Co-designing an SMS service for London’s homeless Ohyoon Kwon, Annemiek van Boejien t:@ohyoonkwn 1
This presentation will talkabout how designers cancollaborate with a vulnerableuser group and theirsupportive service deliveryorganizations.
Homeless peopleHomeless people have a variety of complex problems.Varying accommodation status and levels of habituation.They are hard to reach to provide right supports.
Homeless Service Providers http://hoffman.photoshelter.com/image/I0000.Kp.jl._edE coalitionforthehomeless.orgEach service environment has its own policies that regulatethe accessibilities and behaviors of the homeless users
Designers Adapted from four types of co-design practice (Mattelmäki&SleeswijkVisser, 2011)Use of various techniques/ activities to involve intendedusers into a design process
Inside Homeless Service people providers How can designers engage with related parties and co-Outside design a service? Through performing a variety of activities such as research, workshops, prototyping and testing services, evaluation… Designers
Two approaches to co-operate with the homelessand service providers.
Homeless Service Service people providers providers Designers Homeless Designers peopleDesigners become Homeless people are insiders invited to the outside
http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/designprocessApplication of the ‘in/outside approach’ to the ‘DoubleDiamond’ design process of an actual service design case
Case:subtitleSection Homeless SMSDevelopment of an SMS service for London’s homeless
Most homeless people in London own a (simpletype of ) mobile phone
For us these are everyday media, but for someit is uncomfortable and unusual.
Service providers Other homeless/ ex- homeless people Outside worldThis is social mediain a ‘homeless’ context
Designers becomeinsiders, by volunteering in Homeless people Service providerstheir environments. Designers+Conduct observation researchBuild empathy with usersEstablish trusting relationships_Invest substantial time & energyRisk of being burn out because ofconfronting users’ difficult lives
The results of the research. A close look at the life of ahomeless person
The homeless are invited tothe outside, by participating Service providersin workshops facilitated bydesigners.+Create a setup that participantscan actively exchange ideasDramatically increaseparticipants’ understanding on theproject Homeless Designers_ peopleIt may infringe regulations ofservice providers
A workshop with homeless participants, volunteers, serviceproviders and designers.
A service concept is co-developed with five engaged Service providersparticipants through runningprototype services usingtheir mobile phones.• Participants were supported by providing them a pre-paid SIM, unlimited SMS• 1 person stopped using the service after 2 weeks Homeless Designers people• 3 participants became core- users
Information packages were provided explaining how to usethe service.
Participants were involved in several user feedbacksessions
The consolidated servicewas brought into a homeless Homeless people Service providersday centre. Tested with 25+clients. Designers• Worked in the day centre building during service hours• Restrictions with engagement with participants• Participants got incentive of a lunch voucher (£2)• One employee played an integral role
http://urmsg.wordpress.com/The day centre starts a new service ‘UR_msg’ from thisJanuary
Inside Outside Outside InsideDiscover: Define: Develop: Deliver:User Research Conceptualization Service prototyping Implementation Workshop
Homeless Service people providersIn-outside approach‘Double Act’ Tithcn and Binnie (1992)Designers need to be awareabout the extent ofengagement with theparticipation of homeless, both Designersinside and outside theirenvironments.
Ethical Issues 1Dual roles are not alwaystransparent to participants aswell as to organizationse.g. a friendly relationship established as aninsider (volunteer) unintentionally is beinginstrumented for the design project.
Ethical Issues 2Prototype services are realinterventions to people’sroutine “How come there’s not any smsmsgs; not even weather forecast?” A text message from a participant
Ethical Issues 3The Contribution ofparticipants is difficult toreward.Providing a lunch voucher is (£2) not sufficient
Possibilities for designers1. Allow participants to haveownership of the project.The ladder of citizen participation,Arnstein (1969)
Possibilities for designers2. Consider participants’abilities and graduallyincrease the level ofengagement co-production agreement on mistrust participation contribution