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Chapter12 Masonry


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Chapter12 Masonry

  1. 1. 225 12 Heritage Structures INTRODUCTION The tragedy of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat took its toll on the rich architectural heritage and culture of the region. The earthquake indiscriminately affected the historic and the new, the rich and the poor, the religious and the secular. A detailed investigation of these landmarks of history and heritage was conducted immediately after the earthquake. This chapter presents a detailed account of this condition assessment by the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH), New Delhi, and the members of the EERI Reconnaissance Team, in particular for those structures not protected by the Archeological Survey of India (ASI) and the Gujarat State Department of Archeology (GSAD). EXISTING HERITAGE STRUCTURES Gujarat, especially the Kachchh district, has been continuously inhabited since the days of the Indus Valley civilization (3500-1500 BC) and hence some of oldest evidences of civilization exist there. The Kachchh region has about 250 heritage towns and villages holding more than 15,000 heritage properties. It is a region with a rich cultural heritage. It is estimated that of the approximately 15,000 heritage structures in Kachchh, about 1,500 are of Heritage Structure Type I (i.e., of exceptional quality), about 3,500 of Heritage Structure Type II (i.e., of some merit) and the remaining 10,000 are of Heritage Structure Type III (i.e., buildings with group values like bazaars and historic housing stock). A detailed description of these heritage structure typologies is given in Table 12-1. During 1988-92, INTACH studied and listed 128 of the total 5000 Heritage Structures of Type I and II. In all, it is estimated that about 10,000 heritage structures (approximately two-thirds of the total 15,000 structures damaged) of the State were either destroyed or extensively damaged during this earthquake. In the entire State of Gujarat, there are about 350 protected buildings managed by the ASI and about 650 by the GSAD, and are mostly of Type I. About 50 of these were damaged. Among the greatest monumental losses are the complete collapse of Rao Lakhaji Chhatri in Bhuj, built in 1761, and the severe damage to Limoji Mata Mandir in Delmal, Mehsana District, built in the 11th century. The Rao Lakhaji Chhatri is the funeral memorial of the King. It has a pillared hall covered by a dome. This tomb was reduced to rubble during the earthquake. The Limoji Mata Mandir, an important Hindu temple structure, sustained partial collapse during the earthquake. For the 650 buildings, mostly Type I, under the auspices of the GSAD, the damage was not as dramatic as the collapse of the Rao Lakhaji Chhatri at Bhuj. About 200 of these precious heritage buildings suffered extensive damage — of these, about 150 are moderately damaged and about 50 are heavily damaged. Among them are the old temples of Kachchh from the 9th-11th century like those at Purneshwar, Kanthkot and Kera, and buildings from the 17th Century, like the Bhujia Kotha and Lakotha, at Jamnagar. The shikhar (the tower-like portion and
  2. 2. Heritage Structures 226 Table 12-1. Classification of heritage structures as per Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) Heritage Structure Type Definition Comment I Buildings and precincts of national importance, Deserve careful embodying excellence in architectural style, designs, preservation. technology and material usage and/or aesthetics. They are associated with great historic events, personalities, movements or institutions. They have been and are the prime landmarks of the region. All natural sites are examples of this type. II Buildings and precincts of regional or local Deserve intelligent importance possessing special architectural or conservation and may aesthetic merit or cultural or historic significance, be sensitively reused. though of a lower scale than in Type I Heritage Structures. They are local landmarks that contribute to the image and identity of the region. They may be the work of master craftsmen or may be models of proportion and ornamentation, or designed to suit a particular climate. III Buildings and precincts of importance for Deserve intelligent townscape. They evoke architectural, aesthetic, or conservation, though to sociological interest, though not as much as a lesser extent than Type II Heritage Structures. They contribute to Type II Heritage determining the character of the locality. They are Structures, and special representative of the lifestyle of a particular protection to unique community or region, and may be distinguished features and attributes. by their setting on a street line, or by their special Changes are permitted character of façade and uniformity of height, if conforming to width, and scale. conservation principles. Table 12-2. Distribution of damages in all heritage structures (Types I, II and III together) sampled as part of this investigation Sample Number of Damaged Structures Districts Surveyed Public Private Religious Kachchh 256 109 112 35 Jamnagar, Junagadh, Rajkot 128 56 44 25 Mehsana, Surendranagar, Ahmedabad 110 49 39 22
  3. 3. Heritage Structures 227 tallest part of the temple, usually located over the deity) of the temple at Purneshwar had many stones displaced and sustained partial collapse. Stones were dislodged at Wedi Medi, a nearby dry stone masonry building (without any mortar), considered the oldest surviving architectural structure. It also suffered cracking and collapse of some other stones. Kanthkot is a 11th century fort with temples within it. The Sun and Jain temple structures, built with stones and dry masonry, completely collapsed. The stone masonry temple at Kera suffered extensively during the 1819 earthquake with most of it collapsing; only the back half of the shikhar survived then. Part of this surviving portion of the shikhar collapsed during this earthquake. The adjoining fort wall and its gate also suffered partial collapses. Bhujia Kotha is a large bastion, 30 m high tower within the fortification in Jamnagar. The walls in the top stories of this building sustained severe cracks, and parts of it even collapsed. Lakhota is a small circular fortress in the middle of the lake facing Bhujia Kotha. The cupolas on the rear building sustained cracks in the upper portions and partial collapse. INTACH conducted a damage survey of 494 buildings, covering all the above types, and using the earlier listing (1988-92) as the reference. Table 12-2 provides the summary of this survey in the different districts of the affected area. In the Kachchh district, about 25 percent of the Type I structures, about 50 percent of Type II and about 70 percent of Type III were damaged. HISTORICAL INFLUENCES ON ARCHITECTURE OF THE KACHCHH REGION An historic timeline of Kachchh is given in Figure 12-1. The heritage of Kachchh begins in prehistoric times, but the most significant phase is associated with the Indus Valley civilization (3500-1500 BC), as shown in the recent excavations of Dholavira. Remnants from the 8th-12th centuries indicate the association of the region with rich Hindu and Jain cultures. Kachchh holds the distinction of having the oldest surviving Muslim tomb in the country, built in 1160. This tomb of Ibrahim Shah at Bhadreshwar was built by Muslim traders who came to India by peaceful means more than a decade before the Muslim conquest of India in 1193AD. This initiated the development of the Muslim architecture in the region, which was amalgamated with the then- existing rich Hindu architecture tradition; thereby creating a unique style in this region that evolved and flourished over five centuries. The over four and a half centuries of Muslim rule in this region had a strong influence on the architectural style of historic monuments in Gujarat. The Gujarati style of Indo-Islamic architecture is remarkable for its elegance and its fusion of Hindu and Muslim architectures. Historic monuments from the Muslim-dominated era can be grouped into those from three periods: From 1298-1407 Gujarat was ruled by governors sent by the sultans of Delhi. From 1407-1573, this region was governed by the powerful independent dynasty of the sultans of Gujarat. From 1573-1753, the Mughal period. Very few monuments remain from the first of these periods. The post-Muslim era produced three main architectural styles in Gujarat corresponding to: 1.) the Maratha and Rajput period from 1753-1817; 2.) the Colonial or British period from 1816-1947; and 3.) the Independent India period after 1947. Further, the Portuguese, present in Gujarat since 1509, before the Mughal invasion, also had significant impact on the architecture and culture of the region, especially in the development of port towns, forts, and other warfronts. With the coming of the British in 1816, the regional architecture again went through another transformation, incorporating the western architectural style resulting in the Indo-Saracenic style. This flourished from the early 19th century to the independence period. Due to its trading coast, Kachchh always had influences from the outside that it readily accepted in its lifestyle and architecture. In addition, its isolation from the mainland of Indian continent allowed it to maintain a distinct style of architecture in its heritage buildings. The influence of the western styles resulted in construction of building types that were totally alien to local conditions.
  4. 4. Heritage Structures 228 Figure 12-1. A brief sketch of some of the significant times and the many different kings and kingdoms that ruled over the Kachchh region during the last 4,500 years. The most remarkable of these is the construction of numerous clock towers in the region. These towers, which are a common sight throughout Gujarat, have become visible parts of the identity of these places. The 2001 Bhuj earthquake caused varying degree of damage, from cracks to total destruction, to these structures spread across Gujarat. This damage means not only loss to the decorative structures, but also a deeper loss of identity of the local culture. This survey, the summary of which is presented in this chapter, categorizes the properties of cultural heritage in the earthquake-affected area into various components, based on building typology and the architectural system of the region, namely (a) historic areas with traditional or historic houses and buildings within its core or main areas, (b) heritage buildings and complexes, (c) craft villages, and (d) art objects and artifacts. PERFORMANCE OF HERITAGE STRUCTURES DURING PAST EARTHQUAKES The Kachchh area has a history of cyclic seismic activity. Some of the significant earthquakes in recent history are the 1819 Kachchh earthquake and the 1956 Anjar earthquake. Though there are references to earthquakes in the 9th, 12th, 15th and 18th centuries, not much information is available about the sizes and effects of these earthquakes. The Harappan culture that flourished here during 3500 BC is believed to have declined owing to the seismic activity. The city of Raipur, a 10th-century city near Mandvi, was destroyed by an earthquake in late 12th century and lies in ruins today. Recorded information is available only since the 1819 earthquake, which is believed to have been more devastating than the 2001 Bhuj earthquake, as the former changed the course of the Indus River flowing through Kachchh by the geological formation called Allah Bund. The 1819 earthquake on 16 June at 6:45 pm reduced Bhuj to rubble, and about 2000 people perished. The minarets of the Sultan Ahmed Shah Mosque at Ahmedabad collapsed. Many other monuments were damaged in the 1819 event: the Fort of Sindri along the River Kori was completely destroyed, the oldest temples of Kachchh were built mostly during the 10th through the 12th centuries, and were badly damaged. The Sun temple at Kanthkot and Kotdi, Jain Temple at Kanthkot Fort, and
  5. 5. Heritage Structures 229 Figure 12-2. View from the top of the Mahadev Temple in Bhuj. temples of Hindu God Shiva at Kera (Figure 12-2) and Purneshwar were also damaged in the 1819 earthquake, and so were most fortifications such as Bhuj, Rapar, Bhujjia Fort, and Anjar. Existing structures show little evidence of knowledge related to earthquake engineering in the Kachchh district. The 18th century fortification wall around Old Bhuj was repaired after it was damaged during the 1819 earthquake. This is evident from the thin masonry wall built adjoining the historic fortification. The additional thickness of this wall peeled off during the 2001 Bhuj earthquake, and exposed the historic wall behind. Similarly, the historic core of Anjar town, especially the Khatri Pada area, was severely damaged during the 1956 Anjar earthquake. This part of the town was re-built from the rubble generated during the 1956 earthquake. Earthquake- resistant features are absent in these constructions, and they suffered extensive damages in the 2001 earthquake as well. However, the Swaminarayan Temples, next to the Bhuj Palace and in the Old Ahmedabad city, built during 1820s are exceptions. The Swaminarayan Temples addressed the effects of earthquake forces in their design. These structures have a wood frame with stone masonry, which provided lateral resistance to seismic actions. During the 2001 earthquake, these structures have performed better than even some of the modern structures built around them. The Rani Vaas (or the Queen’s residence), built in the late 16th century in Bhuj Palace, sustained nominal damage during the 2001 earthquake, and the damage is attributed to the lack of maintenance. It is among the rare buildings in Kachchh that uses traditional wood-frame systems for seismic resistance. Lintels (i.e., beams) and posts (i.e., columns) were tied together with the wall plates (i.e., roof bands) to act as a single unit. The posts of colonnades (i.e., columns) were staggered in plan rather than being built in straight lines to provide the much-needed earthquake resistance against lateral forces. The walls were only infills, sometimes even braced by timber posts at regular intervals. The bhongas, the houses of the common man, with traditional vernacular architecture have basic earthquake-resistant features built in them.
  6. 6. Heritage Structures 230 Table 12-3. Damage to the heritage structures surveyed Extent of Damage Buildings Covered (% of Total Buildings) Districts Surveyed Places Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Kachchh 256 56 10 20 30 40 Jamnagar, Junagad, Rajkot 128 32 20 50 20 10 Mehsana, Surendranagar, 110 24 60 25 10 5 Ahmedabad PERFORMANCE OF HERITAGE STRUCTURES DURING THE 2001 BHUJ EARTHQUAKE A survey was conducted covering 112 places (cities, towns and villages) and 494 buildings across the affected area. Damage to heritage buildings ranged from total collapse to completely intact buildings. Owing to high intensities of shaking, up to X on the MSK (Medvedev-Sponheur- Karnik) scale, almost 90 percent of heritage buildings in the State of Gujarat were affected in some form or the other, especially in Kachchh district. Five damage levels, as per the MSK scale, are used to classify the heritage structures; structures with damages of Grades 4 and 5 are combined. Thus, the four groups of structures identified from this survey are: 1. Group 1. Structures that remained intact and can be restored with minimal intervention. 2. Group 2. Structures with slight damage and perhaps can be properly restored by established methods. 3. Group 3. Structures with moderate damage and will require great care for any kind of intervention. Parts of structures in this group may have to be dismantled and then restored with a proper plan for reuse. 4. Group 4. Structures that are extensively damaged or collapsed and are difficult to restore; may require extreme measures and high technical input. Damage to heritage structures in the affected area are shown in Table 12-3. HERITAGE STRUCTURES IN THE KACHCHH REGION BHUJ TOWN The fort city of Bhuj is currently the headquarters of Kachchh district. In 1548, Rao Khengarji I chose it as the capital of the State of Kachchh, a former principality. It was known as Suleiman Nagar during the Mughal period. The old city was confined within the fort walls with five gates built by Rao Deshalji in 1723. The city was taken over by the British in 1819, and in the same year a devastating earthquake caused severe destruction. Bhuj contains several significant structures, like Rao Pragmalji’s Palace Complex, Sharad Baug Palace, Kachchh Museum, Jubilee Hospital, Alfred High School, Kalyaneshwar Temple Complex, Mohammed Pannah Mosque, Fateh Mohammed’s Tomb, the chhatris and the Fort. In the Bhuj earthquake, the old stock of housing in Bhuj was severely affected. The main palaces of Rao Pragmalji and Sharad Baug both sustained major damage. Jubilee Hospital, a significant historical building, completely collapsed. Many temple structures, tombs, mosques,
  7. 7. Heritage Structures 231 Figure 12-3. Wide cracks in exterior walls of the Mahadev Temple in Bhuj. and chhatris—structures with large mass—suffered heavy damage and destruction. Damage to structures was mostly restricted to the upper stories of multistory structures. The lower floors, however, are either inaccessible or damaged due to fallen debris from the upper floors. Mahadev Gate In 1723, Rao Godji built the fort wall surrounding some portions of today’s old Bhuj. This fortification has five gates, one of which is the Mahadev Gate, a massive stone masonry arch decorated on the outside by two sculptures in small niches, one on each side of the arch. Damage was more severe in the inside of the gate, where five stone blocks of the archway, including the keystone, fell off during the earthquake. Mahadev Temple Adjoining the Mahadev Gate is the Mahadev Temple, built in 1920. The roof of this highly decorated stone masonry structure has three small domes and a large central dome (about 6 m in diameter), which sustained radial cracks. Behind the central dome, there is a shikhara (or tower) approximately 15 m tall (Figure 12-2). The intense shaking during the earthquake resulted in an overall dilatation of the stone masonry structure. The walls sustained diagonal tension cracks (Figure 12-3). The roof supporting the entrance porch separated from of the rest of the building. Aiyna Mahal Darbargarh (the palace complex) was set up in 1549 when Khengarji shifted his capital to Bhuj. The present Rani Vaas (residence of the queen) seems to be of his times, though little is known of palaces belonging to his times. Later, many palaces were added and altered over time within the Darbargarh, like the Aiyna Mahal 1741-1760, Fuwara Mahal 1780s and Prag Mahal 1870. The town hall was built around 1723, though it is very likely that the wall around the palace complex was built earlier. The Aiyna Mahal, the Old Palace of Bhuj built by Maharao Lakhpatji (also known as Rao Lakhaji) in the traditional Kachchi style, has decorations with glass mirrors in the audience hall. This “hall of mirrors” and the state apartments, which are the main attraction of the palace, are located in a small, fortified courtyard in the old part of the city. The Aiyna Mahal, a ground plus two-story building with a possible basement story, now houses a museum. Significant portions
  8. 8. Heritage Structures 232 Figure 12-4. Damage to the entrance of the Figure 12-5. Damage to the decorated balconies Aiyna Mahal complex. of the Aiyna Mahal. Figure 12-6. Above Ornate balconies of the Aiyna Mahal sustained substantial damage. Figure 12-7. Right The 15th century walls adjacent to the Aiyna Mahal complex were repaired after the 1819 earthquake. They failed again in this earthquake, revealing the original façade. of the upper two stories collapsed in the earthquake, and the walls of the first and second stories sustained severe cracks. The room located on top of the main arch entrance sustained partial collapse (Figure 12-4). The beautifully decorated balconies in the second story also sustained substantial damage (Figures 12-5 and 12-6), including partial collapses of the second story in the interior courtyard. The old palace was earlier damaged in the 1819 earthquake. The less ornate walls used in the repair separated from the original structure during this earthquake, and exposed the original façade in various places (Figure 12-7). Part of the Aiyna Mahal is the Rani Vaas. Built during the same time as Aiyna Mahal, it has richly carved jharokhas (balconies projecting out under windows). The building is a timber frame structure embedded in brick masonry, and is a remarkable example of traditional earthquake- resistant systems employed in the region. Damages during this earthquake were restricted to spalling of plaster and wood frame-infill separation. In some cases, portions of it collapsed mostly
  9. 9. Heritage Structures 233 Figure 12-8. Façade of the south building of the Prag Mahal in Bhuj. Figure 12-9. Right Large cracks between masonry blocks. Figure 12-10. One of the arch stones slid. Figure 12-11. Heavy ornamented stones used in the parapet fell down at the Prag Mahal in Bhuj. due to neglect of timber, which was significantly weakened by rot and/or termites; the earthquake caused the collapse of those segments. Prag Mahal Across the courtyard from the Old Palace, Aiyna Mahal, is the Prag Mahal (or new palace), designed by Henry St. Claire Wilkins, a British engineer, and built around 1865 by Rao Pragmalji. A grand Durbar Hall in the new Gothic style and the 45 m lofty clock tower command the skyline of the whole town of Bhuj. The Italianate arches have alternating ornate marble and sandstone (Figure 12-8). Most of the structures, including the tall and slender clock tower, sustained severe damage. Joints between masonry blocks opened up (Figure 12-9), some arch stones dislodged or fell off (Figure 12-10), and some corner turrets and parapets partially collapsed (Figure 12-11).
  10. 10. Heritage Structures 234 Rameshwar Temple This temple in Bhuj, made in a typical North Indian Nagara style, is among the important historical temples. It is near the Palace complex with the lake on one of its sides. The main structure was heavily damaged, and the front porch dome collapsed. The masonry stones of the main shikhar were intensely shaken during the quake, resulting in their large displacements and consequent major dilatation cracks in the entire structure. Jubilee Hospital Jubilee Hospital is the oldest hospital building in Bhuj, and now houses the Ayurvedic Hospital. A notable feature of this two-story structure, built of dressed sandstone, is the use of oriel (bay) windows. The building was built in 1887 in European architectural tradition, and extended in 1980s in Indian architectural style. The extended portion, of reinforced concrete frame-type construction, was used as part of a hospital. It completely collapsed in the earthquake, while the historic portion of the building sustained major damage such as cracking of masonry walls and collapse of the roof of the second story. Kalyaneshwar Temple Complex Built in 17th-18th century, the Kalyaneshwar Temple Complex is an important religious complex in Bhuj, with a main structure and many small shrines. The main structure was heavily damaged in the earthquake. Stone walls moved out of plumb, the upper third of the main shikhar collapsed, and the roof dome of the main structure developed many major cracks. The small shrines in the complex were also heavily damaged. Royal Chhatris A Royal Chhatri is the burial place of the royals of the Hindu religion. The Hindu rites of burning the mortal remains were performed here. The places were later decorated with the open column structures, and are architecturally the most significant buildings of the Kachchh region. The Royal Chhatri in Bhuj (Figure 12-12) is protected by the ASI. It is a complex of sandstone structures near Hamirsar Lake, built in memory of Maharao Lakhpatji in the 18th century. These structures have pyramidal and domed roofs supported by decorative columns on a raised plinth. Some of these chhatris in Bhuj have completely collapsed. Others developed cracks in their domes. Stone pieces have fallen from the chajjas (awnings or the eaves of the building) in some. Most of the slender stone columns sustained structural damage due to the heavy roof load (Figure 12-13). These chhatris had been recently restored before the earthquake, their domes made watertight by an additional 100 mm thick plain cement concrete layer. This additional load on the already weak sandstone columns may have contributed to the development of longitudinal splitting cracks in them during the earthquake (Figure 12-14). Sirpat Jail This late 19th century structure, built entirely of masonry, is inside the walled enclosure of Old Bhuj. Entry is through the gate in the middle of southern wall of the complex. In addition to the cells, there is a small workshop area for the prisoners. During the earthquake, the external wall of the jail collapsed in a number of places, particularly at the corners. The parapets suffered out-of-plane collapse. Fateh Mohammed’s Tomb Jamadar Fateh Mohammed was a minister in Kachchh from 1786. He was known for his valor, and later was revered as a saint for his philanthropic works. This tomb, built for him in the late 18th century, is a simple dressed stone structure, square in plan and capped with a fluted dome. It is built on a raised platform, and is covered with fine carvings and colored ceramic tiles. During the quake,
  11. 11. Heritage Structures 235 Figure 12-12. Rao Lakhaji Chhatri in Bhuj Figure 12-13. Rao Lakhaji Chhatri in Bhuj was before the earthquake. The large structure on the reduced to rubble (in the background), while the left is the main chhatri built after the king, Rao chhatri in the foreground sustained significant Lakhaji, while that on the right may have been loosening of the masonry stones at both the sill possibly built after the queen. and lintel levels. This chhatri (possibly of the queen), though still standing, is on the verge of a vertical split and complete collapse Figure 12-14. Damage to stone column of the Royal Chhatri in Bhuj. the wall of this tomb developed some minor cracks, and the inside of the dome cracked near the base. The entrance porch detached itself from the main structure, and columns moved out of plumb. The keystone of the arches at the entrance loosened. Ancillary buildings within the complex were damaged extensively. Hazrat Mohammed Panah Jami Masjid Hazrat Mohammed Panah Jami Masjid is a 300-year-old structure, and is among the oldest mosques in Bhuj town. It has two minarets at each end of the eastern wall, both of which collapsed during the earthquake. The wall surface of the masjid was cement plastered and decorated with kangooras (battlements or motifs derived from fortifications). Some kangooras also have been damaged. The main wall developed cracks and the retaining fort wall around the complex also suffered extensive damage. The small pavilion in front of the masjid completely collapsed. Kachchh Museum The Kachchh Museum in Bhuj was established by Maharao Khengarji around 1877, and is the oldest museum in Gujarat. The museum has the largest collections of Kshatrap inscriptions, with fine
  12. 12. Heritage Structures 236 Figure 12-15. Alfred High School suffered damage to parapets and the front façade separated from the main building. collections of Kachchh silver, golden, and enameling utensils, and other archaeological objects. It is a masonry structure built in a colonial style using local stones. The first floor of the museum was badly damaged, with partial roof collapse. Interiors became inaccessible due to fallen debris. Alfred High School It is the first school on modern lines in Bhuj, opened by Pragmalji II in 1870. The two-story building is designed in Colonial style and constructed with trap stone (an igneous rock formed from cooling lava on the surface of the earth. Trapstone is found “trapped” between layers of other types of stone in the earth). The arched openings are richly decorated and highlighted with white marble (Figure 12-15). The building was badly damaged. The first floor slab and some parts of roof slabs collapsed. Some ornamental stones, mostly on the decorative parapet in the upper floor, were hanging precariously. Masonry wall and arches in openings developed cracks. The front façade separated from the main building and is out of plumb. There was damage to the corners and extensive collapse of the parapets. OTHER HERITAGE MONUMENTS IN THE BHUJ AREA Sant Mekhran Samadhi Temple, Dhrang This 300-year-old temple is among the most sacred structures in Dhrang about 20 km north of Bhuj. Sant Mekhran Baba is a patron saint of Kachchh and is worshipped as the St. Christopher of Kachchh—his blessings are believed to assure a safe journey. Sant Mekhran Baba became the Guru of Maharao Deshal, and were prominent in the history of Kachchh. The temple was later erected at the present site and the samadhis (site of cremation) of Mekhran Baba and his disciples lie here. Every year on the occasion of Mahashivratri (a Hindu festival related to worship of Shiva, one of the Hindu trinity gods, worshiped as “God of Destruction”), a large fair is held at the site. The Sant Mekhran Samadhi Temple is constructed of brick masonry temple on a raised plinth. The temple is in two parts, as are most of the other temples of North India. The natmandir part
  13. 13. Heritage Structures 237 Figure 12-16. The Deputy Collector’s Office at Anjar suffered a collapse toward the front of the building, constructed in the 1820s. Figure 12-17. The Deputy Collector’s Office also sustained damage to interiors with Kachchhi painting. (the space for the congregation in front of the sanctum in a Hindu temple, usually a pillared hall) had a domed roof, while the garbhagriha shikhara (roof of the sanctum of a Hindu temple) had a pyramidal structure. While both parts were square in plan, the former was open on all three sides, while the latter is a closed chamber. Ceramic tiles are used as surface finish inside the temple as a recent addition, and the exterior is lime washed. While the walls of the garbhagriha shikhara sustained large structural cracks, the natmandir collapsed during the earthquake. Pir Dargah, Lakadiya This four-story structure was built as a symbolic structure for the community of Lakadiya (about 70 km east of Bhuj) to control the height of new construction in the village—heights of new buildings are not allowed to be taller than this structure. The octagonal plan structure in stone with lime mortar was built on a square platform raised 1.8 m high. All faces in each story were provided with arched openings. The tower completely collapsed during the earthquake, reduced to rubble. The raised plinth was also damaged. Deputy Collector’s Office, Anjar This 19th century two-story stone masonry structure at Anjar built during the 1820s as a residence of James McMurado, the British Resident in Kachchh, is currently being used as the office of the Deputy Collector of Kachchh. The bungalow is famous for its rare wall painting in local Kachchhi Kamagari style. The Gujarat State Archaeology Department (GSAD) looks after the conservation of these paintings. Some portions of the second story collapsed (Figure 12-16). The decorative interiors also sustained minor damage (Figure 12-17). Mandvi Town Mandvi, 60 km south of Bhuj on the seashore, was established by Rao Khengarji in 1585. It was earlier known as Raipur or Riyan, and is believed to have been destroyed by an earthquake in the 12th century, which legend says was brought about by a saint as a curse on Kachchh.
  14. 14. Heritage Structures 238 Figure 12-18. Collapsed gateway in Mandvi, a fortified city founded in the 16th century. The Mandvi Port, located on the Bhuki Creek and established in the 16th century, was a famous port town of the Sea of Kachchh known for shipbuilding work. Commerce in Mandvi Port brought Africans, Malaysians, Chinese, Japanese, and middle-eastern Arabs. The main street of the fortified city runs along the main bazaar of the town. The bridge across Rukmavati River was built in 1883. Maharaj Vijayrajji built the Vijay Villas Palace near Mandvi in 1929. This palace, constructed in Rajasthani style, was used as a summer palace. The city still retains its old character inside the fortifications. During the earthquake, damages to the residential sector, which is mostly inside the fortifications, range from total collapse to partial destruction. The old palace, which was functioning as a girls’ school, suffered extensive damage. The walls of the building suffered massive cracks and were loosened at the joints. The structure also sustained partial collapses. Gateways along the fortifications suffered major damage (Figure 12-18). Ground fissures were observed stretching in the east-west direction. The dharamshalas along the port and some religious structures suffered heavy damages. The lighthouse structure developed circular cracks, while vertical cracks appeared on the bastion that surrounds it at the base. Kenji Khetsi Dharamshala, Mandvi Port Built in the early 20th century, this masonry structure served as a lodge for travelers who visited Mandvi Port. Its arcaded portico provided shade to the shops in the front and had an internal courtyard for all household activities. The front part of the second story masonry work collapsed (Figure 12-19) and huge cracks developed in the ground floor masonry. The roof of the first story walls and the arcaded portico were severely damaged. Custom Kantha Area The town of Mandvi grew with the development of the port area by Maharao Khengarji in the 17th century. The old housing of Mandvi, built between late17th and late 19th century before modern seismic codes came into existence, was constructed of timber frame, brick and stone masonry infills, and tile roofs. In most of these buildings (most of them were of two stories, three stories), the infill masonry work developed cracks, and overhanging structures collapsed.
  15. 15. Heritage Structures 239 Figure 12-19. Collapsed second story of the Figure 12-20. Debris of the dome of the Kenji Khetsi Dharamshala. Natmandir and the Shikhara of the Jain Temple. The aboveground walls of the distressed lower structure of the sanctum are intact, while the stories above have collapsed almost completely. Dhoramnath Monastery, Dhinodhar Hill, Than Dhinodhar Hill is a small town on the highest peak of Dhinodhar Hill in the northwest of the Kachchh region. Dhoramnath Monastery is a small domed shrine made of limestone and mud, built by Sunderji Shivji Sodagar in 1831. It is dedicated to holy Dhoramnath, who came to Kachchh in search of a secluded place where he could practice penance. After his success, he built the monastery of the Kanphatas (disciples with slit ears). Than, 60 km from Bhuj and 20 km from Nakhtrana, is now a small hamlet. Most of the structures in the monastery complex developed cracks. The walls of the priests’ quarters, with decorative stuccowork in lime plaster, developed large cracks and collapsed in places. Domes in the samadhi area have developed cracks. The arches in the entrance portico developed cracks. The area should be declare a heritage precinct. It has great potential for heritage tourism and should be protected from ad hoc growth. Jain Temple, Katariya The sacred Jain temple at Katariya is an important pilgrimage destination of the Kachchh area. Built on a raised plinth, the masonry temple had two chambers in a typical North Indian style, namely the garbhagriha with a typical shikhara (pyramidical roof; a domed natmandir. The external surface is painted. The temple has a basement with an underground sanctum, which was not accessible because of fallen debris. The natmandir and the shikhara of the garbhagriha collapsed; only the sanctum remained, with wide cracks in its aboveground exposed walls (Figure 12-20). Darbargadh, Wandhiya The 19th century two-storied structure enclosed within fortification with a gateway had a huge collection of metallic, wooden and glass items, and old paintings. This structure at Wandhiya is among the 14 minor royal palaces in Kachchh. The whole building collapsed leaving many important artifacts buried under the debris. The partially surviving gateway, of local stone and highly carved, has wide cracks in its masonry (Figure 12-21).
  16. 16. Heritage Structures 240 Figure 12-21. The entrance gateway structure Figure 12-22. The damaged tomb of Ibrahim. to the Darbargadh at Shikarpur, became inaccessible due to the fallen debris from the total collapse of the rest of the structure. Lakhpat Lakhpat was once a prosperous area of rice cultivation. It also has remains from the Indus Valley civilization in the form of mud fortifications inside the front entrance. After the 1819 earthquake, the Indus River changed its course and much of the agricultural land in the area became a desert and unuseable for agriculture without water. In the second half of 18th century, Rao Lakhaji built a fort about 141 km away from Bhuj adjacent to the Kori Creek and the Great Rann of Kachchh. The fort has an irregular polygon shape, reflecting its mix of many religious communities. It also has some of the significant structures of each of the communities, like Pir Gaus Mohammed’s Tomb, a Gurdwara (a place of worship for the Sikhs, the followers of particular religion founded by Guru Nanak, a saint from 1469-1539 AD in Punjab, India) marking the visit of Guru Nanak Dev, other mosques, and temples. The dome of the Tomb of Pir Gaus Mohammed developed wide cracks at its base that narrow at the apex. Walls of the Gurdwara are also cracked due to differential settlement. Though the residential area suffered damages ranging from wall cracks to partial collapses, most of this damage is attributed to deterioration in the structures. One mosque developed minor cracks in its wall. The fort wall suffered partial collapses of its battlements. Ibrahim’s Shrine and Mosque, Bhadreshwar In the architectural history of the Muslims in India, two small mosques and the elegant shrine of Ibrahim at Bhadreshwar, locally known as the Dargah of Shahzada La’l Shahbaz, play a significant role. They provide architectural prototypes for a style associated with the Muslim trading settlements of south India in Kerala and Coromandel. These structures are dated back to the mid-12th century (~1160), about 30-40 years before the Muslim conquest of north India. Bhadreshwar is now a small village, but in ancient times it was an important fortified port. The shrines of Ibrahim, the Solakhambi Masjid and the Chhoti Masjid, are the other significant Muslim structures. These are among the oldest surviving structures of their kind in India. The shrine of Ibrahim sustained partial collapse in the dome and entrance portico, and severe cracks in walls (Figure 12-22). The Solakhambi Masjid, which was already in ruins, and the Chhoti Masjid suffered minor damages. Many structures in the historic housing area were damaged.
  17. 17. Heritage Structures 241 Figure 12-23. Precariously standing part of the shikhar of the Shiva Temple at Kera. White Eagle School, Devpar This two-story Darbargarh structure at Devpar built in 18th century was extended to house an English middle school, namely the White Eagle School, in the mid-20th century. The architectural character of the older part is rich with elaborately carved jharokhas (balconies, usually with a carved stone/timber trellis), and the interiors are also profusely decorated with stuccowork in lime plaster. The White Eagle School is among the 14 minor royal palaces of Kachchh. The older part of the palace, also affected by the 1819 earthquake, suffered heavy damage in this earthquake as well. The roof and some parts of the upper story wall collapsed. Interior decorations in stuccowork were badly damaged. Parapet walls collapsed at many places. The jharokhas were the worst affected, as they separated from the main structure with the loosening of joints. Shiva Temple Shiva Temple, constructed of sandstone and dry masonry, is among the oldest temples in the Kachchh area. It was built in Kera by Rao Lakho Fulani in 945. It is now a state archaeology protected structure in Kera. Nearby is the fort built during the same times. The temple rests on a raised stone plinth with the pyramidal shikhar roof supported by a decorative wall. A balcony is supported by columns at the back of the temple. The Shiva Temple was severely damaged in the 1819 earthquake when its shikhar collapsed (as suggested by the earlier debris lying around the temple). During the January 26, 2001 earthquake, the existing walls either developed cracks or had loosened joints in the stone walls. Half of the structure collapsed. The surviving parts of the shikhar are precariously balanced (Figure 12-23).
  18. 18. Heritage Structures 242 Kanthkot Fort and Temple, Kanthkot Kanthkot was the capital of the Kathis in the 8th century, and has the oldest fort in Kachchh. Though it has seen many upheavals in its history, the fortifications were razed to the ground in 1816 during the invasion of the British force. In the history of Kachchh, Kanthkot played a significant role. Many rulers of Kachchh exercised great authority from this fort. Abul Fazal mentions Kanthkot as the most important fort that went into the hands of several rulers. On the hilltop are the remains of three temples, among the oldest in the Kachchh region. One is dedicated to the ascetic Kanthadnath (known as Kanteshwar), the second is a Jain temple for Mahavir and is an ASI-protected monument, and the third is the Sun Temple, which was damaged in the 1819 earthquake. During the January 26th event, the gateway fort wall adjoining the entrance of the fort sustained partial collapse. The Jain temple that was already in ruins totally collapsed. The Kanteshwar temple, though repaired recently, also collapsed. HERITAGE STRUCTURES IN THE AHMEDABAD AREA Bhadra Citadel The Bhadra Citadel, constructed in 1415, is the oldest fortification of the royal buildings in Gujarat. Built by Sultan Ahmad Shah I, the founder of Ahmedabad, this Citadel is square in plan and has several gates, the two oldest ones being the main (or Bhadra) gate near two large massive circular towers and the diamond (or Lal) gate. Both are on the east side of the Citadel. On the west side, along the riverbank, the castle rests on the outer city wall, and on the remaining two sides is surrounded by a high brick wall fortified with several imposing bastions. A mosque of Sultan Ahmad Shah I was also built in the Citadel. This Citadel originally housed the palace of the Sultans of Gujarat, and then the palace of the Mughal Viceroys. The Bhadra (main) Gate, originally built in 1411, was improved over time until as late as the 19th century, as suggested by the presence of the Clock Tower. It sustained major damage to its two circular towers during this earthquake. These towers are made of burnt brick and mortar; wall thickness varies from about 1.8 m at the base to approximately 0.8 m near the top. The south tower (Figure 12-24) suffered partial collapse and vertical cracks developed in the north tower (Figure 12-25). The Teen Darwaja (or Triple Gateway), built in 1415 during the reign of Sultan Ahmad Shah I, is a gateway to the enclosure leading to the royal buildings in the Bhadra Citadel. It has three archways of equal height separated by highly decorated buttresses. The gateway is 11 m (37 ft) in height and the arches are approximately 7.5 m (24 ft) high. On top of the central gateway is a terrace, and on top of the other archways on each side, there are decorated balconies. No damage was observed to this structure as a result of the earthquake. Jami Masjid The Jami Masjid of Ahmedabad, constructed over a period of 12 years, from 1412-1424, during the reign of Sultan Ahmad Shah I, is one of the largest and most beautiful religious monuments of the city. Jami Masjid, literally meaning a place for prostration for large gatherings, is one of the architecturally significant Masjids of India, and the most beautiful one in the Eastern world. It has an extensive courtyard with a water reservoir in the middle, enclosed by a large prayer hall on the west and pillared corridors on the other three sides. It is believed that much of this early Ahmedabad mosque was built using materials from the demolished Hindu and Jain temples. The main façade of the prayer hall consists of three main archways (Figure 12-26); the middle one is larger than the other two. Originally this façade also had two shaking minars or minarets, both of which partially collapsed during the 1819 earthquake. The roof of the Jami Masjid consists of 15 principal stone domes (Figure 12-27), and is supported by approximately 300 stone pillars
  19. 19. Heritage Structures 243 Figure 12-24. The south tower of Bhadra Citadel in Ahmedabad suffered partial collapse of the double walled bastion of the south gate tower. Figure 12-25. Vertical crack in the exterior of the north gate tower.
  20. 20. Heritage Structures 244 Figure 12-26. Jami Masjid in Ahmedabad. The main façade of the prayer hall. Figure 12-27. Details of one of the stone domes and lintel-post system in the interior of the prayer hall. Figure 12-28. Central three-story nave in the interior of the prayer hall of the Jami Masjid in Ahmedabad.
  21. 21. Heritage Structures 245 Figure 12-29. Front façade of Bibi-ki Masjid Figure 12-30. Damage to the south shaking with the two shaking minarets. The south (right) minaret in the Bibi-ki Masjid in Ahmedabad. tower was badly damaged. arranged in 15 bays along the transverse (east-west) direction and 26 bays in the longitudinal (north-south) direction; a typical bay spans 2.8 m (9 ft). The central nave is three stories high (Figure 12-28); the two adjacent ones are of two stories and the rest of one story. Damage to this monument was restricted to the interior of the prayer hall, where evidence of relative motion between the stone pieces of the roof was observed, along with local crushing. Sidi-Sayyad Masjid The mosque of Sidi Sayyad, located in downtown Ahmedabad near the Sabarmati River, was completed in 1572. Its design is distinctly different from those of conventional mosques in Gujarat. It has 10 semicircular stone windows covered with delicately carved tracery of tree stems and branches. Those on the western wall are considered to be the finest examples of carved stone tracery in India. Internally, 18 pillars divide the space into 15 bays, crowned by domes of differing styles. No damage was observed in this structure. Bibi-ki Masjid The Bibi-ki Masjid (or wife’s mosque) located at Rajpur, about 1.2 km southeast of the Sarangpur Gate near the Ahmedabad railway station, was built in 1454 by Budhan-bin-Sayyid Yakut in memory of his wife. It is a vast, ponderous building with a triple arched façade and two shaking minarets (Figure 12-29). The south minaret was partially dismantled at the beginning of the 19th century by an Englishman in an unsuccessful attempt to find out the mechanism that allowed both the minarets to vibrate when one of them was shaken. The lower portion of the minarets is richly decorated with carved sandstone with floral motifs. Large cracks developed in the main dome during this earthquake (Figure 12-30). The upper portion of the remaining (north) minaret collapsed as a result of this earthquake. Other damage to
  22. 22. Heritage Structures 246 this mosque included separation of the large masonry stones, particularly at the top and base of the south minaret, collapse of portions of the parapet, damage to the central archway, and local crushing of some stones. Step Wells of Adalaj The Step Wells of Adalaj, a historic monument located about 15 km north of Ahmedabad, is a unique structure with underground residential facility for use in extreme summer. It has four underground levels at some locations, and contains no special earthquake-resistant features. This 500-year old stone and brick masonry structure suffered no damage during the earthquake, even though numerous other monuments in Ahmedabad were damaged. There is no evidence of deterioration of the brick masonry arches. Sun Temple of Modera The Sun Temple of Modera, or the temple of the Sun God, built by Bhimdev I of the Solanki Dynasty in the 11th century, is located about 105 km northwest of Ahmedabad near the town of Mehsana. The Sun Temple consists of two separate structures—one large and one small—and a water reservoir with steps. The temple walls are covered with ornate carvings showing dancing figures and other scenes from the day-to-day life. This structure suffered slight widening of already present cracks between the stone blocks. The pre-existing vertical crack in the wall of the larger chamber widened during the earthquake. Pre-existing cracks in the ring beam of the dome were being monitored with glass strips pasted across the crack; one of the two strips cracked, indicating some movement during the earthquake. Shah Alam Tomb Complex, Ahmedabad Built during 1475-1483, this tomb of Shah Alam, a revered local saint who wielded considerable influence over Ahmad Shahi rulers, is an ASI-protected monument. Lying at the center of a complex, with a mosque added in 1620 to its west, the 20 m × 20 m square plan tomb stands on a low plinth with entrances on all four sides. The principal entrance porch is on the west side facing the mosque, and has an inner domed chamber with two outer colonnaded aisles. The arches spanning the colonnade have collapsed at many places (Figure 12-31) or the keystones have moved precariously. Damages are mostly on the southern part of the tomb; some columns have also moved out of plumb. The roof dome sustained minor cracks. The mosque in the complex suffered no damage. HERITAGE STRUCTURES IN MORBI Durbargadh Waghaji Palace The Durbargadh Waghaji Palace was constructed in 1880 in memory of Wagh Bahadurisinh, a former ruler of Morbi State. Designed in a Venetian Gothic style, embellished with classical balustrades and a few Oriental conceits, the internal courtyards are even more eclectic with Rajput arches, Gothic windows, and Saracenic domes. The Gothic windows are surrounded by cusped Rajput arches and the classical urns and balustrades mingle with Moghul kiosks. Extensive portions of the Palace collapsed during the January 26 earthquake, and the remaining were severely damaged. Some portions of the first floor collapsed. The interiors were inaccessible due to the fallen debris of the roof (Figure 12-32). The jharokhas have suffered severe damage. Wellingdon Secretariat The Wellingdon Secretariat (also called Mani Mandir), a large rectangular two-story sandstone masonry building (Figure 12-33) was built during 1934-1935 and was inaugurated by the Viceroy of India, Earl of Wellingdon, on 13 January 1936. Although the building was built during the
  23. 23. Heritage Structures 247 Figure 12-32. Interior of the Durbargadh Waghaji Palace shows debris from collapsed roof. Tower at end suffered partial collapse. Figure 12-31. Damaged arches in the Shah Alam Tomb, Ahmedabad. British colonial period, its architectural style has a beautifully decorated Saracenic character. Built of yellow sandstone and marble, it is a fine blend of Hindu and Colonial style. The openings are highlighted by “Bengal” arch roofs used as projections for sunshade. The roof is elaborately decorated with carvings in the stone and with Rajasthani-style chhatris. The building has a large central courtyard with a palace and a temple housed in its interior. The main sanctum of the temple has a raised towering structure, which tapers at the apex in a North Indian temple style. The top portion of this shikhar (spire-like crowning part of the Hindu temple) collapsed, and the interiors were inaccessible due to the fallen debris. The roof (Figure 12-34) and portions of first floor also collapsed. The jharokhas have suffered badly. The large block masonry structure was intensely shaken, resulting in the loosening of the masonry and diagonal cracks at the corners of the building. The intricately carved stone masonry columns in the interior sustained vertical cracks during the quake (Figure 12-35). Lloyd Gateway The Lloyd Gateway, a large stone masonry gateway built in the early 20th century in downtown Morbi, features a relatively slender clock tower. During the earthquake, the large block masonry stones moved inwards as the arch above the clock cracked. The stones in the roof dome over the clock tower moved away from each other. Further, the small chhatris located at the four corners of the intermediate level roof over the gateway collapsed.
  24. 24. Heritage Structures 248 Figure 12-33. Wellingdon Secretariat building after the earthquake. The temple tower sustained partial collapse. A cupola in the middle portion of the building collapsed. The walls of large block stone masonry loosened causing large vertical cracks in walls, particularly at the corners of the building. Figure 12-34. The intricately decorated sandstone surface of the entrance to the Wellingdon Secretariat building and its collapsed upper portion. Figure 12-35. Longitudinal fracture of one of the stone columns in the interior courtyard of the Wellingdon Secretariat building.
  25. 25. Heritage Structures 249 Figure 12-36. Ranjit Villas Palace, Wankaner, before the earthquake. Figure 12-37. Ranjit Villas Palace after the January 26, 2001 earthquake. Most of the damage is at the roof level. The dome above the tower collapsed. The falling debris from the clock tower damaged the rest of the roof and the structure at levels below. Cracks developed on the corner of the chhatris (cupolas) at the roof. The pillared hall on the ground adjoining the main structure towards the right (just as the one on the left) collapsed. HERITAGE STRUCTURES IN RAJKOT DISTRICT Ranjit Villas, Wankaner The guest palace at Ranjit Villas was intended mostly for entertaining European guests (Figure 12-36). It was built in the 1890s within the Ranjit Villas palace complex in Bhuj. It has superb Indian craftsmanship and modern comforts. Though of smaller size, the guest palace is as grand as the palace itself. It was designed by Colonel Henry St. Clair Wilkins, who also designed the Prag Mahal. (The guest palace is Indo-Saracenic in architectural style, completely different from the Italianate Gothic style St. Clair Wilkins used in the Prag Mahal.) Until the earthquake, Ranjit Villas compound was used as the residence of the former Maharao (king or maharaja). During the Bhuj earthquake, the upper story collapsed in some places and the rear side balcony was badly damaged (Figure 12-37). Art objects and marble sculptures displayed in the rear courtyard were damaged by the debris from upper story.
  26. 26. Heritage Structures 250 Figure 12-39. Failure of arches at Sharad Bagh. Figure 12-38. Damaged second story of the twin minaret mosque, Shah Baba’s Dargah. Jaleshwar Wat Mahal This is an approximately 400-year-old palace on the outskirts of Halvad about 100 km from the epicenter, built along the edge of the lake. It is a typical load bearing two-story structure with elaborate jharokhas on its façade and extensive carvings in woodwork on beams, columns, and brackets. A 5-story impressive octagonal tower with jharokhas on all sides stood in the middle of the internal courtyard. The tower, constructed as a commemorative tower, is the highlight of the palace. Due to the earthquake, there is extensive damage to the palace and tower, which sustained structural cracks, wall collapses, and failure of timber beams and columns. The parapet collapsed at some locations, and the roof was severely damaged and detached from the main structure of the palace. The southern portion of the tower also suffered extensive structural cracks in the middle of the walls and jharokhas, running throughout the height.
  27. 27. Heritage Structures 251 Figure 12-40. Failure of arches at Prag Mahal. Figure 12-41. Failure of the connection between walls in Aiyna Mahal at corner. Shah Baba’s Dargah This is a significant religious structure in and around Wankaner. The mosque is a two-story structure whose entrance is flanked by two architecturally wonderful circular minarets. The towers have viewing balconies supported on richly decorated brackets (Figure 12-38). It is among the oldest structures in Wankaner town and is believed to have been built in the 16th century. The minaret developed major wall cracks. The top portion of the sanctum between the minarets sustained pounding-type damage in the arches. The rear-side wall of the sanctum also has been damaged. OBSERVATIONS Even though earthquakes have been occurring regularly in the area, construction practices used in historic buildings do not seem to have addressed the issue. Even in the choice of architectural treatments, architectural systems like arches and domes that are not suitable for earthquake prone areas have been used extensively (e.g., Sharad Bagh, Prag Mahal Palace, and Mahadev Gate at Bhuj). Arches suffered substantial damage owing to outward movement of their supports generated during the earthquake (Figures 12-39 and 12-40); displaced keystones were prominent in historic buildings. Because the walls were not tied together (Figure 12-41), and because wall corners in masonry structures were not reinforced, structural failures were extensive, especially when one of the supporting walls collapsed or corners of the buildings caved in (e.g., Ranjit Villa, Alfred High
  28. 28. Heritage Structures 252 Figure 12-43. Fort wall, Bhuj. Figure 12-42. Delamination of thick masonry walls in Bhuj at Sirpat Jail. School, and Darbargadhs at Devpur and Nagarecha). Even with timber construction, many of the historic buildings did not use wall plates and frames, which resulted in the collapse of roofs in many cases (e.g., Naoroji Bungalow at Bhuj). Chhatris (pavilions) were built with heavy domes on slender supports, which collapsed under the lateral forces of the earthquake. The best example of this is the Rao Lakhaji Chhatri at Bhuj built in the 18th century. Walls made up of thick masonry and of random rubble, without adequate through-stones, sustained delamination (Figure 12-42). This was seen in almost all fortifications (Figure 12-43) and in the jail buildings at Bhuj and Rapar. In some areas with historic housing, the damages were due to heavy masonry structures. Other factors that may have contributed to the poor performance of historic structures in the region are the poor quality of mortar used as binder and the use of soft sandstone, both of which caused walls to delaminate. Tall and flexible towers suffered extensively due to the swaying and rattling effects of the earthquake (Figure 12-44). Lack of maintenance of structures has resulted in their general deterioration. As a result, their joints and structural members, especially those of timber, have weakened and may have contributed to the collapse of these structures. Over the past three decades, attempts to restore and maintain historic buildings by using cement mortar to close the gaps in dry masonry joints have stiffened the structures. This led to higher lateral forces being generated in these structures, and in some cases resulted in their complete collapse.
  29. 29. Heritage Structures 253 Figure 12-44. Damaged minaret of Auliya Mosque, a protected monument in Ahmedabad. There has been no definitive pattern of damage to heritage buildings as most of them behaved as a composite structure. Even when arches and domes were extensively damaged in some structures, there was little or no damage to nearby structures with similar construction. Within the same parts of the old towns of Anjar and Bhuj, some streets are almost untouched, while others are in ruins—even with similar construction and building material. There is no immediate explanation for this phenomenon, but it would be important to investigate these aspects. The buildings that survived with little or no effect are the ones made with construction technology suited to face the earthquake forces. The best examples of the frame-structure buildings that survived are the Pol construction in Ahmedabad, the Rani Vaas in Bhuj Palace, the vegetable market structure in Bhuj made with steel trusses, and the bhongas (i.e., traditional huts) of the Banni tribes. The frame structure in either timber or steel gives the much-required tensile capacity, and the steel trusses result in a light roof, which is better suited for earthquake conditions. The circular mud walls and thatch roofs with timber frames in the bhongas are observed as the best- suited structures in the region (see Chapter 11, Masonry). CONCLUSIONS The composite character of the structures in the Kachchh region resulted in poor performance of the historic structures of the region during the January 26, 2001 earthquake. A combination of factors, namely geometry and dimensions, the large mass, the use of the structure, the choice of building materials, the lack of adequate interlocking mechanisms in masonry work, and
  30. 30. Heritage Structures 254 the type of lateral load-resisting system adopted, have determined the overall behavior of the historic structures in the region. Only structural systems with a timber frame system seem to have performed well. The regional architectural style was based mostly on aesthetics and the fashion of the times, with little consideration given to earthquake-resistant features. Even recent modifications to these historic buildings show disregard of earthquake considerations. Moreover, lack of maintenance (proper monitoring and use of inappropriate materials) also exaggerated the effects of earthquake on these constructions. As no comprehensive protection mechanisms exist in the country for heritage structures, interventions are required at both the area and building levels. At the area level, both policy and planning are required that are sensitive towards cultural and conservation issues. All rehabilitation, relocation, and redevelopment efforts should address promotion and preservation of cultural heritage of the region. At the building level, technical inputs in terms of structural analysis, building material behavior, retrofitting details and options for conservation of historic buildings need to be studied in greater detail. For the conservation of these historic buildings, interventions are required for their re-use and technical inputs are required for their proper restoration and retrofitting. Special building code provisions for repair seismic strengthening/restoration of heritage structures are urgently required for their long-term protection. Available knowledge on the seismic behavior of these structures is also very limited. Detailed studies and research will help to better understand the repair, strengthening, and restoration processes. Maintenance and monitoring also have to be carefully understood and worked out to prevent inflicting further damage during restoration. Reconstruction and preparation of development plans and guidelines should incorporate earthquake resistant technologies. Long- term strategies are necessary for managing the existing heritage structures and areas. REFERENCES M.S. Commissariat, 1930. History of Gujarat. Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd, Mumbai, India. Grover Satish, 1981. The Architecture of India Islamic. Vikas Publishing House Private Limited, New Delhi, India. Tagdell, C., 1990. The History of Architecture of India. Phaidon Press Limited, London. Government of Gujarat, 1984. Ahmedabad District Gazetteer. Government Press. Jain, K., and M. Jain, 2000. Architecture of Indian Desert. AADI Center, Ahmedabad. Fielden Sir, B.M., 1987. Between Two Earthquakes, Cultural Properties in Seismic Zones. ICCROM, Rome, Italy. London, C.W., (Ed.), 2000. The Arts of Kachchh. Marg Publications, Mumbai, India. Jethi, P.J., 2000. Kachchh People and their Handicrafts. Narayan P. Jethi, Bhuj, India. Menon, K.N., 1999. Kachchh - The Crown of Gujarat. Raj Computers, Bhuj, India. Williams, L.F.R., 1958. Black Hills Kutch in History and Legend: A Study in Indian Local Loyalties. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, England. World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, 2001. Gujarat Earthquake Recovery Program. Assessment Report. Hughes, R., and Z.A. Lubkowski. The Survey of Earthquake Damaged Non-Engineered Structures: A Field Guide. EEFIT, London, England. Chainani, S. Suggested Regulations for Heritage and National Precincts. MMR Heritage Conservation Society. Development Control Guidelines for the Opera House Precinct. User Manual.
  31. 31. Return to Table of Contents Next Chapter Heritage Structures 255 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Diray Gupta acknowledges the contributions of all the team members of INTACH Gujarat Initiative 2001 towards the damage surveys and financial support from INTACH. CHAPTER CONTRIBUTORS Principal Authors Divay Gupta, Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage, New Delhi, India Eduardo Miranda, M.EERI, John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center, Stanford University, USA C.V.R. Murty, M.EERI, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India Contributing Authors Rakesh K. Goel, M.EERI, Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo, California, USA Mark Aschheim, M.EERI, Mid-America Earthquake Center, University of Illinois, USA Figure Credits Figures 12-17, 12-19 to 12-24, 12-31 and 12-32, 12-34, 12-37 to 12-44 by Divay Gupta Figures 12-2 to 12-6, 12-8 to 12-11, 12-25 to 12-29, 12-35 by Eduardo Miranda Figures 12-7 and 12-30 by Mark Aschheim Figure 12-12 to 12-14 by Paul Tirtharaj, Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage, New Delhi, India Figures 12-13 to 12-15 from the archives of the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage, New Delhi, India Figure 12-20 by Kanthan Mani, Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage, New Delhi, India Figure 12-35 by Jaswant N. Arlekar, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India