. Actually here on the top layer is referred as ‘usage’, how all those environment is being used. The each pattern refer to certain functionalities. However, it is hard to imagine how people actually experience city//// Obviously, the physical entities of the city greatly influence to people’s experience; movement, perception, activities.. But how? It is quite difficult for urban designer to deeply investigate how people feel in the certain urban circumstances. Another critical question is that if we seriously have a full representation on that layer, is it a good attempt to ‘design’ people’s behavior, perception, and even mind?
  • So, in this project, we tried to visualize those unseen layer of a city.
  • I should clarify about the project setting. The research conducted in the course of urban design worked with about 10 master students at TU Delft. The project coordicated by prof. Stefan van derSpek. He have developed the tracking research framework for inner city. The students did a field research in the city center of Delft for 4 days and continue processing the tracking data. What I did during the course I added new section in the research that mainly inquiring people’s emotional apperception regarding public space and their relationship with movement patterns. So, I will briefly introduce the research structure and continue on the main topic of my speech.
  • First and foremost, what is Delft? Chinese people probably haven’t heard about the city. Delft is located between Rotterdam and The Hague. It is a quite small city. The surface area is one over one hundredth times of that of Shanghai, Population is one over two hundredth times, but surprisingly, it has higher density than that of Shanghai.
  • Left one is a map of delft in 17th century. and the right one is the It is a map of the city center of Delft. As you can see the urban structure haven’t changed that much. Almost all major streets and canals stayed same. There are three major public spaces, Only the southern square is newly add in modern era. It built very recently. The main access points are from south and east sides.
  • The two underground car parks chosen for distributing/ collecting GPS devices.
  • When people went up to the ground, we asked them to participated in the research. When they returned to take their car, they left the device and filled in questionnaires.
  • Participants answered trip information and personal information. We can get to know the purpose and frequency of visiting. address, age, and occupation and so one.
  • A tourist map of Delft is in on the back side of the questionnaires. we asked very simple question. “ – “ ? . To explicit their preference they can you given red and green pen. We named it as preference map.
  • This slide summarizes what I’ve explained. GPS track itself is meaningless. All information related to the GPS track managed with single trip ID. after the field research, more information can be derived form the track such as destination, distance, and radius where people explored. in some part, human interpretation is essential t
  • So, in this project, we tried to visualize those unseen layer of a city.
  • From now on, I will more focus on the preference map. Why is preference important? Thant’s because preference strongly motivate behavior. Let’s use a metaphor of baskinrobbinsicecream. at a shop, people probably choose one flavor. One can choose more than one if he really love icecream. Then, we can ask why you choose it. One might answer, ‘I just like it’. or some very like certain ingredient like nuts or chocolate chip or oppositely, he didn’t choose the nut flavor because he is having an allergy on nuts. If numbers of sample collected, we can get a profile of which flavor is most popular and why.
  • How to access the preference involved in public space? Unfortunately, a city is not as simple as an ice cream. And people do not consciously think about their experience in certain space. Since feeling and emotion are latent in people’s mind and they may don’t know himself. Therefore, researcher have to design an exercise where participants can express himself.
  • when a map is given, they have a moment to think and reflect their past experience in Delft. and they express it as a drawing and short description.General responses, some are very subjective like: the place where I born. some are direct complaints/ appreciate on certain facilities/ or some reflect one’s certain experience like markt is too far away.
  • The responses is process using arcGIS.
  • I’d like talk few example of responses with picture of the actual spots.
  • The maps suggest further questions rather gives decisive answer. I draw three questions. It provides an initial point to inquiry GPS track.
  • This diagram shows a framework of investigation. It points out two internal relationships.First, one to one relationship between a track of one percipients and his own preference map. The horizontal line is an axis of experience and X refers to one visit. The X above the letter B is the day when one participated in the tracking research. We can suppose the two kinds of participants A and B. A is the one who have visited Delft beforehand. On the other hands, for B, it was the first time. We can say that A have more experience and knowledge about Delft but B doesn’t. It doubtlessly influence to their behaviors which is represented as GPS tracks.
  • 1. How difficult is it to reach to desired shopping destinations?- How far do they have to walk to reach to desired destinations?- How are destinations spread out in the city?
  • To see the extent of difficulty, it is important to see the marginal group. who walked extensive distance and visited many destination. Average distance : 3000mAverage number of destinations: 5.2
  • It is a correlation graph. One dot indicate single track. See the boundary of distribution of each type.The boundary of luxury/fashion covers the largest area. They walk farer and visit more shops. Boundary of Non specific group take in-between daily needs and luxury/fashion. This group of track may gave up to visit some fashion/luxury shops that are far away.
  • Therefore, It would be good to compare the tracks having average distance with ones having longer distance and how their destinations are distributed,
  • Represent the invisible

    1. 1. Represent the invisible:Preference mappings and behavior patterns of visitors inthe city center of Delft Ohyoon Kwon MSc candidate Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, TU Delft
    2. 2. 1. Representation
    3. 3. Architectural representationsThe plan of Bramantes Tempietto in the courtyard ofS. Pietro in Montorio, Rome. Architettura etProspettiva, Serlio (1519)
    4. 4. Architectural representations
    5. 5. How is a city represented?
    6. 6. How is a city represented? usage private use public space city map territoryMeyer H., De Jong F., Hoekstra H. J. Het Ontwerp van de OpenbareRuimte, pp.15- 21
    7. 7. 2. Project Tracking Delft
    8. 8. The Project Tracking Delft is…• A pilot research project conducted in 2009 Fall semester for 10 weeks• Coordinated by Assistant Prof. Stefan van derSpek, Department of Urbanism• Tracked 291 visitors of Delft city center• Distribute/ return GPS device at two car parks in the city
    9. 9. What is.. Delft? Rotterdam Surface area 24.08 km2 x 1/291 City Center Population 96,161 x 1/200 of Shanghai Density 4,180/km2 x 1.5 The Hague
    10. 10. Old and new The old city center Old city map of Delft (1675 – 1678)
    11. 11. Delft City Center 500m Phoenix Zuidpoort
    12. 12. Research set-up distribute devices fill in in-take forms Underground car parks return devices fill in questionnaires map-making exercise
    13. 13. Questionnaires
    14. 14. Asking preferences“Could you please sketch any goodor bad public spaces in the citycenter of Delft and describe why”“Please use green pen for positiveones and red pen for negative ones”
    15. 15. Information flow
    16. 16. 3. Preference and behavior
    17. 17. 3. Preference and behavior
    18. 18. How to access preferences Visser, FroukjeSleeswijk, Pieter J A N Stappers, Remko V A N D E R Lugt, and Elizabeth B Sanders. 2005. Contextmapping : experiences from practice..
    19. 19. Responses • Gained 105 responses out of 291 participants 66% positive 34% negative • It has bad architecture. • There are too many brand shops which are not unique.• Zuidpoort is very attractive for shopping • Very dark at night• Parking garage has a good accessibility • “Library, grocery store, many shops, and “Difficult to too far away from the main shops are reach”.• Historical place shopping area parking garage are closed together. They are•easy toplace where I was born The access”. • parking garage is too far from the• There is no bad place in Delft center.• beautiful district with nice buildings and • Street is narrow and unsafe for crossing restaurants cyclists versus pedestrians
    20. 20. Points, polylines, and polygons•Convert sketches and descriptioninto database using arcGIS•The types of shapes correspondentwith the entities form a city:buildings, streets, and districts
    21. 21. Points Characteristic of Delft It is difficult to find the garage entrance. There is no sign indicating the car park. Parking is very inconvenient. Garages are far from the center and in evenings they are always full.
    22. 22. Polylines (positive)
    23. 23. Polylines (negative) TU The crossroads are unsafe and because of busy cyclists and not easy to access to TU It is pedestrians Pedestrians pavements are narrow Delft through the bridge
    24. 24. Polygons (positive) good shops and well Vesteplein has many renovated area easy possibilities and Good parking facility. accessibility. can easily Pedestrians access to shops.
    25. 25. Polygon (negative) Markt is too far from the Zuidpoort garage new buildings do not fit Markt: main shops are with the historical Delft located far away
    26. 26. Results of Preference map1. How difficult is it to reach to desired shopping destinations?2. Why do good and bad preferences involved in streets show the difference in terms of geographical configuration?3. Why is there a “cognitive gap” between the Markt and Zuidpoort?
    27. 27. 3.2 Preferences and Behavior B A
    28. 28. 3.2.1 How difficult is it to reach to desired shopping destinations?“There are a lot of nice “Shops are far off from the “’Markt’ and main shopsshops but it is not easy to main shopping area” are too far”find them”
    29. 29. Correlation with distance of tracks and number of destinations (1)
    30. 30. Correlation with distance of tracks and number of destinations (2)
    31. 31. Correlation with distance of tracks and number of destinations (3)
    32. 32. Correlation with distance of tracks and number of destinations (3)
    33. 33. 3.2.2 Adapting behaviors •How are the movement patterns adapted depending on the extent of experience? •Understand the ‘adaptation’ may help interpret the preference map. shopping
    34. 34. Radius and routing Radius Morphological types
    35. 35. Zuidpoort (44)first visit (25) more often than 120/ year (19)
    36. 36. first visit (25)
    37. 37. more often than 120/ year(19)
    38. 38. Pheonix (16)first visit (8) more often than 120/ year (8)
    39. 39. 4. Conclusions1. Difficulties in shopping activities • Shops in the periphery of the center are often avoid visiting even though they are interesting and specialized shops. • It would be happen to visitors who want to buy daily goods and luxury/fashion items in the same visit. • Visitors walking average distance, who departed from either ZP or PH car parks, do not reach to the other end of the shopping district (Choolstraat , Zuidpoort)2. Geographic configurations of preference map • Streets on WE direction cannot provide strong orientation that effects to visitors image on the city and their easiness of wayfinding. • Streets on SN direction works as strong corridors and majority of people take the same routes.