Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Environmental Impact

828 views

Published on

A presentation delivered by Jason Bernier, CBCL Limited on March 6, 2017 at the Sea Water Air Conditioning in the Caribbean Workshop at the Caribbean Development Bank.

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

Environmental Impact

  1. 1. Environmental Impact 2017 Experience Vision Commitment Jason Bernier, Principal, Manager Environmental Science & Engineering
  2. 2. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Overview  Environmental Permitting and Regulatory Considerations  Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)  Environmental Data Gathering Requirements to facilitate Project Design, EIA and Permitting  Environmental Monitoring during construction and operation  Construction Risk Considerations from an Environmental Perspective 2
  3. 3. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Permitting & Regulatory Approvals  Jurisdiction Specific  Regulatory requirements are predominantly defined based on Project activities and the spatial and temporal environment within which they interact.  Objective is fundamentally to protect the environment from significant adverse effects. 3
  4. 4. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Environmental Impact Assessment  EIA is often required by regulators as a means of evaluating the project to determine the potential for significant adverse environmental effects. 4
  5. 5. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment  EIA is a process through which the environmental impacts potentially resulting from a proposed project are identified and assessed early in the planning process.  EIA identifies steps that can be taken to avoid negative environmental impacts or reduce them to acceptable levels before they occur. EIA therefore, represents a proactive, preventative approach to environmental management and protection. 5 Environmental Impact Assessment
  6. 6. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment  Initiation of EIA planning early in project lifecycle  Define spatial and temporal boundaries  Requires development of a thorough Project Description • Commencing during concept development & finalized during preliminary design 6 Environmental Impact Assessment
  7. 7. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Defining the Project  Project Description • Defines the project • Typically finalized when a preliminary design is established  Used to determine data gathering and field study requirements  Establishes a basis for Impact Assessment 7
  8. 8. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment EIA  Data gathering to define geophysical and biophysical environment.  Often an iterative process, commencing at a desktop and database level, and progressing to detailed field studies. 8
  9. 9. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Concept Development  Concept Development  Commences at Regional Level  Focuses in on Site Selection  Proposed Corridor Alignments 9
  10. 10. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment 10
  11. 11. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment SWAC 11
  12. 12. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment 12
  13. 13. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Initial Planning 13  Regional level planning is the first planning phase and identifying where regional level constraints will occur.  Environmental biologists conduct a desktop analysis using preexisting biological data.  During this phase, maps highlighting biological constraints are developed. Maps assist to minimize or avoid adverse environmental effects.  Examples of biological constraints to avoid could include critical habitat, species at risk, and migration routes.
  14. 14. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment 14 Google Earth
  15. 15. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment 15
  16. 16. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Bathymatry 16  Bathymetry surveys measure the depth of water in oceans and other bodies of water. A bathymetric chart is the submerged equivalent of an above-water topographic map  Various methods can be used • Single-Beam Soar • Multi-Bean Sonar • Sidescan Sonar • LiDAR
  17. 17. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Bathymetry 17  Multi-Beam echo sounder
  18. 18. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Geology 18  Various methods can be used collect physical geological samples: • Vibrocoring • Grab Sampling, • Drilling-Standard Penetration Tests (SPT), piston and Shelby tube • Gravity Coring, • Cone Penetrometer Testing (CPT) • Seismic testing  Sub-surface investigations will be required to understand the following conditions: • Geological • Geo-technical • Geophysical
  19. 19. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Geology 19 VibrocoringGrab Sampling
  20. 20. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment 20 Concept Design
  21. 21. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Environmental Baseline  Initiate project specific field studies  Establish Existing Environmental Conditions 21
  22. 22. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Field Surveys  Marine Resources • Various studies • Tides and Currents • Water Quality and Temperature • Marine Biota – Benthic and Pelagic 22  Terrestrial Resources • Terrestrial Biota • Describe topography, geology, climate and air quality
  23. 23. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Studies  Shipping and Navigation  Fishing Operations  Military, Research & Recreation  Social & Economic Resources  Natural Hazards • Hurricanes, Seismic, Flooding  Cumulative Effects 23
  24. 24. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment 24  Coastal engineers would study the local wave climate through a desktop analysis by running wave models. Water Modelling
  25. 25. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Water Temperature 25  Important to ensure that water temperature is consistent at the intake location.  Water temperature should also be recorded at discharge area.  Water temperature surveys should occur for at least 1 year. One survey example is to use a fixed position temperature sensor at specified depths.
  26. 26. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Water Quality  Preconstruction water quality samples should be recorded. Parameters of interest can include: • Salinity • Density • pH • Dissolved Gases • Nutrients • Temperature 26
  27. 27. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Benthic Habitat Surveys 27 Marine Benthic Habitat Survey and Shallow Water Surveys  Surveys are conducted by a drop camera, scuba diver, or ROV.  Underwater video spot checks  Underwater video transects  Analysis is conducted to classify:  Depth  Substrate composition  Habitat type  Macrofauna and macroflora
  28. 28. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Benthic Habitat Surveys 28 Using video footage and photographs, biologists are able to identify:  Substrate composition  Habitat type  Species (plants and animals)  Using data collected, habitat assessments can be conducted to determine the function of each habitat.
  29. 29. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment 29
  30. 30. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Benthic and Pelagic 30 The waters surrounding a Project area potentially provides habitat for numerous aquatic and marine species, including birds, fish, turtles, and marine mammals that are protected by a variety of environmental regulations.  Need to describe the marine mammal species with possible or known occurrence around the Project area.
  31. 31. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Pelagic  Biologists are able to determine which species may occur within the Project area through: • Conducting a desktop analysis of existing data (i.e., visual observations or acoustic detections) • Identifying which species may occur based on the habitat identified within the Project area. 31
  32. 32. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment 32
  33. 33. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Terrestrial 33  Terrestrial sites need to be selected for: • permanent district cooling plant • temporary staging areas for project equipment (pipes)
  34. 34. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Terrestrial 34  In consultation with local regulators, biologists develop survey protocols to collect baseline data and the presence of unique, rare, or protected terrestrial biological resources.  Surveys for sensitive habitats such as wetlands, are conducted. Wetland surveys consist of wetland identification, delineation, and functional assessment.
  35. 35. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment 35 Terrestrial  The presence of unique, rare or protected terrestrial biological resources in the Project area will be identified and investigated.  Critical habitat  Important nesting areas (i.e., sea turtles, birds)  Species at risk specific surveys (mammals, reptiles, birds, vegetation)  Breeding bird surveys  Vegetation surveys
  36. 36. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment 36
  37. 37. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Impact Assessment & Mitigation 37  After surveys are complete, we are now aware of species and any sensitive habitat that occur within the Project area.  Need to identify sensitive time periods (i.e., nesting, breeding, peak periods) for species that occur within the Project area. These periods not only dictate when surveys need to be conducted but they guide the planning for construction (times and periods to avoid).  Need to identify and evaluate potential Project effects and to develop strategies to manage these effects (mitigation).
  38. 38. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Impact Assessment  Typically when Preliminary Design has been established  Design Alternates for specific elements are developed  Assess how the project will interact with existing environment • Before, During, After construction  Identify Potential Adverse Impacts • Direct & Indirect 38
  39. 39. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment 39 Impact Assessment
  40. 40. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Impact Analysis Impact considerations include:  Habitat Alteration, Disturbance, Destruction  Critical Habitat • Coral, Seagrass  Harassment and harm to endangered and threatened species 40
  41. 41. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Impact Analysis  Human Uses • Traffic • Fishing, Navigation  Social & Economic  Cultural and Archaeological  Visual Resources  Etc. 41
  42. 42. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Sea Water for Cooling 42
  43. 43. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Impact Assessment Sea Water Circulation • Cold deep water (4-6oC) • High in nutrients • Unique organisms • Low Dissolved oxygen • Discharge at (11-14oC) • Into differing environmental conditions 43
  44. 44. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment 44 Water Modelling  To determine the placement and influence of the outflow, effluent dispersion modelling is conducted at ‘near field’ and at ‘far field’.  Near field: identifies the need for a diffuser.  Far field: identifies the large scale impact of the plume (footprint).  The following slide illustrates effluent dispersion modelling in 3D that was conducted in New Brunswick, Canada.
  45. 45. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment 45
  46. 46. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Mitigation Development of Mitigation Measures to prevent adverse environmental impacts  Design Modifications  Monitoring Protocols  Avoidance  Compensation 46
  47. 47. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment  Mitigation and Monitoring example  SWAC project offshore Honolulu, HI.  During baseline assessments, biologists identified humpback whales could occur within the vicinity of the Project area.  Marine Mammal Protection Act 1972 protects marine mammals and permits for construction are required.  Pile driving activities could result in incidental harassment of marine mammals.  To minimize impact on humpback whales, mitigation and monitoring measures were developed. 47
  48. 48. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment  Mitigation example  Temporal restrictions – pile driving would not be conducted between Dec 1 and March 31 as it is peak humpback whale season in Hawaii and a humpback whale may occur within the proposed Project area during that time.  Established an exclusion zone – developed a buffer zone around the Project area. If a marine mammal enters this buffer zone, operations must stop.  Pile driving shut down and delay procedures – have a biologist observing for marine mammals approaching or entering the exclusion zone. If a whale was observed approaching the exclusion zone the biologist would inform the on-site manager who would then delay pile driving until the marine mammal has moved and a period of time has lapsed since the last sighting. 48
  49. 49. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment 49  Monitoring example  At least one biologically-trained individual equipped with specialized gear to effectively monitor marine mammals (high- quality binoculars, range-finder) will be stationed on the pile driving rig. The biologist will be responsible for monitoring the buffer zones. Monitoring would occur 40mins prior to operations and continue during work. Biologist would record all marine mammal sightings and behavior.  In-situ underwater sound monitoring is required during pile driving to facilitate compliance. Exposure to elevated sound levels from vibratory and impact pile driving may result in temporary impacts to marine mammal hearing and behavior and mask naturally occurring sounds.
  50. 50. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Avoidance  Micro tunneling or directional drilling to avoid sensitive near shore habitat and constraints. 50
  51. 51. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Post - construction 51  Post construction monitoring required will be determined through the regulatory process.  For example, post construction monitoring may be deemed necessary by regulators at the outflow location. Monitoring would include water temperature and quality measurements.
  52. 52. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Project Risk Considerations  Lack of integration between design and environmental teams  Lack of early regulatory consultation  Public Perception • Necessitates stakeholder engagement and consultation  Presence of species at risk or critical habitat  Habitat Compensation can be significant 52
  53. 53. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Project Risk Considerations  Natural Hazards, e.g. Hurricanes, Flooding  Climate Change  Seismic, e.g. Underwater landslides  Staging and storage of significant lengths of pipeline during construction  Transport and controlled sinking of pipeline  Pipeline damage from marine vessel operations, e.g. fishing, anchoring 53
  54. 54. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment Project Risk Considerations  Disposal of excavated soils & dredge spoils • Contaminants • Salt contamination in sediments destined for upland disposal  Encountering archaeological resources  Cumulative effects from existing activities in the area 54
  55. 55. Comprehensive Engineering and Environmental Consulting Services Experience Vision Commitment 55 Questions

×