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Urban Design Solutions for Ameliorating Urban Heat Island in Ipswich, Queensland

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URBAN DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR
AMELIORATING URBAN HEAT
ISLAND IN IPSWICH, QUEENSLAND
Dr Silvia Tavares, University of the Suns...

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OBJECTIVES
To identify possible solutions to mitigate UHI and other undesirable
climate change-related impacts.
This 3-yea...

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CASE STUDY | Ipswich, Queensland

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Urban Design Solutions for Ameliorating Urban Heat Island in Ipswich, Queensland

  1. 1. URBAN DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR AMELIORATING URBAN HEAT ISLAND IN IPSWICH, QUEENSLAND Dr Silvia Tavares, University of the Sunshine Coast BASC Lab – Bioclimatic and Sociotechnical Cities Lab Professor Karine Dupré, Griffith University Brodie Smith, Ipswich City Council Samantha Smith, Ipswich City Council I acknowledge the Gubbi Gubbi people who are the traditional owners of the land from where I am delivering this presentation. I also pay my respects to the Elders, past, present and future.
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES To identify possible solutions to mitigate UHI and other undesirable climate change-related impacts. This 3-year project has three key objectives: • Provide an evidence-based analysis of urban microclimate in key areas of Ipswich. • Provide an urban design analysis that relates the identified urban microclimate and possible UHIs with design solutions. • Provide insights into the relationships between people’s experience of place and their microclimates
  3. 3. CASE STUDY | Ipswich, Queensland
  4. 4. (1) urban design analysis: street Aspect Ratio (AR), Sky View Factor (SVF), existing vegetation and water body, materials, and percentage of open areas. (2) climate analysis (air temperature and relative humidity): measured along the selected streets from the 24th of February 2021 to 14th of July 2021 with installed sensors (3) survey data collected through questionnaire and interviews to capture residents’ perception of different areas of the City of Ipswich and their microclimates RESEARCH DESIGN
  5. 5. Bell Street URBAN DESIGN ANALYSIS | Case study sites
  6. 6. Limestone/Brisbane Street URBAN DESIGN ANALYSIS | Case study sites
  7. 7. Joy Chambers Circuit URBAN DESIGN ANALYSIS | Case study sites
  8. 8. Recommendations Due to the small street AR and large SVF, there is a significant need for shade structures along the sidewalks. Overall, this area requires: • More tree canopy coverage to reduce the temperature by providing shading during the daytime and increasing moisture • and/or more awnings • More water (e.g. fountains) to reduce the heat Aspect ratio The area in Reg Grundy Street is 0.22, the rest have an open field either on one side or both sides of the street Vegetation 25% of the open area vegetation, 35% of the open area soil Impervious surfaces 40% of the open area Open areas 84% of the studied area Waterbody Bundamba Creek on the east side of the site, but not in the studied area Façade materiality 70% Concrete 30% Brick Roofs materiality All Metallic Awnings N/A SVF 0.8 URBAN DESIGN ANALYSIS | Results Joy Chambers Circuit
  9. 9. a. dry grass b. white concrete c. new asphalt d. concrete tile in shadow URBAN DESIGN ANALYSIS | Results
  10. 10. Acknowledgement of Country We acknowledge the people who are the Traditional Custodians of the Land on which this project stands. We pay respect to the Elders, past, present and emerging, and extends that respect to other Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. Bell Street Limestone/Brisbane Street Joy Chambers Circuit Aspect ratio 80% is 0.63 and lower, 20% is 0.87 0.37 on average The area in Reg Grundy Street is 0.22, the rest have an open field either on one side or both sides of the street Vegetation 3% of the open area vegetation, 4% of the open area soil 8% of the open area vegetation 25% of the open area vegetation, 35% of the open area soil Impervious surfaces 93% of the open area 92% of the open area 40% of the open area Open areas 48% of the studied area 50% of the studied area 84% of the studied area Waterbody Bremer river at the end of the street, but not in the studied area N/A Bundamba Creek on the east side of the site, but not in the studied area Façade materiality 32% Glass 46% Concrete 11% Brick 11% Metal 28% Glass 16% Concrete 14% Brick 42% Composite panels/Metal 70% Concrete 30% Brick Roofs materiality 8% Metallic 92% Concrete 19% Metallic 81% Concrete All Metallic Awnings 48% of the sidewalk 66% of the sidewalk 0 SVF 0.6 on average 0.8 0.8 Despite few differences in aspect ratio and proximity to waterbodies, Bell and Limestone/Brisbane Streets show many similarities in their urban design features. Joy Chambers Circuit presents the feature of an early urbanisation stage. However, heat mitigation was not implemented in this early stage. This could be avoided for any new development. URBAN DESIGN ANALYSIS | Results
  11. 11. • Sensors’ locations were determined with the input of Ipswich City Council staff • Sensors were fixed at the height of 2.5 - 3.5m on lamp poles. • Sensors were calibrated and installed on February 24th and 25th, 2021. URBAN CLIMATE ANALYSIS
  12. 12. This analysis is done in three stages: • Analysis of Humidex for all data of all sensors • Comparison of sensor data and BoM data (maximum and minimum temperatures) for February and March available data (hottest months of the data collection period). • Initial analysis of possible strategies to improve microclimates, using a psychrometric chart. URBAN CLIMATE ANALYSIS
  13. 13. Acknowledgement of Country We acknowledge the people who are the Traditional Custodians of the Land on which this project stands. We pay respect to the Elders, past, present and emerging, and extends that respect to other Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. The sensors collect temperature and relative humidity Humidex combines temperature and humidity into one index to reflect how hot, humid the weather feels to the average person (the perceived temperature). URBAN CLIMATE ANALYSIS | Humidex
  14. 14. • One day (2 March 2021) on Brisbane St conditions considered dangerous for human health (which start at Humidex =45. • During this period all sensors recorded at least ‘great discomfort’ condition (Humidex between 40 and 45). • Humidex higher than 40 indicates severe thermal discomfort and this was found in all 3 sites in March 2nd, 2021. URBAN CLIMATE ANALYSIS | Humidex
  15. 15. Sensor 571 (Brisbane St) URBAN CLIMATE ANALYSIS | Comparison to BoM
  16. 16. Sensor 573 (Joy Chambers Circuit) URBAN CLIMATE ANALYSIS | Comparison to BoM
  17. 17. Sensor 571 Brisbane St Sensor 574 Bell St Sensor 573 Joy Chambers Circuit URBAN CLIMATE ANALYSIS | Possible Strategies Most appropriate design solutions for these areas are: • Enhance ventilation/breezes • Use cool materials • As the humidity is already high, the technique of reducing the heat by increasing the humidity (evapotranspiration) with fountains and water bodies won’t be much efficient . . .. . . . . .. . . . .
  18. 18. Based on Humidex analysis • ‘Great discomfort’ (Humidex between 40 and 45) has been recorded for all locations even without extreme heat or heatwave events. • One of the sensors (571 in Brisbane Street) recorded conditions considered dangerous (Humidex >45). • Considering climate is getting warmer and heatwaves more frequent, this is increasingly a problem to be addressed to ensure population remains safe when general climatic conditions are very hot. Comparison to BoM data • While the daytime maximum temperatures recorded by Sensor 571 in Brisbane St are very similar to the maximum temperatures recorded by BoM’s Amberley weather station, the minimum temperatures (recorded overnight) by the same sensor are consistently higher than BoM’s. • The area is not cooling overnight as much as the open/rural surroundings, indicating propensity to form UHI during heatwaves. Initial analysis of possible UD strategies • Most days are in ‘humid zone’ meaning increasing humidity will not add much for cooling through evaporation. • The ideal approach seems, so far, to be to focus on cool materials and increased breeze corridors. • For best response during extreme hot events and heatwaves, other strategies will need to be adopted in conjunction with these ones already identified. PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS
  19. 19. Thank you! Silvia Tavares – stavares@usc.edu.au BASC Lab – www.usc.edu.au/basclab

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