ROCKS AND MINERAL
RESOURCES
Geology
The Walker School
Essential Questions
   What elements are important for our society?
   What is the average crustal content of common
   ...
Rocks
   A rock is an
    aggregate of one or
    more minerals.
   There are over a
    1,000 different types
    of ro...
Rock Classifications
   Physical Properties
   Chemical Composition




                           Specimen of Tourmalin...
Rock Formation Cycle
WHAT MINERALS ARE
IMPORTANT TO OUR
SOCIETY?
Minerals
   A mineral is a naturally
    occurring, inorganic
    solid with an orderly
    crystalline structure and
   ...
Medieval Manuscripts
   Much of the ink used in
    these brilliantly colored
    manuscripts came from
    various miner...
Economically Important Minerals
   Aluminum
   Coal
   Copper
   Iron
   Lead
   Salt
   Tin
MATTER, ELEMENTS, AND
BODING
Periodic Table of Elements




                             Fig. 3-4, p. 74
Types of Bonds
   Ionic Bonds
   Covalent Bonds
   Metallic Bonds
   Van Der Waals Bonds   Increase
                  ...
Ionic Bonds in Minerals




                          Fig. 3-6a, p. 76
Covalent Bonds



                             Sheering




         Covalent Bonds in              Covalent Bonds in
    ...
TO WHAT EXTENTS MUST A
MINERAL BE CONCENTRATED
TO BE ECONOMICALLY
VIABLE?
Common Elements in Earth’s Crust




                               Fig. 3-11, p. 80
Mineral Contents of Common Rocks
   About 0.0001 to 0.008 weight percent of copper,
    lead, zinc and tin
   About 0.00...
Economic Determinants of Viable Mineral Deposits


   Mining Technologies
   Market Value
Economically Viable Deposits
   25 x crustal content for iron
   60 x crustal content for copper, lead, zinc, and tin
 ...
HOW ARE MINERALS
FORMED?
Mineral Formation Processes
   Sedimentation (coal)
   Precipitation (salts, metals)
   Crystallization from Magma Plut...
Sedimentation of Coal
Crystallization from Magma Plumbs
Fluid Inclusions
Mineral Groups
Silicates Contain
   Silicon
   Oxygen




                    Quartz (SiO2)
Carbonates Contain
   Carbon
   Oxygen
   One or More Metallic
    Elements

                           Dolomite
Oxides Contain
   Oxygen
   One or More Other
    Elements (Usually
    Metals)



                        Iron Oxide
Sulfates and Sulfides Contain
   Sulfur
   One or More Other
    Elements




                        Iron Sulfide - Pyr...
Halides Contain
   Halogen Ion
     chlorine,
              fluorine,
      bromide and iodine
   One or More Other
   ...
WHAT ARE THE PROPERTIES
OF MINERALS AND HOW ARE
THEY IDENTIFIED?
Mineral Identification
   Crystalline Structure      Fluorescence
   Hardness                   Magnetism
   Luster  ...
Color




Imperial Topaz - Al2F2SiO4
Streak




Hematite is Fe3O4
Luster
Minerals are Crystalline




Typical of Halite           Typical of Pyrite     Typical of   Typical of
                   ...
Cleavage Patterns




                    Fig. 3-17, p. 88
Mineral Database
http://webmineral.com/
WHAT ARE NONRENEWABLE
MINERAL RESOURCES?
Metallic Mineral Resources
   Iron
   Tin
   Copper
   Aluminum
   Gold
   Platinum (PGE’s)
                       T...
Non-Metallic Mineral Resources
   Salt
   Clay
   Sand
   Phosphates
   Soil

                    Phosphate Mine,
   ...
Energy Resources
   Coal
   Oil
   Natural Gas
   Uranium




                  The Rössing Uranium Mine; located in t...
HOW ARE BURIED MINERAL
DEPOSITS FOUND?
Underground Detective Work
   Aerial Photos
   Satellite Image
   Radiation-Measuring Equipment
   Magnetometer
   Gr...
InfoTerra - Satellites
http://www.infoterra.co.uk/applications_ogm_mineral.php




                                       ...
Mineral Resource GIS Database
http://gdr.nrcan.gc.ca/minres/data_e.php
Magnetometer Survey
Measures changes in the
Earth’s magnetic field
caused by magnetic
minerals, such as iron ore.
Deep-Ocean Gravimeter

Measures differences in
gravity caused by
differences in density
between an ore deposit
and the sur...
HOW ARE BURIED MINERAL
DEPOSITS REMOVED?
Mining Strategies
   Surface Mining
   Sub-Surface Mining
Surface Mining Methods
   Open-Pit Mining
   Glory-Hole Mining
   Dredging
   Area Strip Mining
   Contour Strip Mini...
Appalachian Mountain Top Removal of Coal
http://www.appvoices.org/index.php?/site/mtr_overview/
Mineral Deposits Associated with
Magma Intrusions

Located in Siberia,
the mine in the
picture is apparently
the world's l...
Mineral Deposits Associated with Plate
Boundaries




                                   Fig. 2-26, p. 62
Escondida Copper Mine, Chili
   is today the world's largest
    producing mine with
    750,000 metric tons of
    produ...
Sub-Surface Mining Methods
   Digging Deep Vertical Shafts
   Blast Subsurface Tunnels
   Use Machinery to Remove Ore
WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACTS OF USING MINERAL
RESOURCES?
Impacts (mining, processing, use)
   Scarring and disruption of
    land surface
   Collapse of land above
    mines
  ...
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Rock and Minerals

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Rock and Minerals

  1. 1. ROCKS AND MINERAL RESOURCES Geology The Walker School
  2. 2. Essential Questions  What elements are important for our society?  What is the average crustal content of common minerals?  To what extent must a metal be concentrated above its average crustal content to make mining it economically viable?
  3. 3. Rocks  A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals.  There are over a 1,000 different types of rocks on Earth.
  4. 4. Rock Classifications  Physical Properties  Chemical Composition Specimen of Tourmaline and Quartz
  5. 5. Rock Formation Cycle
  6. 6. WHAT MINERALS ARE IMPORTANT TO OUR SOCIETY?
  7. 7. Minerals  A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with an orderly crystalline structure and a definite, homogeneous chemical composition.
  8. 8. Medieval Manuscripts  Much of the ink used in these brilliantly colored manuscripts came from various minerals.
  9. 9. Economically Important Minerals  Aluminum  Coal  Copper  Iron  Lead  Salt  Tin
  10. 10. MATTER, ELEMENTS, AND BODING
  11. 11. Periodic Table of Elements Fig. 3-4, p. 74
  12. 12. Types of Bonds  Ionic Bonds  Covalent Bonds  Metallic Bonds  Van Der Waals Bonds Increase In Bond Strength
  13. 13. Ionic Bonds in Minerals Fig. 3-6a, p. 76
  14. 14. Covalent Bonds Sheering Covalent Bonds in Covalent Bonds in Diamonds Graphite Fig. 3-7, p. 76
  15. 15. TO WHAT EXTENTS MUST A MINERAL BE CONCENTRATED TO BE ECONOMICALLY VIABLE?
  16. 16. Common Elements in Earth’s Crust Fig. 3-11, p. 80
  17. 17. Mineral Contents of Common Rocks  About 0.0001 to 0.008 weight percent of copper, lead, zinc and tin  About 0.00001 to 0.000002 weight percent of platinum, silver, and gold  About 6.0 weight percent of iron
  18. 18. Economic Determinants of Viable Mineral Deposits  Mining Technologies  Market Value
  19. 19. Economically Viable Deposits  25 x crustal content for iron  60 x crustal content for copper, lead, zinc, and tin  Only several parts per million for gold and platinum
  20. 20. HOW ARE MINERALS FORMED?
  21. 21. Mineral Formation Processes  Sedimentation (coal)  Precipitation (salts, metals)  Crystallization from Magma Plutons (ores)  Changes in Temperature and Pressure (ores)  Fluid Inclusions (ores)
  22. 22. Sedimentation of Coal
  23. 23. Crystallization from Magma Plumbs
  24. 24. Fluid Inclusions
  25. 25. Mineral Groups
  26. 26. Silicates Contain  Silicon  Oxygen Quartz (SiO2)
  27. 27. Carbonates Contain  Carbon  Oxygen  One or More Metallic Elements Dolomite
  28. 28. Oxides Contain  Oxygen  One or More Other Elements (Usually Metals) Iron Oxide
  29. 29. Sulfates and Sulfides Contain  Sulfur  One or More Other Elements Iron Sulfide - Pyrite
  30. 30. Halides Contain  Halogen Ion  chlorine, fluorine, bromide and iodine  One or More Other Elements Fluorite
  31. 31. WHAT ARE THE PROPERTIES OF MINERALS AND HOW ARE THEY IDENTIFIED?
  32. 32. Mineral Identification  Crystalline Structure  Fluorescence  Hardness  Magnetism  Luster  Tenacity  Color  Radioactivity  Streak  Piezoelectricity  Cleavage  Reactivity to Dilute  Fracture Acids  Specific Gravity
  33. 33. Color Imperial Topaz - Al2F2SiO4
  34. 34. Streak Hematite is Fe3O4
  35. 35. Luster
  36. 36. Minerals are Crystalline Typical of Halite Typical of Pyrite Typical of Typical of Diamonds Quartz Most minerals atoms are arranged in regular, 3D frameworks Fig. 3-8, p. 78
  37. 37. Cleavage Patterns Fig. 3-17, p. 88
  38. 38. Mineral Database http://webmineral.com/
  39. 39. WHAT ARE NONRENEWABLE MINERAL RESOURCES?
  40. 40. Metallic Mineral Resources  Iron  Tin  Copper  Aluminum  Gold  Platinum (PGE’s) Tin Mine, Bolivia
  41. 41. Non-Metallic Mineral Resources  Salt  Clay  Sand  Phosphates  Soil Phosphate Mine, Florida
  42. 42. Energy Resources  Coal  Oil  Natural Gas  Uranium The Rössing Uranium Mine; located in the Namib Desert, Erongo Region, Namibia.
  43. 43. HOW ARE BURIED MINERAL DEPOSITS FOUND?
  44. 44. Underground Detective Work  Aerial Photos  Satellite Image  Radiation-Measuring Equipment  Magnetometer  Gravimeter
  45. 45. InfoTerra - Satellites http://www.infoterra.co.uk/applications_ogm_mineral.php Example Mineral Analysis
  46. 46. Mineral Resource GIS Database http://gdr.nrcan.gc.ca/minres/data_e.php
  47. 47. Magnetometer Survey Measures changes in the Earth’s magnetic field caused by magnetic minerals, such as iron ore.
  48. 48. Deep-Ocean Gravimeter Measures differences in gravity caused by differences in density between an ore deposit and the surrounding rock.
  49. 49. HOW ARE BURIED MINERAL DEPOSITS REMOVED?
  50. 50. Mining Strategies  Surface Mining  Sub-Surface Mining
  51. 51. Surface Mining Methods  Open-Pit Mining  Glory-Hole Mining  Dredging  Area Strip Mining  Contour Strip Mining  Mountaintop Removal
  52. 52. Appalachian Mountain Top Removal of Coal http://www.appvoices.org/index.php?/site/mtr_overview/
  53. 53. Mineral Deposits Associated with Magma Intrusions Located in Siberia, the mine in the picture is apparently the world's largest diamond mine. Kimberlites
  54. 54. Mineral Deposits Associated with Plate Boundaries Fig. 2-26, p. 62
  55. 55. Escondida Copper Mine, Chili  is today the world's largest producing mine with 750,000 metric tons of production which was 5.6% of the world's production in 2000.
  56. 56. Sub-Surface Mining Methods  Digging Deep Vertical Shafts  Blast Subsurface Tunnels  Use Machinery to Remove Ore
  57. 57. WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF USING MINERAL RESOURCES?
  58. 58. Impacts (mining, processing, use)  Scarring and disruption of land surface  Collapse of land above mines  Wind or water erosion of toxic mineral wastes  Thermal water pollution  Acid mine drainage  Emission of toxic chemical Nickel Tailings in a River into atmosphere  Noise Pollution

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